Brigham Young University
Ernest L. Wilkinson Collection
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2019 with funding from
Brigham Young University
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THE RED MEN
FULL ACCOUNT OF THEIR CUSTOMS, TRAITS
OF CHARACTER, SUPERSTITIONS, MODES
OF WARFARE, TRADITIONS, ETC.
FANTASTIC WAR DANCES; MYSTERIOUS MEDICINE MEN ; DESPERATE
INDIAN BRAVES; TORTURES OF PRISONERS; DARING
DEEDS ; ADVENTURES OF THE CHASE, ETC.
THRILLING INCIDENTS; BLOODY WARS; STRANGE MARRIAGE
CUSTOMS; FAMOUS CHIEFS; EFFORTS TO CIVILIZE
THE RED MEN OF THE FOREST, ETC.
By ELLA HINES STRATTON
Author of 44 Lives of Our Presidents/' "Story of Our Nation/' "A Trip around the World
with Captain Parker," etc.
Superbly Illustrated with Phototype and Wood Engravings
ENTERED ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRESS IN THE YEAR 190*, BY
'■ ‘ . L " ,
GN THE OFFICE OF THE LIBRARIAN OF CONGRESS, AT WASHINGTON, D. C., U. 8.
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY
I N PRESENTING this History of the Indian Tribes to the American
public we wish to say there are two classes of people whom we do
not aim to please—those who, reading the Leatherstocking tales,
are apt to base their ideas upon them, and regard the “noble red man”
as but little lower than the angels; and the frontiersman who having,
perhaps, witnessed massacres, can see no good trait in Indians, but regards
them all as demons. If you reason until doomsday yon can never change
the ideas of these people, who hold such widely different opinions.
The happy medium between these two estimates of the Indian char¬
acter would be the true one of a race which possesses human thoughts
and instincts; a race to whom civilization came too soon and in the
wrong way ; a race which certainly was no worse than our own ancestors
of the eleventh and. twelfth centuries.
The Indian, like Topsy, simply “ growed.” He followed his own
inclinations, without regard to right or wrong. He had no more moral sense
of right or wrong than a little child has before its education in that
direction begins. He could return good for good very well, but knew
nothing about returning good for wil, although he understood how
to give bad for bad, adding compound interest every time. He was a
treacherous and cruel enemy, but a faithful friend.
The lessons which he learned were all of cruelty and, later, of
hatred to the white man, whom he was taught to regard as worse than a
beast of prey, for he would take his native land from him. As the
Israelitites of old thought it was no crime to “borrow” of their Egyp¬
tian neighbors upon the eve of their flight from that land, so the red man
considered it no crime to borrow whatever the white man had—even his
life. He was desperately brave against the Spaniards, who gave him
his first lessons in deceit and crmAtv-
Both North and South American Indians reverenced age, as a rule j
loved their children, and had a high sense of honor and justice. They
were naturally silent and taciturn but fond of set speech, metaphors and
similes. Cruelty to captives was the worst thing that could be said of
Why not read and ponder over the history of political and religions
persecutions among the civilized nations of earth ? Why forget the
Salem witchcraft craze, the burning of negroes in New York City, and
some of the old plantation tales ?
The red man certainly is not a saint, but he is a human being, and
should not be utterly condemned without a hearing. So far the white
man has generally told the story in his own way. The Indian practiced
as well as preached personal independence and freedom from all restraint;
he bitterly resented the laws of the white man. He has shown the cour¬
age of Leonidas, and can not be regarded as a weak character when he
has proved himself to be a shrewd, desperate and powerful foe. Our own
ancestors lived in rude huts, clothed themselves in the skins of wild
beasts, and painted their bodies, nor were they less cruel to their enemies
than were the red men of America.
The Indian thought it a weakness to forgive an injury and noble to
revenge it. He always went to war to redress a real or fancied wrong.
Revenge was a sacred duty to him, yet he was an affectionate father,
hospitable to all, and never forgot an injury or kindness.
Nearly all of his legends told him of visitors who would come from
distant lands, manitous or gods, fair, majestic, and vastly superior to his
race, whom they would speedily elevate to their own plane. When he
found that the newcomers were foes instead of friends he made a gallant
fight for his home in his own cruel way, which, after all that has been
said, was not more cruel than the ways of his conqueror, certainly not
worse than those of our own Anglo-Saxon forefathers in Europe.
He retaliated on the innocent ! So did some of the white settlers.
A short time ago a friend told us the story oi her great-great uncle,
who saw his wife kiUed by Indians, although, for .some unexplained
reason, liis own life was spared. He immediately vowed “ death to all
Indians ” and did kill three who had nothing to do with the murder of his
wife. More than that, he scalped them, and when he was dying, he had
the scalps placed where he could see them and remember his revenge.
Could an Indian cherish hatred more than that ?
The laws of the human races follow closely those of the vegetable
kingdom, and we see the survival of the fittest every day. Nation
follows nation, the stronger overcoming the weaker; peoples arise
and vanish and others take their places in the onward march. It is the
law of progress. The Indians gave way before our race as some other
race gave way to them.
We find that the first white men were regarded as gods from the
distant Chebakunah, the Land of Souls, and the tidings of their coming
ran from tribe to tribe, to'be talked of in lodge and council house. The
Indians welcomed them with gifts of corn and fruit, giving them cordial
help, but all too soon these trusting people discovered that their supposed
gods were very selfish and human men.
The first thing was to kidnap some of the unsuspecting natives to
send across the water as a show, and the next step was easy—to make
slaves of them ! Is it any wonder that they became u wild and unruly,”
and tried to prevent more ships from anchoring ?
The white man’s “ firewater ” was the most deadly agent in the
conquest of the American Indians. Drunkenness was never known
among them before Columbus came. The story goes that Masewapega,
an Ojibway, visited the white spirits and carried back to his tribe some
spirits which were not white in character. The Indians dare not taste it,
fearing that it was poison, but finally gave a glass to a very old squaw
who had not much longer to live.
To the : r great surprise the old woman did not die, and presently
begged for more. From that day the Ojibways thought nothing of
going a hundred miles, if need be, to get “firewater.” Rum would buy
more fine furs than cloth and beads, and was used freely by Indian
traders. With better civilization temperance comes, and there are tern*
perance societies on some of the reservations now, while the reports grow
better every year.
There are tribes which have never been hostile, no matter what the
provocation has been. The different clans differ as much, one from
another, as the white man differs from them all. There are the noble and
the rough, the good and the bad, with all the grades between, among
the native races.
The Italian peddler is not a Roman senator ; the English swell k
not a King Arthur ; the average United States citizen is not a Wash¬
ington or a Lincoln, and every Indian is not a Massasoit or a Tecnmseh.
The white man is a savage, whitewashed by years of education and
training. Treated as the Indian has been, placed beyond the necessity
of work, would he have made more progress in a century than the
Indian has done ?
The memory of an injury is handed down through generations—
so is the memory of a kindly deed. Once a party of Indians visited
Philadelphia and were shown the statue of William Penn. They fell on
their knees before it at once, so strong was the reverence for him, which
had descended from father to son.
The main causes of the wars with the Indians has been failures to
fulfil treaties made by the commissioners; dishonest agents, and it was
a notorious fact that an agent with a salary of $1500 to $2000 a year
could retire with a fortune in a few years ; and encroachment of whiter,
upon their reservations. Miners entered and took their best hunting
grounds, regardless of treaties, and the government representatives
professed to be unable to prevent them. In fact, the whites have always
settled on Indian lands regardless of their treaty rights, and then the
Indian has been told that he must “move on.”
The Camp in the Woods—The Invincible Six—Their Idea of the Indians
—A Wise Uncle Jack—The Boys Begin theStndy of Indian History—
Probable Origin of the Indian—Different Opinions—Was There Only
One A dam and Eve—Was America, the “ Cradle of the Human Race,”
a Lava-Covered Village—Carthaginian Ships Which Never Returned
to Port—Egyptian Traditions—The “Seven Cities of Cibola”—A
Ruined Temple—Mound-Builders—Cremation Practiced in the Early
Days—Black-Bird’s Mound Grave—Roman and Persian Coins Found
in America—Festival Ovens—Shell Mounds—Aztec Records—Oldest
House in the United States—Cave Dwellings—Cliff-Dwellers ... 17
Myths and Legends.
Scared by an Owl—Mudgekewis—Kabibonoka—Shawandasee—Wabun,
Traditions of—The Flood—The Dove—The Shepherd and His Llamas
—Ash and Elm, were they Adam and Eve ?—A Race of Giants—
Mexican Tradition of a Great Tower—The Story of Three Eggs—The
Bearded White Man—Man Descended from Monkeys—The Master
of Life was an Indian—The Sky-Holder—The First Men were
Cayotes—Owayneo, the Creator—Queer Mandan Tradition—Old
Newell Bear—Book Written by an Indian—Klose-Kur-Beh—Legend
of the Nakannies—Tradition of Hiawatha . *. 31
The Coming of the Indian.
What are the ?pots on the Moon—What is the Rainbow—Forty Tribes
Extinct—‘Kamchatkans — Tartars — Eight Tribes, with Many Sub-
Tribes — Names — Government — Five Nations — Tribes That Kept
Flocks of Deer for Cows—Very Superstitions—Happy Hunting
Ground—Why Indians Scalp an Enemy—Cruelty—Sun-worship-
Medicine Men—Bath House—Picture Writing—Painting their Bodies
—Belief in Dreams—Queer Names—Squaw Men—Legend of the White
Hawk—Sioux War Cry. 45
Character and Customs.
Indian Cradles—Education of Boys and Girls—The Boy’s First Fast-
Legend of the Robin—Ordeal Before a Boy Can Be a Warrior—Indian
Children Seldom Punished—Their Games— u Boston Baked Beans”—
Snares for Wild Beasts—Houses of Different Tribes—Baskets—Deeds
of Land—The Inventor of the Cherokee Alphabet—Newspaper in the
Indian Language—How Time is Reckoned—Organizing a War Party
—Story of Bianswah, the Chippewa Chief—Story of Nadowaqua—
Indian Runners—Indian Retribution—Story of Petalasharoo—Indians’
Best Dress—Indian Council. < 61
Nu-mock-muck-a-nah—The “ First Man”—The Great Canoe—Dances of
the Iroquois—Strawberry Festival—War Dance—Ghost Dance—Scalp
Dance—Masquerade—Strong Heart Dance—Thunder Feast—Feast of
the Dead—Calumet Dance—Buffalo Dance—Pipe Dance—Dog Feast-
Medicine Dance—Fleeka, or Arrow Dance—How the Comanches
“Smoke Horses”—The Lord’s Prayer in the Wampanoag and
Mohegan Languages. 77
The Norsemen—Trading with the Indians—Keel Cape—Was it Cape-
Cod—First Fight With the -Indians—Death of Thorwald—Set
tlement Abandoned—First White Chief—Natives that Columbus
Found in the New Land—His Reception by Them—His Return for
Their Kindness—Fort LaNavidad—What Became of It—The Reason*
able Character of the Early Discoverers—Eclipse of the Sun—Indian
Slavery—Columbus Began the Slave Trade—Story—John Verrazzani,
His Return for the Kindness of the Natives—Kidnapping—Vasquez—
De Ayllon—Cabot—A Cruel Deed—Captain Weymouth—Ponce de
Leon—De Soto—How the Spaniards Used the Indians—How They
Found Out that the Newcomers Were Mortal—What They Thought
Gunpowder was Made From—Indians Generous to a Brave Enemy—
How Potatoes Were First Cooked—Natchez Indians—Their Houses—
The White Man’s Fire Water—Henry Hudson ..93
More About the Early Days.
Price Paid for New York—What Red Jacket Thought of the White Man
—Maqnacomen’s Opinion—Different From that of Sitting Bull—What
Menawa Said—Legend of the First Indian Blanket—Sir Humphrey
Gilbert—Sir Walter Raleigh—How Amidas and Barlow Were Re¬
ceived by the Natives—Greenville’s Expedition—His Injustice—Fate
of the Colony—Story of Wingina—First White Child of Virginia—
Tradition of the Fate of the Colony—Concert—Startling Interruption
—A Joke That was Not a Joke—A Visitor.Ill
First Settlers and Their Dangers.
Colonists Were Not Wise—Story of Hatuey—Natives of the West
Indies—Brief History of the Islands—What the Caribs of Grenada
Did—Camberlain—John Smith—Settlement of Jamestown—Powhatan—
Pocahontas—Smith a Prisoner—Free Again—Cannon and Grindstone
—Wars With Opechancanough—His Death—Massacres of Virginia—
Story—Story of MacDougal.124
Stories of Thrilling Interest.
Cruelty of tlie Spaniards—Doegs and Susquehannahs—Planting Gun¬
powder—John Elliot’s Labors of Love—First Justice of Peace—His
Warrants—Squanto, the Sokokis Chief—Will an Indian Baby Drown
—Story of the Kennebeck Indian—The Rockaway Conference—Ogle¬
thorpe—Story of Tomochichi—William Penn—A White Feather—
Sioux Generosity—The Indian and the Missionary—The Prophet of
the Allegheny—Logan—Another “Removal”—Story of Pachgant-
schilia—Joseph, the Nez Perces—Early Conceit—Principal Indian
Events Since 1862 —Mission Indians of California—A War Dance 138
Miles Standish and the Pilgrims.
Coming of the Pilgrims—What They Found—Deer-Trap—Accident-
First Fight with the Indians—Aspinet—Squanto—Indian Visit-
Presents—The Great Massoit—Quadequina—Miles Standish—The
Wampanoags—Character and Appearance of Massasoit—The Treaty-
Trouble with Canonicus—The White Man’s Witch Charm-Colony at
Weymouth—Massasoit’s Illness—Winslow’s Wonderful Cure—Queer
Broth—First Thanksgiving in America—Van Twiller—Keift Account¬
able for the Indian Troubles at that time—Lord Baltimore . . . 153
The Pequods and Roger Williams.
Pequods—Roger Williams—Miantonomoh—Canonicus as a Friend—
Founding of Providence—Anne Hutchinson—Pequod War—Narragan-
setts Friendly—Destruction of the Pequod Fort—Extinction of the
Tribe—Death of Sassacus—Fate of his Followers—War-cry not Heard
Again for Forty Years—Cruel Death of Miantonomoh—Dutch War
with the Indians—Cause—Story—Ahasistari—Bravery and Fidelity—
St. Joseph—Father Marquette—His Peace-pipe—Indians Kept a Letter
Fourteen Years and then Delivered it Safely^—Susquehanna War. . 167
King Philip and the Indian Wars.
Philip’s War—Descendants of Massasoit—Alexander—Uncas—Alex*
ander’s Arrest and Death—Suspicion of Poison—Wetamoo—Friendly
Mohegans—Did Philip Kill His Brother—Plymouth Warned by a
Friendly Indian—It Cost Him His Life—Female Sachems Who Helped
Philip—Cruel Things—Superstitions—Philip, the King—War to the
Death—Strange Escapes from Death—Captain Church—Swanzey—
Brookfield—Story—Deerfield—Hadley—Strange Leader—Fight at
South Kingston—Torture of Captive Permitted and Witnessed by the
English—Defeat of the Narragansetts—Story of Mr. Rowlandson—The
Man with Two Heads—Capture of Philip’s Son and Wife—His Death
—Result of the War—Trouble in Maine—Cause—Annawon—Tuspa-
quin—Ransom of Captives—Story .... 182
Asking a Bear’s Pardon—Queer Superstitions—William Penn—Meeting
at Shakamaxon—The Treaty of the Indians—The Chief Tammany—
Sainted after Death—The Festival of Tammany—King William’s War
—Great Cruelties—The Indians not always to Blame—Story of Major
Waldron—Capture of Dover—War of Extermination—Premium for
Scalps—Deerfield—Haverhill—Hannah Dustin—Her Capture and
Escape—Assacambuilt and His War-club—Jesuits—“The Bars Fight”
—Only Five Years of Peace.199
Troubles on the Frontier.
Queen Anne’s War—Trouble in Carolina—English Sold in Canada as
Slaves—Attack on Deerfield—Story of Eunice Williams—The Will¬
iams Indians—“ Rouville, The Terrible —Attack on Haverhill—
Strange and Narrow Escapes—Stunted by the Indians—The Tusca-
roras—The Yam mas sees—A Brave Boy—Bobasheela—Father Rasies—
The Story of Paugns and Chamberlain—Their Duel—Extermination
of the Natchez Tribe.. . . 215
Story of Braddock’s Defeat.
Oglethorpe and the Indians of Georgia—Tomochichi and His Queen
Visit England—John Wesley—Whitfield—War Between England and
Spain—Oglethorpe Invades Florida—Helped by his Indians—France
J oins Spain—W ar in the Ohio V alley—Half King—Battle of Great Mead¬
ows—Braddock’s Defeat—Washington—His Narrow Escapes—Story
of the Doctor—Adopted by the Indians—Story of Murderers’ Creek—
The Good Naoman—Destruction of Kittanning—Massacre of Fort
Henry—Cherokee War—First Indian Treaty.228
French and Indian War.
More about the Cherokees—A “ Medicine Woman ”—Her Escape—Story
of Letitia Crane—French and Indian War-—Fort Edward—Attack on
Johnson’s Camp—Mohawk Chief Hendrick—His Death—Pontiac’s
Conspiracy—His Generalship—Story of Alexander Henry—The First
Discovery of Gold in California—A Singular Bear.241
u In one grave maxim, let us all agree—
Nature ne’er meant her secrets should be found,
And man’s a riddle, which man can’t expound.”
T HE mid-summer sun
never shone upon a
lovelier spot than that
where stood the camp of the
“ Invincible Six,” — Ernest
Mason, Teddy Morse, Will
Hall, Roy Sawyer, and Had¬
ley and Ray Stanton—who
were spending their vacation
in the grand old woods of
Maine. At the moment, when
my story opens, they were
lying under a great maple-
tree, beside the rippling river,
watching the speckled trout
dart through the shining waters and reading papers which the
guide had just brought from the settlement ten miles away, while that
useful “ Jack-at-all-trades ” was delivering packages and bundles to
Uncle Jack, as they all called him, the originator and general manager
of this glorious summer outing.
“ I say, boys, there is going to be another Indian outbreak, the
Snakes are getting unruly,” Ernest cried excitedly.
“ I’d just like to go out and fight ’em !” Teddy exclaimed fiercely,
“ They ought to be wiped off the face of the earth I ”
MOUND-BUILDERS—CAVE- AND CLIFF-DWELLERS
“That’s so,” nodded Hadley. “Think of the trouble they have
caused, and the money they have cost this nation.”
“And all the horrible wars,” added Ray with a shudder.
“ I hope that our soldiers will make quick work of ’em this time—
not leave one alive ! ” said Will decidedly.
“So do I,” Roy agreed.
Uncle Jack had drawn near while this conversation was going
on, and now said quietly, so very quietly that Ernest nudged Will, and
whispered that something was wrong somewhere when Uncle Jack spoke
to them in that tone.
“I see, young gentlemen, that you are freely giving your opinion
of the threatened Indian outbreak. Can you tell me what possible cause
the Indians could have for dissatisfaction, Ernest? ” he asked.
NEW TOWNS SPRINGING UP.
“Why—I didn’t look to see about that. I guess—oh; here it is.
xLey are mad because new towns are springing up all over their nation,
“That is strange; I should suppose that they would like company,
wouldn’t you? Whose land is it?” There was a meaning in Uncle
Jack’s voice which the boys could not fail to observe.
“ I—I suppose that the land belongs to the Indians,” said Ray.
“ That is just where the trouble lies, my boy. The white men are
settling on their lands without leave or license. Now, I have noticed that
you hold opinions on the Indian question which a careful study of
Indian history would be very likely to change. I know of no better
place to investigate the subject than right here—in the woods where the
first red men lived and died—and I will send for histories and Indian
tales when Mr. Brown’s team comes in with the provisions which are
ordered. When we have learned all that we can on the subject, we will
take a vote to see whether the Indian shall have a chance for his life
or not. I think that you will find the study both interesting and profit¬
MOUND-BUILDERS—CAVE- AND CLIFF-DWELLERS.
“ That’s just like you, Uncle Jack,” Teddy grumbled laughingly.
“ But I know all that I want to about the red skins.”
“You have no choice in the matter, young man ; you are to devote
two hours each, day to tbe careful study of Indian history. We shall
have books written by all classes of people, and shall have a chance to
make an impartial decision,” said Uncle Jack, positively. And when
Uncle Jack spoke in that way the boys knew better than to argue the
ORIGIN OF THE INDIANS.
In a day or two the box of books was brought in by Mr. Brown’s
man, and Ray nailed the box to the side of the camp and carefully placed
tbe books upon the shelves thus made.
“The first thing for us to consider is how the Indians came here,”
Uncle Jack began, when the hour which he had set for study arrived.
“So we must begin with the first indications of human occupation, and,
we will find what we can of the Mound Builders, whose works extend as
far north as Lake Superior, and no one knows the southern boundary.”
“ They made fine pottery, of various sizes and designs. They also
varved bone and stone, and even forged the copper which they mined.
What people were they?” questioned Ray thoughtfully.
“I have heard that they were only the old time Sionx,” said Ernest,
“ Pho, I read that two distinct races occupied America before the
Indians came, and Indians believe that the white man—that we will fol¬
low them into oblivion, and leave the land to the savages again,” ejacu¬
lated Hadley scornfully.
“Why couldn’t that be so?” questioned Ray. “When Noah was
building the ark others might have made boats also, and so many people
might have been saved from the flood as well as Noah and his family.
The wind and waves would carry them to different lands—some of them
might have reached America. The ancient Peruvians used to say that
the rainbow was a sign that the earth would never again be overflowed—
liow could they know that?”
MOUND-BUILDERS—CAVE- AND CLIFF-DWELLERS.
u How do you know that man did not originate in America, that dif¬
ferent races were not native to different lands ? Adam and Eve were the
ancestors for that part of the world in which they lived; but I never
found any positive proof that they were the only ones created,” declared
“ You are not sure of that, but we do know that centuries, perhaps
thousands of years ago, man inhabited this new world, which the Span¬
iards claimed by right of discovery, as I might claim your bicycle if I
found it—and you were weaker than I,” Ray said slowly.
WHAT WAS FOUND IN A GORGE.
“ There is no sufficient proof that America was not the cradle of the
world, if there was but one cradle. There may have been several, as
Will suggests,” Uncle Jack remarked. ‘ There may have been a belt of
islands near the equator ; Alaska may have been joined to Asia ; or the
Lost Atlantis may have connected the two hemispheres. Dr. Gustav
Lebstein declared that he found abundant proof of a race which must
have been here long before the Indians were. In an almost inaccessible
mountain gorge he found the remains of an old road which must have
been made before the gorge existed in its present form. On the top of
the mountain he found unmistakable evidence of mining operations, and
the methods employed were far different from those of the Spaniards.”
“ A lava covered village has lately been discovered in California—
just like Pompeii! I read it in a paper. They found dishes of peculiar
shapes, and other things which are unknown to our civilization. The
implements found were not like any that the Indians ever had. An
investigation is going to be made and then I will tell you more about it,”
“They’ll be finding live mammoths next,” exclaimed Ernest
shrugging his shoulders.
“Very likely,” retorted Teddy. “The Indians call that animal the
big buffalo, and say that it existed in the northern part of America as
late as 1780.”
MOUND-BUILDERS—CAVE- AND CLIFF-DWELLERS.
“The Northmen visited America, and the Chinese came to California
in 458, why couldn’t other people come?” asked Ray.
“ We do not know but they did,” declared Will. “Many Cartha¬
ginian ships sailed away from home, never to return ; others did return
with the fabulous tale of the Lost Atlantis. Was that America ?”
u Ak, that fabulous story is no better known to us than the secrets
of the mysterious mounds, the silent caves, or the inaccessible cliff-
dwellings. We can only ask, ‘ was it truth or fiction? ’Sir John Lubbock
asks if the belief may not be owing to the large patches of ‘Gulf-weed,’
or like the Sargasso sea which now exists near Newfoundland. This
weed, found in large fields, is driven about by the winds. His theory
does not seem possible to me, however, for Plato describes it as a land of
great cities and a rich and powerful nation. The Egyptians have tradi¬
tions of such a land also. Others say that the flood, of which the Bible
tells, was caused by the destruction of Atlantis by earthquakes. When
it was engulfed the waters rushed over the other lands.”
WAS THERE SUCH A LAND?
“Then you think there really was such a land, Uncle Jack?”
Ernest laughed incredulously.
“ I would like to think so and that is why I am so ready to believe
it. And a survey of the ocean bed seems to prove it, for there is a bank
from Africa to South America, where the water is not as deep as on
either side. It is where tradition locates the Lost Atlantis which, per¬
haps, served as a bridge to bring the first settlers to America. Abbe
Brasseur hints that the Cohuas, who lived before the Toltecs, escaped
when that land was destroyed, and entered Mexico.”
“Perhaps it was America after all,” suggested Will.
“ Perhaps so. It may be that the people of those times had means
of knowing our land. It maybe that the Egyptians built the edifices, so
like the pyramids, the ruins of which astonish and perplex us. One
ancient writer alludes to a magnificent city, and still another tells of
seven rich cities—none of which have ever been found.”
MOUND-BUILDERS—CAVE^ AND CLIFF-DWELLERS.
“ Where were the ‘Seven Cities of Cibola?’” asked Ray.
“ No one knows,” returned Teddy. “ The Spaniards could not find
“Just before the Galveston flood two layers of pre-historic bones were
found embedded in the ocean sand there, together with ivory beads and
many other things,” said Roy.
“As if that had anything to do with this business,” ejaculated
Hadley. “ Galveston is a modern city, and it may have been destrov^d a
dozen times before.”
REMAINS OF A RUINED TEMPLE.
“Not many years ago a ruined temple was found in the Cocopah
desert, in California. The carvings which ornamented it were of a very
strange kind. Some of them representing great snakes,” Ray nodded
“Well, who do you think that the Mound-Builders were?” asked
“ I found an old tradition which said that they were the ancestors
of the Elk Indians, but if there ever was such a tribe it must be all gone
now. I couldn’t find anything about it in the reports,” said Ray.
“The traditions of the Cherokees state that they moved from Ohio
and that they made some of the mounds of that valley, if not all of
them,” cried Roy eagerly. “ Professor Cyrus Thomas has proven,
almost beyond a doubt, that that tribe were mound-builders within a
time of history.”
“ Such mounds are being found all of the time. You remember those
discovered at Millis, Massachusetts, not long ago—the ones which were
on the old trail that King Philip had from Mendon. I think the Indians
made all of the mounds, and that there never was a race of distinct
mound-builders,” declared Teddy emphatically.
“Some of the mounds proveto us that cremation was practiced long
ago. A chief once said that the ancient Indians had traditions which
were too sacred for the white man to know ; that cremation was prac-
MOUND-BUILDERS—CAVE- AND CLIFF-DWELLERS.
ticed by al. 1 of the tribes at one time ; that the ashes of the dead were
put in heaps ; and great mounds were built over them. The relatives
always gave a feast after the body was buried, and this custom was
observed long after cremation was stopped. The Indians held national
feasts and a mound was always made as a record of it, after the festival
was over,” said Ernest.
“ The mounds which are made in the shapes of animals seem
to be characteristic of the Indian,” mused Teddy. “ And burial mounds
were surely made. Blackbird, a celebrated chief, was buried, at his own
request, upon a bluff which overlooked the Missouri river. He was
dressed in full war costume, painted and armed. He was then seated
upon his favorite horse, on the surface of the ground, and earth was
worked around the bodies of man and beast until they were deeply cov¬
ered by the mound. This mound was to be seen for many, many years,
and it may be there still if no white man has wanted the place for a build¬
STRUCTURES THAT LAST THE LONGEST.
“ Banks of earth will last for centuries after the most massive stone
structures have crumbled and disappeared, I suppose,” added Hadley.
“The story of the early struggle for existence is told in every land,
but especially in America where evidence of so many races are found.
There are nearly as many theories advanced as there are books written
upon the subject. Traces of cave and cliff dwellings are found all over
the world ; many caves have yielded up their hidden curiosities, which
have increased even while they enlightened the mysteries of the past;
and mounds, from a few inches to ninety feet in height, have been found.
Judging from these ruins the earliest settlers may be divided into three
“ How old do you think these ruins are ? ” asked Hadley.
“ The ruins may be more modern than we think, or would be willing
to believe. The Spaniards found ruins when they marched through
New Mexico, as well as some thriving cities. Sir John Lubbock says
1 they would not require an antiquity of more than 3000 years ’ to be as
MOUND-BUILDERS—CAVE- AND CLIFF-DWELLERS.
we see them. He further says ‘ I do not, of course, deny that the period
may have been very much greater, but in my opinion, at least, it need
not have been greater.’ When La Salle visited the Natchez Indians in
1681, he was astonished at the town of Taensas, where he found large
houses built of sun-dried bricks, covered by dome-shaped roofs of cane,
and placed regularly around an open space or court. Two of the largest
ones were set apart for their chief, and as a Temple of the Sun. These
Indians are supposed by a great mauy to be the genuine descendants of
“ Then you think that the mounds were the work of Indians ? ”
asked Ernest. “ Pidgeon does not say so. He tells of a discovery in
Brazil, in 1827. A farmer of Monte Video discovered a flat stone in one
of his fields, covered with strange characters. Upon examination Greek
words were made out, which recorded it as having been placed there
‘ during the reign of Alexander, the son of Philip, King of Macedon.’
T^o old swords, a shield and a helmet were under the stone.”
FOREIGN COINS FOUND.
“ A Roman coin was found on the bank of the Desperes, and a Per¬
sian coin on the bank of the Ohio. How did they come there ? ” demanded
u Pidgeon tells about stones with Phoenician characters engraved
upon them ; of a cave in Kentucky, entered in 1775, where a number of
mummies were found, embalmed like those of Egypt ; and he says that
some of the stone mounds are the burial places of kings and great men
of a tribe, which have been saved and collected until there were enough
to make a monumental mound over,” added Hadley.
“Some were festival ovens, in which whole animals were roasted in
much the same way that beans are sometimes cooked in the lumber camps ;
some were sacrificial ovens, in which victims were burned ; some may have
been the graves of such victims; some may have been furnaces to smelt
metals,” continued Ray.
“Pidgeon says more than that,” declared Will. “The ruins of the
MOUND-BUILDERS—CAVE- AND CLIFF-DWELLERS
Tumuli in America are similar to those on the Western Continent.
Josephus’ description of the Roman camps seems to fit some of the
enclosures found in the Mississippi valley. These camps were four
square, by measurement, with an entrance on each side and towers at
equal distances. The ruins at Marietta would not require much stretch
of imagination to furnish proof that they were once camps like these.
Danes and Saxons made their camps in circular form. Would this fact
account for the round ruins of the Mound-builders ? There are other
mounds which are neither round nor square, which resemble the earth
fortifications of African villages ; Indians never use these enclosures, and
have no traditions of the ruins. They were made by a people before
“ Perhaps not,” declared Roy. ‘‘It did not take many years for the
coming of De Soto to be forgotten by the tribes which he visited.”
“One thing is certain the Mound-builders built cities, wove cotton,
worked silver and gold and copper mines, tilled the fields, and had a
regular government,” asserted Teddy.
MOUND-BUILDERS—CAVE- AND CLIFF-DWELLERS,
“ Well, I think that they were the Zunis, and the mounds are only
the remains of the earth foundations of their houses, the wood having
decayed and vanished from mortal view,” said Will decidedly.
“ The shell mounds were just heaps of refuse, left from feasts, and
there is evidence that the people who left some of them were cannibals,
the distinct marks of human teeth being found on human bones,”
breathed Roy with a shudder.
“ How terrible ! ” ejaculated Will.
“ It may seem less terrible when we contrast it with the practices of
some of our own ancestors, with those of some of the proud races of the
present day,” Uncle Jack began. “In those days human life was not
valued as it is now, and hunger will always make savages of men.
St. Gerome said that he saw a savage Scotch tribe, the Attacotes, who
ate human flesh in preference to pork, mutton or beef, although they
kept great herds. Galen tells that the Roman courtiers of Emperor
Commodns ate human flesh. Adam of Brennan, in the eleventh
century, a preacher at the court of King Sven Ulfsen, says that the
Danes wore skins of beasts and devoured their fellow men. Cortez saw
the Aztecs sacrifice their prisoners before feasting, and among
vir^ms he recognized some of his own men by their white skins.”
UNCERTAINTY ABOUT MOUND-BUILDERS.
“Fiske tells us that the notion that the Mound-builders were like
the Aztecs or Zunis is not well sustained, but that it is more probable
that they were like the Cherokees or the Shawnees, and it is not certain
that there ever was a race of such people,” said Hadley.
“ If the Spaniards had not destroyed the histories we should have
known more about it,” sighed Ray. “ Both the Toltecs and the Aztecs
had written annals of eight and a half centuries before Cortez saw
Mexico. They were all burned in the market place at Tlateloco.”
“ Did the Spaniards do that ? ” demanded Ernest.
“ They surely did, or history lies,” answered Teddy. “ They were
not contented with destroying the hieroglyphics which they found, but
MOUND-BUILDERS—CAVE- AND CLIFF-DWELLERS.
they took the histories which they found in the Aztec capital, together
with many paintings which would be worth more than double their
weight in gold now, and the first Archbishop of Mexico ordered all of
this priceless collection to be burned.”
“How could they have histories ? Did they have books?” asked Roy.
“ It was written
on a sort of parch¬
ment. Some of it
was tied in rolls, but
oftener it was bound
in small volumes.
Since then the Mexi¬
can, or Spanish gov¬
ernment have not
allowed the rocks
which are inscribed
with figures and hie¬
roglyphics to be re¬
moved from that
land, or put into
museums or institu¬
tions of learning,
although no restric¬
tion has been put CURIOUS DWELLINGS OF THE AZTECS
upon using them for building purposes.”
“We know that there are three classes of ruins to be investigated,
and that the investigations do not throw much light upon the builders
of them. The farmers lived in lowland villages, always in fertile val¬
leys and near rivers. Their houses were of sun-dried bricks, or adobe,
the walls from two to four feet thick, and the roof, made of heavy tim¬
bers, was covered with two or three feet of dirt. During the Mexican
war General Scott called these houses very good forts. And, as you
would see them to-day, so those of two or three centuries ago looked,
MOUND-BUILDERS—CAVE- AND CLIFF-DWELLERS.
except that the oldest ones were entered through a hole in the roof,
ascending a ladder and descending within, while the more modern ones
have doors and windows in the sides.”
“Can you tell us how long such houses will last, Uncle Jack ? ”
OLDEST HOUSE IN THE UNITED STATES.
“ The oldest house in the United States is said to be one which was
built in 1540, and was standing a few years ago, and in such a state of
preservation that it promised to last another hundred years, at the very
least. It was one of the first houses built in Sante Fe, and at first had
neither windows nor doors in the sides, but some have been cut. In con¬
trast to this is the Adobe Palace, built for the first governor of the Pueblo
Kingdom. It has been held by the Pueblos, by the Spaniards, and by
the Mexicans, and now by the United States. I have told you of these
buildings to show you that adobe is a very substantial building
“ These were not the cave dwellings ? ” said Ernest inquiringly.
“No ; the cave dwellings were natural caverns, with the entrance
nearly filled by cement and stone. They were divided into rooms by
stone or wood partitions.
“Rude carvings, fragments of pottery, and even corn and grain has
been found in them,” interrupted Teddy.
“ Many of these caves were used as burial places, for mummies have
been found in them. Some people say that the cave and cliff dwellers,
and those who lived in the pueblos, were the same people, while others
deny it. When you grow to be independent men, you can go and search
out the truth for yourselves. Some authors have declared that the cave
dwellers were the ancestors of the Eskimos, and that those people forim
erly inhabited the central part of North America.”
“It seems to me that we can find about as many opinions as we find
authors,” ejaculated Will impatiently.
“ That may be, my boy, but you must remember that the truth
MOUND-BUILDERS—CAVE- AND CLIFF-DWELLERS.
may be sifted from these different theories. If people did not study
these things and tell us their views we should never know of them.”
“What about the cliff dwellers?” asked Roy.
THE RULE OF MIGHT.
“They lived in a time when a man’s possessions were his only so
long as he could hold them by the strength of his good right arm. Even
his life was not safe if he did not continually guard against surprise.
Cliff houses were built singly, in pairs, and in villages, and were often
so high that they looked like specks upon the face of the cliff, when
viewed from below. Sometimes towers were built upon the highest
points. These were probably watch towers, to guard against a surprise
by the enemy.”
“ And I suppose the cliff dwellings were used as fortresses in time
of great danger,” suggested Hadley.
“Were these people all of the same race?” asked Ray.
“ It appears that the cave and cliff dwellers and those who lived in
the pueblos might have been, but they were not like the mound builders
at all. It is said that the Pueblo, Zuni, and Moquis Indians are their
descendants, and that their customs, dress and dwellings seem to
“ What a lot of different descendants they did have,” said Ray very
slowly. “ They seem to have been claimed for many tribes of the
Indians, and no one is sure that they were Indians at all.”
“ A scientist recently gave the opinion that the cliff dwellers came
from Asia, and said that he found things, in their old houses in Man cos
canon, of Asiatic as well as Japanese design. He also thinks that they
were the Toltecs, and the legends and inscriptions in some of the cliff
rooms there prove this to be a fact,” said Ernest.
“We cannot go back farther than the twelfth century, even in the
most incomplete and obscure history. Legends and fables compose all
the accounts earlier than that; that is, of American races and peoples,”
MOUND-BUILDERS—CAVE- AND CLIFF-DWELLERS.
“ Well/’ declared Will, after a moment’s thoughtful pause, “ perhaps
we will know more about these things some time. The Colorado Cliff
Dwellers Association is trying to preserve the three or four hundred cliff
dwellings of the Mesa Verde. They have leased the place from the Ute
Indians, for it is on their reservation, and the goverment has no right to
take and keep it as it is. The association will have a toll road built to
them, and then we will have a fine chance to visit them. I propose that
i The Invincible Six ’ spend a vacation somewhere in that vicinity.”
“Second that motion—and make it soon,” laughed Hadley.
“ I suppose we must tell about the Indian next, Uncle Jack ? ” Ray
u In a way, for the Indian is connected with all of the myths and
legends of the old time America,” was the smiling answer. “ Legends
and myths will be our next lesson, and I shall expect to hear some very
strange ones. We will try to learn something of the character of the
race before we begin on the general history. Now boys we want trout
for supper, and if I am not much mistaken you will soon see the guide
coming in with some nice venison—I heard his rifle some time ago.”
MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
“ Should you ask me whence these stories,
Whence these legends and traditions,
With the odors of the forest,
With the dew and damp of meadows,
With the curling smoke of wigwams,
With the rushing of great rivers :—
I should answer, I should tell you,
From the forests and the prairies,
From the great lakes of the North-land,
From the mountains, moors and fen-lands—”
T HE boys were awake before the first gray dawn broke in the east,
a fact which was accounted for in a startling way. Ernest was the
first to hear the strange sound, afar off in the silent forest, the echoes
growing louder and louder each time that it was repeated. He nudged
Will and it was not long before every one of “ The Invincible Six” were
listening with bated breath. Then there was a moment of agonizing
silence ; then that awful sound so near the camp that each boy clutched
wildly at his neighbor.
“What is it ?” whispered Roy nervously.
“Did I bring ye into the woods to be scared by an owl ? ” asked the
guide, with a chuckle, as he crawled out of his berth.
“ ‘ That is but the owl and owlet
Talking in their native language,
Talking, scolding at each other. ’ ”
quoted Uncle Jack.
“ It is a screech owl, youngsters, that’s just what it is, and you’ll
hear plenty of’em while you stay. Did you think the Injuns was com¬
ing? You never hear them chaps till you see ’em. Turn out if you
want some good sunrise fishing—trout never bite as they do when the
MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
sun is waking them up.” As he spoke the guide was busily engaged in
making the fire.
After breakfast Uncle Jack smiled to seethe boys voluntarily take
their books and sit under the maple.
“ Only until the dew dries off a bit, Uncle Jack, ” laughed Ernest,
opening Longfellow’s poems. “ Mudgekewis was the West Wind, what
was the fierce Kabibonokka ?” he asked.
“The North Wind, of course. ” answered Will.
“ ‘ He it was whose hand in Autumn
Painted all the trees with scarlet,
Stained the leaves with red and yellow ;
He it was who sent the snow-flakes
Sifting, hissing through the forest;
Froze the ponds, the lakes, the rivers—’ *'
“ That will do, I see you know it. ” interrupted Ernest. “Hadley
what was Shawandasee ? ”
11 The balmy South Wind. ” was the ready answer.
“ ‘ He it was who sent the wood-birds,
Sent the wild-goose, Wawa, northward.
Sent the melon and tobacco,
And the grapes in purple clusters. ’ ’*
“ And the East Wind was Wabum,cried Ray.
“ ‘He it was who brought the morning,
He it was whose silver arrows
Chased the dark o’er hill and valley.’ ”
“If you want to see the beaver dam I told yon about, you must be
coming along, ” the guide called, looking in at the door, and the books
were hastily replaced on the shelves.
It was not until next day that Uncle Jack could collect his Indian
history class, then he began:—
“Now we are ready for the myths and legends of the red men,
Roy, what can you tell us ? ”
THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN
BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE
GENERAL HARRISON WAS ATTACKED BY TECUMSEH AND THE INDIANS WERE ROUTED WITH GREAT SLAUGHTER
T HE GREAT CHIEF OF THE UTFR
WICHITA INDIAN CAMP
ARRAPAHOE BRAVES, CAMP SUPPLY, INDIAN TERRITORY
YAMAPI, RUNNER FOR CHIEF OURAY
' ' '—--
ENTRANCE OF CORTEZ INTO MEXICO
SCENE ON THE JAMES RIVER IN THE EARLY HISTORY OF VIRGINIA
AN ARROW OF THE PURSUING INDIANS HAS JUST MISSED THE GIRL’S SHOULDER
AND PLUNGID INTO THE SNOW-COVERED BANK
INDIAN HUNTING ONE'OF THE LARGEST SPECIES OF BUFFALOES
THE SNOW-SHOE DANCE
COPYRIGHT, 1890, BY KURZ & ALLISC
CAPTURE AND DEATH OF THE INDIAN CHIEF SITTING BULL
HE WAS CHIEF OF THE SIOUX INDIANS AND WAS INSTRUMENTAL IN THE SLAUGHTER OF GENERAL CUSTER AND HIS ENTIRE COMMAND
AT LITTLE HORN RIVER IN JUNE, 1876. IN 1890 HE WAS CAPTURED AND SHOT BY A BODY OF INDIAN POLICE
BATTLE OF THE LITTLE HORN RIVER
SALUTE BY INDIANS TO A DEAD CHIEF
IT IS CUSTOMARY FOR INDIANS TO PAY RESPECT TO THE MEMORY OF A CHIEF WHO HAS GONE TO THE HAPPY HUNT¬
ING-GROUNDS BY A FEW WORDS OF A WAR-SONG, A WARWHOOP OR HOLDING UP THEIR PIPES TO THE DEAD BODY
INDIAN WAR DANCE
MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
u There are many of these legends and some of them are strangely
like our own Bible accounts. The Guaranis say that two brothers and
their families came to Brazil during a great flood, and peopled that
country. Many other stories tell of floods and earthquakes ; of moun¬
tains suddenly rising, and of lands as suddenly disappearing.”
“ One tribe has a tradition of a flood in which all mankind perished,
with the exception of one man and his wife,” interrupted Hadley.
“ Another is that a man and his wife took refuge in a hollow cypress
log, which floated as the flood arose, and when the water subsided they
found that they were on top of a mountain. Their children were born
dumb, but the Great Spirit sent a dove to teach them to talk, and all the
different tribes of men are their descendants, ” added Ray.
“I saw a legend almost like that only it was a humming bird instead
£>f a dove, ” cried Will.
STORIES OF A GREAT FLOOD.
“ California furnishes legends of a great flood in which all the people
of the earth perished,” Teddy went on. “And Mexico has several such
myths. Some say that the sun hid those who were to be saved on the
sacred Island of Titicaca. But the whole country was covered with water
before the time of the Incas, and only a few people, who were on the
highest mountain tops escaped. ”
“ But I can tell you one of the most curious legends, ” Ernest
declared. “ A shepherd was watching his flock of llamas and, seeing that
they were gazing intently at the stars, he asked, them what they saw.
They told him that the world would soon be destroyed by water, and
that he and his family and herds must flee to the mountains. So they
went to the highest one they could find, where they found all kinds of
beasts assembled, and were saved. And there was a total eclipse of the
sun while the water covered the earth.”
“Another story is that two brothers alone survived the flood, and
two aras, in the form of women, brought them food. One of the men
caught one of these and she became the mother of the human race.
MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
The natives of Ecuador have a great reverence for the ara on this
account, ” said Teddy.
“A Brazilian story is that God destroyed the earth by fire as
well as by water, and only one man was saved. God gave him a wife
and the peoples of the earth are their descendants. Other Indian legends
tell of a flood and some tell of a manitou, or spirit, who came to save
them from evil,” added Will.
“ The New England tribes told about Ash and Elm—did they mean
Adam and Eve ?” asked Roy.
“ Very likely, but I think that the ancient and the modem were
pretty well mixed up in their legends,” replied Hadley. “ The Shawnees
claim that the very ancient inhabitants of Florida were white.”
u The Pawnees say that once, very long ago, a race of giants lived
in this land three or four times larger than men are now. These giants
grew so proud that they even defied the Great Spirit, and he made it
rain and rain until they were driven to the mountains, and finally the
mountain tops were covered and they were all drowned. Then the
Great Spirit decided that he would never again make men so large and
powerful, and created the present races,” Ray told them. “ Isn’t it
about time that you took your turn to tell stories, Uncle Jack ? ”
TRADITIONS THAT ARE SIMILAR.
“ I wouldn’t wonder, but you were doing so well that I thought I
would wait,” he laughed as he began. u These myths all bear a striking
resemblance to each other, and to our own accounts, as I suppose that
you have noticed. The Mexican traditions say that when the builders
of a great tower were scattered, seven men and their wives came to
America and were the founders of the Aztec, Toltec and Olmec races.
Yucatan has a tradition that the inhabitants of that country came from
the East and that God dried up the ocean to let them pass over.”
“ Is that all, Uncle Jack? ” inquired Will.
“ Oh, no indeed. The Natchez say that their laws and religion
were brought to them by a man and woman from the sun. The Perm
MYTHS AND LEGENDS,
vians have a tradition that a man and woman came to their country from
far over the sea. Other South American tribes tell the story of three
eggs which fell from the sky—one was of pure gold, one of virgin silver,
and one of copper. The chiefs were hatched from the first, nobles from
the second, and the common people from the third.”
“Some of the tribes tell about white men,” suggested Roy.
MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
“Yes, they tell of bearded white men who taught them to cultivate
the land and build houses. Mackenzie said that the Eskimos described
the English as winged giants, who could kill with a look and swallow a
beaver at one mouthful. The hill tribes of Chittagong believe that a
chief came out of a cave, married the daughter of God, and gave her his
gun, the report of which was thunder and the flash the lightning.
This tradition seems very modern on account of the gun.”
“Perhaps it was from the Chinese, who invented gunpowder long
ago,” said Ray inquiringly.
“Another tribe, and the only one which seems to hold Darwin’s
theory, asserts that men are descended from monkeys, and, as proof,
gives the fact that the chimpanzee builds a house, or resting place, as
good as some savages have,” Uncle Jake continued. “ An Indian chief
once said : c The Master of Life himself was an Indian. He made the
Shawnees before any other race. They sprang from his brain. He
gave them all the knowledge which he himself possessed. He placed
them upon a great island (America), and all other peoples descended
from them. Afterwards he made the French and English out of his
breast; the Dutch from his feet, and the Long Knives (Americans) out
of his hands. All inferior races of men he made white.”
SEPARATE ORIGIN FOR EVERY RACE.
“What a lot of Adams and Eves there must have been ! ” exclaimed
“The Indians laugh at the idea that there were but one Adam and
Eve, and say that each race was created in its own land. Notwithstand¬
ing this, writers declare that the Mexicans, especially, must have come
from the old world, bringing with them the history from which the book
of Genesis was written. This opinion has some evidence to sustain it.
Eskimos certainly resemble theTunguse ; Indians resemble the Tartars;
the Scythians scalped their victims and the Kamtschatkans tortured
“Here is a self conceited legend for you ! ” cried Teddy. “The
MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
Iroquois say that Tarhuhiawaku, the Sky Holder, resolved to make a
race which should eclipse all others iu beauty and bravery. He made
six perfect couples, who were the ancestors of the greatest of all people—
the Indian races.”
“The Choctaws say of the Crawfish band that they were once real
crawfish and lived in a deep cave. One day the Choctaws captured some
of them, taught them to walk on two legs, cut off their toe nails, and
adopted them after they became men. But the rest are crawfish to this
day,” said Hadley.
“That’s as bad as the tradition of a California tribe which says that
the first Indians that lived were cayotes ! ” exclaimed Ray. “ They say :
‘After they began to burn the bodies of those who died the Indians,
began to assume the shape of men, but very imperfectly. They walked
on all fours, and were imperfect in their limbs and joints, but progressed
until they were perfect men and women. They acquired the habit of
sitting upright, and lost their tails, which the tribe greatly regret as
they think the tail quite an ornament. In decorating themselves for a
dance they put on artificial tails.’ ”
MADE FROM RED SEEDS.
“ The Iroquois tell this story: ‘Owayneo, the Creator, made all of
his children from a handful of red seeds, then assembled them together,
and said to them : “Ye are five nations, for ye sprang each from a differ¬
ent handful of the seed which I sowed ; but ye are all brethren and I am
your father, for I made you all. Mohawks, I have made you bold and
valiant, and see, I give you corn for your food ; Oneidas, I have made
you patient of pain and hunger, the nuts and the fruits of the trees are
yours; Senecas, I have made you industrious and active, beans do I give
for your nourishment; Cayugas, I have made you strong, friendly
and generous, ground-nuts and every generous fruit shall refresh you ;
Onondagas, I have made you wise, just and eloquent, squashes and
grapes have I given you to eat, and tobacco to smoke in council. The
beasts, birds and fishes I have given you all in common. Be just to all
MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
men, and kind to the strangers that come among you.” That is tke best
story yet,” declared Ernest.
11 But I will tell you another queer one,” declared Teddy. “The
Mandans have a tradition that they lived near an underground lake,
away from the light of the sun, until the roots of a grapevine, in search
of water, reached their abode and showed them a glimpse of the outer
world. One-half of the tribe climbed this vine and reached the surface
of the earth ; then a very large old woman broke the root in trying to
follow them, and the other half of the tribe were left in darkness forever.’’
“That’s it—lay it all to the woman!” ejaculated Ray.
“The Osages think that the first man came out of a shell. In wan¬
dering around the earth he met the Great Spirit, who gave him a bow and
arrows and told him how to hunt. He shot a deer and the Great Spirit
gave him a fire and taught him how to cook the meat and clothe himself
with the skin of the animal. One day a beaver invited him to his house
and he married one of the beaver’s daughters. -Their children were the
ancestors of the Osage nation, and those people will never kill a beaver,”
OVER A CENTURY OLD.
“They are not much like Newell Bear, one of the Tobique tribe
who is over a hundred years old, and declares that he will live until he
is one hundred and twenty. He will eat no meat but the flesh of the
beaver, for he says that it prolongs life,” laughed Will.
“ Now, if you have told us all of the creation legends that you know
I will read you a little from this book, which was written by Joseph Nic~
olar, the historian of the Penobscot tribe at Oldtown, Maine. He says
in the beginning : ‘ This work will give the public the full account of
all the pure traditions which have been handed down from the beginning
of the red men’s world to the present time.’ It took him a great many
years to collect them, for he began when he was a young man. The
traditions seem to locate ‘the red man’s land of promise’ in the eastern
part of the red man’s world, which is America.”
MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
“Does he tell about Hiawatha?” questioned Roy.
“His Klose-kur-beh was a being like Hiawatha, made from the dust
of the earth, whom the Great Spirit commanded, saying: ‘ Go thy way
towards the sun, and when the sun sets and night comes, there rest. On
the morrow arise with the sun and go until it sets. Seventy times seven
shalt thou arise with the sun and go towards it until it sets. Seventy
times seven nights will I visit thee, and teach thee thy duties. At the
end of thy journey there abide and
thy companions will come unto
“What more did he say?”
“ He told how the Indian
obeyed without a word, and then
said :—‘ and because the white
man wanted to stay in the land
where he first opened his eyes,
and wanted the Great Spirit to
give him all that he beheld, the
Great Spirit bade him go towards
the setting sun. The Great Spirit
saw that the man which he had
made wanted the whole world,
therefore he sent him to chase the
sun. When he comes to the great type OF AMERICAN INDIAN,
waters he shall make large vessels so that he can chase the sun across
the great waters, because he wants the whole world ; he shall slay his
brother because he wants all things ; he shall know no one because he
wants the power over all the earth. * * * He will not rest until he has
found the land which the Great Spirit has given to you. He shall not
pass away without having first put his foot on all the lands that have
been made ; therefore, look out for him always. ’ ”
“ I read some in that book and I should call it a sort of Indian
MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
Bible,” mused Ernest. “ He said that the Great Spirit was in the sun
moon, stars, clouds, mountains, and even in the trees of earth. He had
the legend of the Indian corn only it was a little different from that
of Longfellow. I would like to know—if he knew our histories he has
woven the sum and substance in pretty well; if it is the Indian legends,
as he says, it—well, it is a queer book. ”
LEGEND OF ST. ANTHONY FALLS.
“ There are other legends than those of the creation,” Ray began.
“ Here is one of the Falls of St. Anthony. Ampato Sapa, a Chippeway
girl, married an Indian of the Dakota tribe, who was a great man among
his people and she was very proud of him. At last, he decided that a
man of his position ought to have more than one wife ; and poor, broken¬
hearted Ampato went back to her father’s lodge. She mourned a short
time ; then, taking her babes, she pushed her canoe from the shore and
let it drift with the current, as she chanted the weird death-song. Her
friends did not see her until too late to save her ; and she sang sadly of
her past happiness until her voice was drowned by the roar of the falls.
‘ Yet that death-song, they say, is heard
Above the gloomy waters roar,
When trees are by the night-wind stirred,
And darkness broods o’er wave and shore.’ ”
“ That is sad, ” returned Ernest. “ This one is better. There is a
beautiful legend among some of the tribes of a lovely, mystical bird,
which comes in the still summer evenings, when the moon is full, and
sings in the groves beside the wigwams. It sings of the spirit land,
and brings messages from departed friends.”
“The Apaches think that white birds have souls, and all the
Indians of the plains worshiped the white buffalo,” nodded Teddy.
u What is the morning star ? ” asked Will.
“ Oh, I saw that!” cried Roy. “ It is an Ojibway legend that the
morning star was once a beautiful maiden, who longed to go to the
MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
place of tlie breaking of the daylight, and was raised to heaven to stay
“Some of the tribes believe the legend of the Nakannies,” said Hadley.
“ What was that?” asked Ray.
“ They are the tribe that the Indians of the Rockies speak of with
hushed breath and a cautious look around them, and the other tribes
shudder as the story is told. These Nakannies always hear when they are
talked about, although they are never seen, and take their own good time
to avenge slander, so, when ill luck comes, it is laid to them. White
men declare that a tribe of that name still lives in the mountains and are
‘ bad Indians , 5 while Indians own that there once was a tribe of that
name. The great war chief of the band had two sons, and one of them
listened to the ‘ pale-face medicine man ’ and forgot the traditions of his
fathers. Then the war chief caused his son and his followers to be mur¬
dered and, leaving their bodies on the plains, fled to the hills, where they
stayed many moons, or until the old war chief went to the happy hunting
grounds. Then the band wandered back, but the spirits of their mur¬
dered kindred drove them away, and no man knows where they went,
for no one has seen them from that day until this . 5 5
CURIOUS IDEAS OF THE SUN.
“ Oh, they seem to believe almost everything , 55 exclaimed Ernest.
“They thought that the sun had lost its heat and was in danger of going
out when it was eclipsed. So they fastened live coals to arrows and shot
them towards the sun to rekindle it! Then they thought that if a man
was killed in the dark he would have to spend all eternity in darkness.
That is why they always made all their attacks by day, or on bright
moonlight nights, and it was a good thing for the settlers that they had
“Why they had traditions connected with every lake, or mountain,
or valley, as well as with nearly every beast or bird. Spirits were in
every tree or flower, or waterfall; in the clouds, in the air, everywhere
and in everything , 55 observed Teddy carelessly.
MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
“They had tlieir legends of love. I will tell you one of the last
chief of Mattakessett, who won Katamah, the daughter of the chief of
Wintucket, whom he had already promised in marriage to the chief of
Ahquampacha. It brought on a war and, when the people of Mattakes¬
sett were beaten, the chief rushed to his tent, seized his Katamah in his
arms, and leaped into the waters of the great bay. After swimming as
far as he could they both sank to rise no more, and 1 there has been no
rushing of waters since ; the bay of Katamah is always a quiet sea,”
“The tribes had different names for the person who was sent to clear
the rivers, forests and fishing grounds, and teach the arts of peace to the
people,” said Uncle Jack. “The Iroquois, called him Hiawatha; the
Zunis, Po-shai-an-kia; the Omahas, Hanga; the Aztecs, Motenczomas
and other tribes had other names. Atotarho was the spirit of savagery,
who ruined the villages and brought disease to the people. It was he
who drove away the mound builder and the cliff dwellers, and enveloped
even their ruined homes in mystery. Well might his name mean ‘ The
Entangled One.’ ”
STORY CELEBRATED BY LONGFELLOW.
“ Well, what about the tradition of Hiawatha ? ” asked Ray.
“It was the Five Nations who held that legend, which Longfellow
has written about. They called him the greatest and wisest of their
chiefs who, after making his people united and prosperous, left them and
sailed away into the rosy sunset in a snowy canoe, while the air thrilled
with the sweetest music.”
“ He wasn’t a real, true chief, was he ? ” demanded Ray incredulously.
“ Whether he was or not it makes a beautiful story, and there are
several versions of it, but I like this one the best. He was the founder of
the Iroquois Confederation. He called them all to a council upon the banks
of the Onondaga lake. He appeared in the lake in a mysterious canoe,
and with him was a lovely maiden—-his daughter. Soon after they
landed a great white bird came downward from the sky, making a strange
MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
noise as it fell through the air. All the people excepting Hiawatha
and his daughter fled in terror, and the huge bird, an enormous heron,
fell upon and crushed the maiden, burying its own head and bill in the
ground. The bird and the girl both were dead. After that the warriors
of the Five Nations decked themselves with white heron plumes when
MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
starting on the warpath. When the body of the bird was removed not
a trace of the maiden could be found.”
“ What did Hiawatha do then ? ” asked Will.
“He guided the council ‘ clad in a wolf-skin mantle, with a tunic of
soft furs hanging from his waist, and rich modcasins on his feet. A cap
of soft deer-skin, ornamented with plumes of many brilliant birds, was
upon his head, in the front of which were eagle and heron feathers.’
When the debate was ended he arose and said: ‘The Mohawks shall be first
in the nation, because they are warlike and mighty ; the Oneidas shall
be second, because they give wise counsel; the Onondagas shall be
third, because they are gifted in speech, and the Cayugas shall be fourth,
because they understand best how to make houses and raise corn and
beans ; and the Senecas shall be fifth, because of their superior cunning
in hunting. Unite, you five nations, and no foe shall be able to subdue
you. Brothers, these are the words of Hiawatha—I have said it—I am
done.’ His mission to the Iroquois being ended, he went down to the
lake and entered his magic canoe. Suddenly the air was filled with
sweetest music, and the awed people saw the canoe rise in the air, higher
and higher, until it was lost in the misty blue above their heads.
* Thus departed Hiawatha
To the islands of the Blessed,
To the land of the Hereafter.’ ”
“ And this ends the legends, I suppose,” said Roy inquiringly.
“ No, we might goon almost indefinitely,and keep learning something
new every day, but we have read enough to give us quite an insight
into the myths and legends of the American Indian, and we will now
turn our attention to his coming here, his character and customs. What
do you say to spending the evening in the moonlighted forest? ”
“You are always thinking of something new for us—what a jolly
outing we are having,” Ernest answered, and spoke the mind of them
all as he did so.
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
“ Wild roved an Indian girl, bright Alfarata,
Where sweep the waters of the blue Juniata.
Swift as an antelope thro’ the forest going.
Loose were her jetty locks in wavy tresses flowing.
* Bold is my warrior good, the love of Alfarata,
Where sweep the waters of the blue Juniata.
Soft and low he speaks to me, and then his war-cry sounding,
Rings his voice in thunder loud, from height to height resounding. *
U pvEFORE we begin our lesson to-day I want to ask you fellows
t"j what the spots on the moon are, ” Ernest questioned mys¬
“You needn’t tell us that you like to read Hiawatha, ” retorted Teddy,
with a laugh. “ But I will answer, just to show you that I know it too.
* Once a warrior, very angry,
Seized his grandmother, and threw her
Up into the sky at midnight;
Right against the moon he threw her,
Tis her body that you see there.' ”
“That isn’t half as good as the reason for the rainbow, ” cried Ray
eagerly. “Listen :
“ 4 Tis the heaven of flowers you see there;
All the wild flowers of the forest,
All the lilies of the prairie,
When on earth they fade and perish.
Blossom in that heaven above us.' ”
“ Ridpath says that there is doubt about the origin of the Indian as
well as that of the Mound-builders. Nearly all of the early discoverers
thought that they were of Jewish origin, and some still think so. Their
name was a mistaken one, given by Columbus when he thought that he
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
had discovered India. What can you tell me about them ? ” asked Uncle
Jack, when he was ready to begin the day’s lesson.
“I read that forty tribes, or bands of them had become extinct in two
hundred years,” cried Ernest indignantly, “and nearly all of those bands
moved into eternity instead of ‘going West.’ ”
“I found as many as five theories of their origin, ” answered Hadley.
“That they came from Northern Asia, and were descendants of the Tartars;
that they were of Welsh origin, descended from Madoc; that the Eastern
and Western Continents were once united by land where the Atlantic
Ocean now is ; that they are descendants of the Phoenicians who were
wrecked on the American coast, and that their Jewish origin is proven by
many feasts and fasts which are similar to those of that people.”
“Well, the Kamchatkans even now cross and recross Behring
Strait, and Tartars have peace-pipes, ” Ray said thoughtfully. “And the
Znnis say that the race came from the northwest. ”
“ I read that the Apaches and the Nnlatos, a tribe in the far north,
speak the same language. Doesn’t that prove that they all came from
Asia? ” Will inquired suddenly.
WHERE THEIR ANCESTORS CAME FROM.
“ Hardly, nor can we go much by the tradition of the Indians,”
Uncle Jack declared. “ They tell far different stories of their origin.
Some say that their ancestors came from the north or northwest; others
from the east and west; still others from the air, the sky, and under the
ground. All of them seem to be related in a fashion, although some are
more advanced than others. The Indians of North and South America
have over four hundred different languages, and no connection has been
shown between the civilization of the two sections.”
“They all believed in Manitous ; that is, that word meant ‘spirit’
to all the tribes of red men from Mexico to the Arctic regions. These
Manitous were good and bad; great and small,” said Hadley. “Some
of the tribes had secret societies also.”
“ If that is all that yon say concerning their origin you may tell
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
me how many tribes were in the United States when the white man came
here, or when they first became known to history,” Uncle Jack
“ There were about eight distinct tribes, all more or less hostile to
each other, and generally at war. They were the Algonquins ; the Sioux
or Dacotahs ; the Mohawks or Iroquois ; the Catabaws ; the Cherokees;
the Uchees; the Natchez ; and the
Mobilians. These amounted tc
about 200,000 by estimate, anc
there were many more in Mexico
Peru and the West Indies than it
the United States,” answered Ray
“ Ernest, what can yon tell uj
about the Algonquins ? ”
“ The Confederation rangec
from Labrador to the far soutl
and spoke forty different dialects
They inhabited New England
the eastern part of New York anc
Pennsylvania; New Jersey; Dela
ware; Maryland; Virginia; NortI
Carolina as far as Cape Fear ; s
large part of Kentucky and Ten
nessee ; and nearly all of Ohio
Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin,
and Minnesota. Their sub-tribes CHIEF with claw necklace.
were the Knistenaux, the Ottawas, the Chippewas, the Sacs and Foxes,
the Menomenees, the Miamis, the Piankeshaws, the Potawatomies, the
Illinois, the Shawnees, the Powhatans, the Corees, the Nanticokes, the
Lenni-Lenapes or Delawares, the Mohegans, the Narragansetts, the
Pequots and the Abenakis.”
“ What of the Iroquois, Roy ? ”
“ They have been called the Romans of the New World. They
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
were not so very great in numbers, but their pride was so great that they
called themselves ‘ Ongwe Hongwe,’ or ‘ the men surpassing all others.’
And they were the dread of all the other tribes near them. Judd says
that ‘ The Mohawks were brave, fearless and ferocious, and destroyed
more Indians than all of the Europeans have ever done in the war.’ The
early Dutch said that they were cannibals in 1700, but I did not find that
“ Where did they live, Hadley, and what sub-tribes did they have?”
“They lived in Canada south of Ottawa; between the lakes Ontario,
Erie and Huron ; the greater part of New York; also of Ohio and
Pennsylvania ; and were thus almost completely surrounded by the
Algonquins, who were their bitter enemies. Their sub-tribes were the
Senecas, the Cayugas, the Onondagas, the Oneidas, and the Mohawks.
These five were first called The Five Nations, and after that they
admitted the Tnscaroras, and were called The Six Nations. They called
themselves the Konoskioni or Cabin Builders, the Algonquins called
them Mingoes, the French Iroquois, and the English Mohawks or
VARIOUS OTHER TRIBES.
“ Go on, Teddy, and tell us about some of the other tribes. What
of the Catawbas and Cherokees ? ”
“The Catawbas lived along the banks of the Yadkin and Catawba
rivers, and were sworn enemies to the Mohawks. The Cherokees
inhabited the elevated regions of Carolina, Georgia and Alabama.”
“ What of the Uchees and Mobilians, Will ? ”
“The Uchees lived southeast of the Cherokees, and had a very
harsh, singular language. Some people think that they were the rem¬
nant of a powerful nation. The Mobilians lived in Florida, Georgia,
Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana ; and their nation was divided into
three great confederations : the Creeks, the Choctaws, and the Chicka-
saws. These were again divided into a number of smaller bands, the
principal of which were the Seminoles and the Yamassees, both of which
belonged to the Creek division.”
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
“ The Choctaws and Chickasaws were of one origin, and their tradi¬
tions seem to prove that they came from Mexico. That is what the
Natchez traditions say of their tribe, too,” nodded Roy.
“ I think that yon have forgotten the Sioux ! ” exclaimed Ernest.
“Their lands were bounded on the north, by lake Winnepeg ; on the
south, by the Arkansas river ; on the east, by the Mississippi ; and on
the west, by the Rocky Mountains. They were divided into the Assini-
boins, Southern Sioux, Minteries, Mandans, and Crows.”
“The Natchez were the queerest people,” asserted Hadley. “They
dwelt in a small territory east of the Mississippi river, and along the
banks of the Pearl. They had a distinct language, worshiped the sun,
and are thought to have been the most civilized of the North American
tribes, but they are now extinct.”
“ Yes ; ‘the steel of the white man hath swept them away,’ ” Uncle
Jack quoted, with a quiet significance.
“ I have heard of more tribes than those,” declared Ray.
“There were those of the great plains, the Rockies, and the Pacific
coast. They were the Pawnees, the Camanches, the Apaches, the Utahs,
the Blackfeet, the Snakes, the Nez Perces, the Flatheads, and the Cali¬
fornians. Each tribe was divided into other classes or clans, we should
say families, and had a distinguishing mark on their breasts,” re¬
REPUTATION FOR CRUELTY.
“ The Kiowas and Camanches were wild, roving Indians. The
Kiowas have the name of being the most cruel of any on the plains and
the Camanches followed wherever they led,” nodded Roy. “The Utes and
the Cheyennes were bitter enemies; the Sioux were the most treacherous,
and the Pawnees the most friendly and reliable of all the Indians of the
“ Catlin says of the Cheyennes : ‘ There is no finer race of men than
these in North America. They are the most desperate set of warriors ;
and, also, splendid horsemen, having carried on an almost unceasing war
with the Pawnees and Blackfeet for time out of mind !’ ” cried Teddy.
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
“ I know that the Cheyennes and Sionx are the most warlike, inde¬
pendent, and self-reliant of all the tribes, and there is as mnch difference
between them and inferior tribes as there is between the Eskimo of the
frozen North, and the more intelligent men of the temperate zones,”
“ Each class, or clan of Indians had a chief, and the head of the
vvhole tribe was a sachem or great chief. These were generally men but
TAR-LO BOY—KIOWA TRIBE.
sometimes there were women rulers. They had no written laws or his¬
tory but traditions were handed down from one generation to another.
They all worshiped a Great Spirit, some tribes had more than one god,
and some had idols. In a warrior, lying was considered one of the fine
arts, and they were often treacherous and cruel, learning but too readily
the ways of the white men who came to their shores. They would fight
to the death, and neither expect nor give mercy,” Uncle Jack told them.
“I have read that the Algonqnins were warlike and powerful, some
of the most fearless of American Indians. Also that the Iroquois have
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
furnished models for the stories of the ‘ noble red man ’ more than any
other tribe. Still one writer said that, if the white man had not come
CHIEF HORSE BLACK—COMANCHE TRIBE.
for them to fight, they would have exterminated all lesser bands of
Indians,” said Ernest.
“Yes, the men of the Five Nations were sagacious and intelligent
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
beyond the average of their race, but they held queer notions, ” laughed
Teddy. “ A chief once asked one of the Fathers, who had just baptized
a captive condemned to death :—‘ Why do yon do that ? He will get to
heaven before ns, and keep us out! ’ ”
“I should say that they had queer ideas,” ejaculated Will. “A
missionary was once telling them about Adam and Eve, and of course he
told the story of the apple. Then a chief answered very gravely
‘What yon have told us is all very true. It is indeed bad to eat the
apples, and much better to make them into cider ! ’ ”
“They knew a thing or two though,” asserted Ray. “D’Ayllon
found Atlantic tribes who kept flocks of deer or caribou which they
milked like cows, and they made fine Dutch cheese, too.”
“ I intended to begin our next lesson with their superstitions, customs
and characteristics, but I think that we shall have time for some of them
now. What have you to say on the subject, Roy?” asked Uncle Jack.
“ All Indians have a childlike faith in the present, and take very
little thought for the future. They are very superstitious and read signs
in every blade of wind-stirred grass, in the flight of birds, and in the
trail of the snake. All the wonders of nature are to them manifesta¬
tions of an unseen power, which can protect or destroy. They hear
voices of this unknown everywhere—in the leaves, in the water, in the
winds—and the voice of the Great Spirit speaks in anger in the roar of
“ They thought that heaven was beyond the mountains of the setting
sun,” added Hadley. u It was a country rich with game, where cold and
hunger, and parting were unknown. Weapons and food were buried with
the warrior, for his use in the land to which he was going, but no coward
could ever go to the happy hunting ground. When an Indian was
dying his friends, with ready weapons, would stand around his cabin
to frighten away evil spirits.”
“ What was the happy hunting ground, Ray ? ”
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
“ It was a place where the Indian would be perfectly happy through
an eternity of bliss, but he couldn’t tell where it was anymore than you
can tell where our heaven is. He believed that he would go there after
death, for he believed in a future life. All persons who were not scalped
or hung would go there, but if a dead body was scalped that person
could not enter this paradise, and that was the reason why they were
so eager to take scalps. If their enemies could be kept out there would
be more room for them. But they would always risk their lives to
carry away their own dead untouched, and so save their souls from
u And if an Indian is hung he cannot go to heaven, for the soul
leaves the body through the mouth with the last breath, and it cannot
get out while he is strangling,” continued Will. “ So they will choose
a death by the severest torture that can be devised rather than be hung.”
BURIAL OF WEAPONS.
“ They don’t really think that the weapons and other articles which
they bury with a warrior will do him any good, but that his spirit will
have the shadow of these things to use as he used them while in the
body. So anything which is thought necessary to his comfort and
pleasure, and which he could never have in this life, is obtained by the
sorrowing friends, no matter what the cost or denial to themselves,”
“ The worst thing about them is their cruelty to all enemies—red,
white or black. The average Indian seems to have no mercy on a
captive. Think of burning them alive !” Ray said with a shudder.
“ Is it any worse for an Indian to do that than for a white man ? ”
asked Teddy significantly. u What did Nero do with the early Chris¬
tians ? And that when Rome was mistress of the civilized world ! And
you may find such things nearer home, for slaves have been burned at
the stake in Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey and other colonies.”
“ Many of the tribes seem to have worshiped the sun and also fire,
which was always kindled with flint,” observed Hadley. “ Their priests
rHE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
are also physician)' and called Medicine Men. They claim that they
can heal the sicL by magic, and give good fortune or cause disaster.
They use herbs in sickness, but depend mostly upon the vapor baths.”
“ What ?2 r t they ? ” inquired Will curiously.
“Didn’t you know that Indians have a bathhouse, and a steam-
heated one at that? Well, they have. A little hut, as nearly air-tight
as can be made, is built beside a body of water. Rocks are heated and
placed in this hut. The person who is going to take the bath carries a
quantity of water with him when he enters, which he throws upon the
hot stones after he has carefully closed the door. He stays there as
long as he can stand it, then throws the door open, rushes out, and
plunges into the water. This is done in winter as well a $ in summer,
and sick peoyte sometives survive the treatment.”
PROOF AGAINST PAIN.
u I don’t see how they stand it, but, from childhood, the Indians were
taught to despise pain. Little Indian boys would put live coals upon
their flesh and watch as they burned, even pressing them in. This was
one of their games, and the one who threw off the coal first lost it.
When an Indian was mortally wounded he would sing his weird death
song, and die without a murmur,” said Ray.
“I have heard that the Indian would never steal from his own tribe;
would not lie to his friends, and never got drunk until the white man
taught him,” Teddy declared.
“A warrior who had taken many scalps would go directly to the
happy hunting ground, but demons would flog the coward to never-end¬
ing tasks,” added Roy.
“They were savages, surely, but not degraded ones, and probably
as high in the intellectual scale as European tribes of the early times,”
Uncle Jack told them. “They lived by hunting, fishing and farming in
a rude way. The men did the hunting, fishing and fighting; the women
built the wigwam, tilled the ground, made the clothes, carried the bur¬
dens in moving, and did the hard work generally. They lived in tents,
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
in wigwams, in villages and in Houses. Some lived in long houses,
large enough for many families.”
“Their most ingenious inventions were the snow-shoe and the hark
canoe,” Ernest asserted. “They had queer hows and arrows, hut after
they learned to use the white man’s gun, they threw them aside. They
communicated with each other by picture writing, and rocks have been
seen covered with these messages.”
INDIAN LIFE IN THEIR NATIVE FORESTS.
“Did you ever think of it? Why is an Indian like a white dude,
or one of our codfish aristocracy? Conundrum,” laughed Ray.
“I know,” flashed Teddy. “Neither of them want to work. But
that isn’t fair to the Indian, for he will work as well as a white man. In
California the contractors say that they would rather have them.”
“Was painting their bodies any sign of barbarism ? ” inquired Uncle
“Oh, maybe so; but they were not the only people who did that,”
replied Will. “The early Britons, the Germans and the Norsemen, and
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
I don’t know kow many more, did the same thing. The color for war
is red; for mourning, black; and any variety of fantastic colors at
“I have read that the Norman pipes were like the Indian peace
pipes, and that calumet is a Norman word. Is that so, Uncle Jack?”
“I wish that I could answer that question, for I would like to know
myself,” smiled Uncle Jack.
“They believed in dreams as fully as the ancient Jews did, and gave
their prophets the same honors—I mean the Indians did,” said Hadley.
“What queer names they have,” exclaimed Ray.
“They did not have family names, although I suppose some of them
have now. A boy could change his name or have it changed a dozen
times before he received the warrior name which he would bear through
life. The names are generally gotten by chance, as Powder Face, who
had several names before his face was badly burned by an explosion and
he received that one. Girls were generally named by the mother.”
“ What are squaw-men, Uncle Jack ? ” asked Will.
RESPONSIBLE FOR DEEDS OF VIOLENCE.
“ They are white men who take Indian wives^—traders and renegades
who are afraid to live in the 1 white man’s land.’ Men sometimes would
appear at the reservation with horses enough to set up housekeeping
with, and no matter how many brands there were on them, no questions
were asked. These renegades sent their wives to the agency to draw the
government rations for themselves and children. These men also fur¬
nish arms and whiskey and incite the Indians to deeds of violence. It is
estimated that there are from one thousand to fifteen hundred of these
squaw-men living with the United States Indians and being fed at
government expense. There should be a law to reach them.”
“Did the Indian believe in a God like ours, Uncle Jack?” asked
“ Some of them believed that two brothers ruled the world—Good
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
Mind and Bad Mind, or, as others said, the Beautiful and the Ugly
Spirits. The good one aided man in every undertaking, no matter
whether it was for good or evil; he gave him warmth, food and joy, as
well as success in love, war and the chase ; and was always going over
the earth with good gifts—the streams, the fertile plains, and the fruits.
The bad one followed him, creating rapids, deserts and thorns ; he also
sent pain, disaster, suffering, cold, defeat and death. At last the good
one turned and crushed the other to the earth, and he still lives under¬
ground, an e\il being like the devil,” said Hadley.
U I had read a different ending to that. These ruling spirits had
no power except on this earth. They did not think it worth while to
worship the good one, for he would be good to them anyway, but they
would try hard to keep on good terms with the bad one, who would be
sure to do them some injury if they didn’t. After death the Indian was
sure of the happy hunting ground, no matter what he had done on
earth,” laughed Will.
“ There is a queer legend about the Celestial Sisters, which tells
why a certain tribe likes to deck themselves out with white hawk’s
feathers. Ernest, can’t you tell it to us ?”
HANDSOME YOUNG HUNTER.
“I can try. Waupee, or the White Hawk, was a handsome young
man who lived by himself in the forest, and he was a great hunter—no
one in all of the tribes could bring in as much game as he did. One
day, when he went farther than he had ever been before, he came to a
prairie covered with long grass, and dotted with many beautiful flowers
which he had never before beheld. Out upon this prairie was a ring,
worn as by the treading of many feet, and it puzzled him greatly, because
there was no trail leading to it, and the grass stood up straight all around
it. So he hid and watched the spot to see what might come to it. Soon
he heard sweet music, afar off, and saw a tiny speck in the sky, which
grew larger and larger until he saw a basket, and in that basket were
twelve sisters, the most beautiful women that he had ever seen, and one,
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
the youngest, was more beautiful than any of the others. When the
basket touched the earth they sprang out into the ring and began to
CHIEF WHITE HORSE—KIOWA TRIBE.
dance. He watched them for some time, then leaped out to catch the sis¬
ter whom he now loved so well. They were too quick for him, reached and
entered the magic basket, and it ascended until it was lost in the blue sky.”
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
“ But lie tried it again,” breathed Will.
“ Oh, yes,” Teddy went on. u He went back to the spot the next
day at the same hour, and, taking the form of an opossum, he squatted
quite near the ring and began to nibble the grass. But he could not
fool them, and, although the car-basket came to the earth, and he heard
the sweet music, they saw him and went back to their home in the
“ But the next day he changed himself into a mouse, and crept into
an old stump with a lot of other mice, thinking that surely he was safe
this time,” continued Hadley. “The sisters came as before, saw the
mice and killed all but one, which ran away pursued by the youngest
sister. Just as she raised her silver wand to strike it, the mouse van¬
ished, and Waupee, in his right form, seized her in his arms. The
others escaped in the basket, but he took her to his home, where he won
her for his wife.”
VANISHED INTO THE SKY.
“ Didn’t she want to go back with her sisters ? ” demanded Ray.
“Perhaps so, but they were very happy, and after a little a son
came to them, having his father’s strength and cunning and the beauty
of his star-mother. But the star-mother soon began to long to see her
home in the skies, and secretly she made a willow basket, collected such
earthly things as she thought would please her father, aud, with her
little son, went to the charmed ring and entered the basket, singing the
magical song softly. Low as the song was, Waupee heard it away in
the forest, and came to see the distant speck in the blue sky before it
“Was she satisfied then? ” asked Roy.
“Yes, in her old home the star-mother forgot her earth-husband,
but the son could not forget him, and at last the grandfather told her to
go back to earth and ask him to come and live with them, and to bring
with him one of each kind of beast or bird that he had killed in hunting.
Poor, lonely Waupee knew his wife’s voice when he heard that magic
song, and rushed to greet her.”
THE COMING OF THE INDIAN.
“Was lie glad to go?” cried Will.
“ He was "both pleased and sorrowful when he heard her errand, but
he began to prepare to obey the summons at once. He bade farewell to
all the sports and friends of his youth and manhood; then holding the
hands of his wife and son, he stepped into the magic car with them and
ascended to the star.”
“Then what happened to him ? ” asked Teddy.
“The star-chief had assembled all of the star-people to a feast of
welcome, and when it was over, he told them that they could remain
where they were or they could each choose one of the earthly things,
which his earth-son had brought, for his own. They all took the gifts
and were changed into beasts and birds. Waupee, his wife and son,
choose a white hawk’s feather and were changed to white hawks. You
may still see their kind on earth, birds with the brightness of the stars
in their keen eyes, and all the freedom of the star-world in their wings.
Thus was the earth stocked with birds which spend a part of their time
amid its forests and the rest in the heaven above it.”
“ Bedtime,” called the guide. “You can dream of Indians all you
want to, but don’t give the warwhoop.”
“I’ll give it now,” flashed Teddy. “This is what the Sioux yell
when they go into battle—‘ Hi 1 Yip-yip-yip-yip-yip-hi-yah!’ ”
“ Little Light Moccasin swings in her basket,
Woven of willow and sinew of deer,
Rocked by the breezes and nursed by the pine tree,
Wonderful things are to see and to hear.
All of the treasures of summer-time canyons,
These are the playmates the little maid knows,—
Berry time, blossom time, bird calls and butterflies,
Columbine trumpets and sweet brier rose.”
44 A NOTHER surprise, Uncle Jack?” asked Ernest, as Uncle Jack
carefully laid aside a large box wkicb Mr. Brown’s man brought
in on his next trip.
“Yes,” Uncle Jack had answered in a non-committal tone, which
prevented all further questioning.
But when they returned from a sunset hour of fishing that night
they found a fife, a tambourine, two drums and two cornets, the box
serving as a stand beneath the book-shelves, with a good variety of music
upon it, includiding Alice C. Fletcher’s little book of “ Indian Song and
Story.” Uncle Jack smiled at their pleased surprise.
“ I have wondered that you did not bring your instruments along and
keep up your practice, and so I sent for them,” he said. “ I thought that
we might need a band to serenade the screech-owls with. But lessons
first, if you please, then you may try the music.”
“But go slow on them Injun songs,” laughed the guide, with twink¬
ling eyes. “These woods may be full of Injuns, and you’d call ’em into
camp. I guided with one all one season up to the head waters, and
Newel Bear spends most all of his time in the Maine woods, if he is over
a hundred years old.”
“ Honest ? Will Indians come here ? ” Ernest asked, with wide eyes.
“ I wouldn’t be surprised to see ’em any time and you needn’t,’’
responded the guide, with a solemn shake of the head.
“ All ready—begin!” called Uncle Jack, with a rap on the box-table
that made the tambourines dance. “We will go on with the charactei
and customs of the Indian. Mrs. Stowe’s Topsy simply ‘ growed,’—
so did the American Indian. There were no bedtime stories, nothing but
war and bloodshed, feasting and famine. Indian babies are still lashed
to a board by some of the tribes,
until they are about two years old,
being taken off a few moments once
a day. When the mother is busy
this queer cradle is hung upon a
tree or against the side of the wig¬
wam- The girls learn to drudge as
soon as they can, and when they can
lift a five pound weight they can
bring wood and water. A little In¬
dian girl’s life is about as hard as a
squaw’s, still they play with rude
dolls and make mud pies.”
“ What did the boys do ? ” asked
“They did not neglect their
duties for play. An Indian boy
observed his first fast when he was
but seven years old. He went alone
to some high point, smeared all over
APACHE SQUAW and cradle. with white clay, and fasted while he
called constantly upon his manitou to make him a great warrior. These
fasts grew longer as the boy grew older until when he was sixteen years
old, he underwent a feast of five days, when, tired and hungry, he sank to
sleep, the bird, beast or reptile of which he dreamed was accepted as his
4 medicine ’ or life protector.”
“That makes me think—I will tell yon how the first robin came
into the world! ” cried Ray eagerly. “ There was once an old, old man.
who had one son, whom he wanted to excel all others in the world. This
son arrived at the age to endure the long fast, and his father decided
that it should be a long one, longer than the others were able to endure,
so that Iadilla would surely be the greatest of them all. So he promised him
his blessing and all the good things of earth if he would hold out until
the evening of the twelfth day.”
“ Why, he wanted to kill the boy ! ” ejaculated Will.
“ Oh, no ; he wanted him to be a great warrior, and the longer he
eould stand it, the greater he would be. The father went to the door of
the lodge every morning to see how he was getting on and to encourage
him to persevere. The boy wanted to give up at the end of the ninth
day, but the old man said: ‘You have only three days longer. Shall
not your old father live to see you a star among chieftains and the
beloved of battle ? ’ So the boy endured the keen pangs of hunger until
the eleventh day, when he repeated the request to be allowed to leave.
‘What! Will you bring shame upon your father when his sun is falling
in the west ? ’ asked the old man reproachfully. ‘ I will not shame you,
my father,’ answered Iadilla gently ; and then he lay very still.”
“ And was dead!” exclaimed Roy.
CHANGED TO A RED-BREASTED ROBIN.
“ I did not say so. His father made a feast ready and went to call
the boy when the twelve days were ended. As he reached the lodge he
heard him talking to himself, and peered through a crack to behold his
son, his breast painted a bright crimson, and these were the words which
he spake : ‘ My father has destroyed my fortune as a man. He has
urged me beyond my tender strength. He will be the loser. I shall be
forever happy in my new state, for I have been obedient to my parent.
My guardian spirit is a just one. Though not propitious to me in the
manner I desired, he has shown me pity in another way—he has given
me another shape, and now I must go.’ ‘ Oh, my son, my son, I pra}^
yon not to leave me ! ’ cried the father in despair ; but the boy changed
to a beautiful led-breasted robin, perched upon the highest pole in the
tent, and sang: 1 My father, regret not the change which yon behold.
I shall always be the friend of man, and keep near their dwellings. I
shall ever be happy and contented, and although I could not gratify
your wishes as a warrior, it will be my daily aim to make you amends for
it as a harbinger of peace and joy. I will cheer you by my songs. This
will be some compensation to you for the loss of the glory which you
expected. I am now free from the pain and care of human life, and my
pathway is in the bright, free air.’ Then, caroling one of the sweetest
of robin songs, he flew to the woods, leaving the old father pondering
sadly upon his words. And this was the origin of the robin red¬
LEARNING TO BE WARRIORS.
“ I shall think of it whenever I see a robin, whether it is an Indian
legend or not,” nodded Hadley. “ I suppose Indian boys learned to be
warriors as soon as they could.”
“ They began to be men when about twelve years old, and a band of
them would sometimes do considerable mischief. They would go off on
an excursion taking no food with them. They would eat when they found
game, and when they did not find any they went hungry until they
could. All times and places were alike to them as they learned to read
the signs of the forest, of the sky, of the stars, and in time became expert
trailers and hunters.”
“Did they have to do all of this before they could be warriors ? ”
“ Yes, then they passed the ordeal which would make them warriors
in truth. A general council was held to listen to the deeds done by each
one and to decide if they had earned the chance which they coveted.
Then they underwent torture by having incisions made in their flesh in
which stout ropes were fastened, the other end of the rope being tied to a
stake or tree. The quicker the boy could tear himself loose the quicker
his torture would be over.”
“I wouldn’t try very hard,” said Will, every nerve tingling with
COPYRIGHT 1P02. BY GEORGE WHARTON JAME8, USED BY PERMIS8KJIW
HAVASUPAI INDIAN BOY WfTH KATHAK
SEVEN LITTLE INDIANS BEFORE ENTERING THE SCHOOL AT HAMPTON, VA.
CHIEF P! AH
UTE T R : BE
CHIEF STANDING BUFFALO
THE SCALP DANCE
PHOTO BY GEORGE: WHARTON JAMES, USED 3Y PERMISSION
BASKET DANCE OF THE HOPI INDIANS AT ORAIBI, ARIZONA
PHOTO BY GEORGE WHARTON JAMES, USED BY
INDIAN GIRL BASKET MAKERS OF CALIFORNIA
DEATH OF A SIOUX CHIEF IN AN ATTACK ON
UNITED STATES TROOPS
SABABA. CALIFORNIA BASKET MAKER
THE BUFFALO DANCE
CHIEF COLO ROW
THE BEAR DANCE
a But they do. An Indian boy will whoop and yell to make himself
and others believe that he is brave, and tug at the rope until the flesh
gives way and he is free to return to his home. There his wounds are
examined to see if he is freed fairly, in which case the wounds are
tenderly dressed, and he is carefully looked after.”
“ What is done if he cries baby ?” asked Ernest.
“•If he flinches at all he is sent back to the lodges to be brought up
LITTLE RAVEN’S SON—ARRAPAHOE TRIBE.
with women, and treated with contempt by those who have become
warriors. He can not marry or hold property. During the tortnre it
rests entirely with him. He can be released at any time that he asks
to be—if he is willing to accept the penalty and never become a brave.
Yet it is said that there are not more than half a dozen of these men in
the whole tribe of Southern Cheyennes, so great is their courage and
“ Were Indian children ever punished cruelly? ” asked Teddy.
“ A boy was seldom, if ever, punished, for it was not right to punish
one who might become a great warrior. When a hoy was large enough
he was sent out on the hunt, and had to help provide food for the family,
hut they never hunted for sport. An Indian never hunts for the sport
of putting poor, dumb animals to death. He takes what he needs for
food and stops when he has enough.”
“ Didn’t they have any games ? ” Roy inquired.
“ Certainly, and the most popular game was ball, played with from
ten to several hundred players. Women and girls also engaged in it.
They would fly kites made of fish bladders; play tag, hide-and-go-seek,
hunt the slipper, and other games that white boys never heard of.
White boys would do well to imitate them in one particular, I think. No
matter how badly a game went against them, they always accepted their
defeat with a good natnred laugh.”
“ The women did all the hard work, ” asserted Ray. “A hunter
would carry a deer for miles and throw it down in sight of his own home
for his squaw to fetch in. ”
DISGRACE FOR HUSBANDS TO WORK.
“ Still they were kind to their families and, if the women did do the
drudgery, they did it willingly, counting it a disgrace if their husbands
did any of it. An Indian once said to a white man :—‘Squaw love to eat
meat—no husband, no meat. Squaw do everything to please husband ;
he do to please squaw—all live happy. ’ ”
“Did the Indians givens Boston baked beans ?”asked Ernest incred¬
ulously. “ Teddy says so. ”
“ The Indians gave us beans, melons, pumpkins and squashes.
Squaws taught white women to bake the beans; to make hoe-cake ; also
pone and hominy, samp and succotash, and Indian children enjoyed
popped corn before a white child knew of it. The red man was not negli¬
gent about providing for the long winters before the white man came
here. He laid in his stores of jerked meat and harvested his maize.”
“ But I wish you would tell us how they hunted without guns,”
“They made snares ; drove sharp spikes into the path where the deer
traveled ; drove the game into the water with dogs ; and killed them with
bows and arrows. The bows were generally made of iron-wood or red
cedar, sometimes of well seasoned hickory, and the arrows were headed
with bone and shell before they had iron. The tomahawk seems to have
been a white man’s weapon, for the Indians nsed war clubs before he
“ They were quite ingenious that’s a fact,” Hadley admitted,
“ They had some arts which are ahead of civilized ones. The moc¬
casin, the bark ropes ard canoes, the sap tub, the corn mortar, and the
snowshoes. They had a very ingenious way of making fire without
matches, metals or chemicals. They turned ivory, made baskets, and
the Navajo blankets still command a high price. The Cherokees still
make their air guns and arrows ; the Choctaws and Seminoles make
buckskin balls and hickory rackets ; the Mokis and Zunis make beauti¬
ful polished stoneware. ”
CURIOUS KIND OF MONEY.
“ Tell us what wampum was. I have read that there was two kinds
of it, one kind being clear white and the other as black as jet, ” said Ray.
“ It was first used as ornaments, then it became a certain kind of
money, or at least it was greatly nsed in trade and barter. Belts of
wampum were nsed in all contracts and agreements, and in declaring
peace or war.”
“ What kind of houses did they live in ? asked Will.
“ No Indian family had a house of its own, but the different tribes
had very different houses. The California Indians had round, dome¬
shaped huts; the Sierra Indians had L-shaped ones ; the huts of South¬
ern California were shaped like wedges or cones ; the Ojibwas lived in
tents built of light poles and covered with bark ; The Dakota huts were
similar, but much larger, being large enough for several families ; the
Algonqnins had long, round roofed houses, from fifty to one hundred
feet long—a village under one roof ; the Mandans lived in timber houses;
the village Indians in terraced adobe or stone houses, sometimes two
hundred feet long. The single wigwam of to-day seems to be a modern
house, and the original Indians lived in tenements. The most of the
bands owned their stores in common, and feasted and starved together,
having one meal a day when they had any at all. ”
“ They make pretty baskets ; I saw some the last time I went to
Boston,” nodded Ray.
“You did not see the most beautiful ones,” replied Uncle Jack.
“The California Indians are the finest basket makers, although the
Aleuts make delicate work. The Mission Indians in Southern Cali¬
fornia are good basket makers, also the Monos, Shoshones and Paintis
BABY CRADLE OF SLIPPER FORM.
in the Sierra Nevadas. Dat-so-la-le, of the Washoe tribe makes baskets
valued from five hundred to one thousand dollars. The Hopis of
Arizo, make the sacred meal trays ; the Havasnpais make saucer-shaped
baskets and attractive water bottles; the Apaches make differently
colored and patterned baskets of many shapes and sizes; then come the
Pimas and Maricopas, with their faultlessly ornamented work; the
Chemehnevis and the Mohaves are not far behind ; the Skokomish have
a circle of dogs as a trade mark; then there are the fine baskets of the
Klikitats, the grass pouches of the Haidas of Alaska, and the remark¬
able work of the British Columbia Indians.”
“What a lot of kinds. I thought that a basket was a basket. I
did not think there was such a difference between them,” said Roy.
“Every tribe makes a different quality and different patterned
article, and each design has its own signification just as much as the
picture writing did. The baskets of the Poma Indians are the finest—they
run forty to sixty stitches to the inch, and in some they are so fine that
they can hardly be counted with a magnifying glass. The basin-shaped
sun basket was treasured the highest. It was covered with red feathers,
which were as smooth as when on the breast of the bird. These baskets are
now very rare and command a high price.”
“ What a lot of things we are learning.
Can you fellows remember it all?” asked
“I guess we’ll know more about the
Indians when we get through than we did
when we began—thanks to Uncle Jack,”
answered Ray with a grateful look at their
“Tell us one thing,” cried Ernest.
“ How did the Indians give deeds of their
lands if they could not even write their
names ? ”
“I know,” answered Teddy quickly.
“ In signing contracts they generally made
some rude representation of an object or
animal, as well as a mark—as a beaver, a ute pyramid cradle.
snake, a snow shoe, or something significant of themselves.”
“ Sequoyah, whose English name was George Guess, invented the
Cherokee alphabet in 1826. He was a full-blood Cherokee, living at
Vinita, where there is a monument to his memory,” said Hadley.
“ The Cherokee Advocate is the only paper printed in the Indian
language, and I saw that it was to be discontinued, as all of the younger
Indians are taught in English only. The paper has been printed since
1830 at the expense of the Cherokee Government,” added Ray,
“ It is too bad to let that paper go! ” declared Will earnestly. “The
Cherokee language will then soon be forgotten, and the Cherokees are the
only Indians in the United States who have a printed language. The rest
cannot understand the spoken languageof the other tribes sometimes.”
PEQUOT INDIANS IN COSTUME.
u You have not told all of that story,” declared Roy. “That alpha¬
bet was considered such a remarkable invention that Congress gave
Sequoyah a silver medal and a pension.”
“It is a wonder that man told his real name,” Ernest observed
thoughtfully. “ The Indians do not like to tell their names for fear
harm will come to them, and even have nicknames for their friends.
Pocahontas lives in history but the daughter of Powhatan was named
“ How did they reckon time?” asked Teddy.
“Years were counted by winters, months by moons, days by nights.
May was the month of flowers, June was the month of strawberries, and
July was the month of berries.”
THEIR SINGULAR NOTIONS.
“ They had piles of queer notions—queer to us,” said Ray. “Some
of the tribes never said a man was dead, they said—‘ Gitche ie nay gow
ge ait che gah,’ or something like that. It meant ‘ they have put the
sand on him.’ ”
u But they were not so easily fooled,” nodded Will. “ Once a white
man, to show them his power, foretold an eclipse—with the aid of an
almanac of course! The Indians all assembled to see if he told them
the truth—off came his scalp if he didn’t. They saw the dark spot
creep over the sun, and trembled, as only a bright rim was left of its
brightness. The beasts and the birds acted queerly, and, in desperation
they seized their gnns and began a furious fusilade at the horrible black
spot. It passed away quickly, and then they jeered at the white man
saying that, though he could bring the awful thing upon them, they
could drive it away easily.”
“ I saw that the Comanches were called The Serpents, because they
were so fierce and untamed, plundering white men, Mexicans and
Indians alike. They have also been called the Arabs and Tartars of the
United States. They are such expert and fearless riders that they can
ride a horse at full gallop towards the enemy showing no part of their
own bodies. Even the women are fearless riders, and can lasso ante¬
lopes and buffalo,” said Hadley.
“ When a chief wishes to organize a war party he adorns a pole with
feathers and a flag, and marches through the village chanting his war
song, and the young braves do not fail to follow him. No chief ever
orders his braves to go on the warpath, he always starts out and calls
for volunteers,” added Ray.
u Among some of the tribes the children belong to the mother’s
instead of the father’s family,” said Ernest. “ But Schoolcraft tells of
Bianshaw, a Chippewa chief, who, when his son was taken prisoner by a
hostile tribe, went to them fearlessly and said : ‘ My son has seen but
few winters; his feet have never trod the warpath ; but the hairs of my
head are white ; I have hung many scalps over the graves of my relatives
which I have taken from the heads of warriors ; kindle the fire about me
and send my son home to my lodge.’ The offer was accepted and the
brave old chief suffered the torture.”
STORY OF AN OLD CHIEF’S DAUGHTER.
“I could tell you the story of Nadowaqua, the daughter of an old
chief who was taken sick ten miles from their home. Of course, there
were numerous stops, but she carried him on her back the whole dis¬
tance,” added Teddy.
“They had great power of endurance,” observed Uncle Jack. “A
swift runner would go eighty miles a day. They could hear and see
better than a white man, and were quicker to trail a foe. As they went
along they left their sign writing, so that those who came after could
follow them. They possessed great courage, self-control and patience.
They were grave and dignified, courteous to each other, often kind and
forgiving, but thought sternness was a virtue that must not be over¬
“I can tell you a story to prove that,” Roy asserted. “The Iroquois
took a Seneca boy and put him to the torture to see if it would pay to
adopt him and make a warrior of him. First they held him, barefooted,
upon the coals of the council fire until his feet were blistered, then they
cut the blisters, filled them with sand, and made him run a gauntlet of
twenty yards between two rows of lads armed with thorn brier branches.”
“Did lie do it ? ” demanded Teddy and Will in a breath.
“He did not fall nor falter, he dashed through the line and into the
long house, where he fell upon the wild skin rug which served as a seat
for the chief. That was a decided omen of greatness—perhaps the
plucky little fellow knew it. Then they tied him to a stake and tor¬
tured him by fire and, last of all, they douched him into the cold spring
until he was nearly strangled. When these tests were ended he was
treated tenderly and adopted into the tribe, where he became a great
chief. That boy was but carrying out the teachings which he had had
from his earliest childhood.”
“I wouldn’t want to be adopted—I’d rather die,” breathed Ray.
NO FEAR OF DEATH.
“As a rule, the Indian has no fear of death, and they avenge their
wrongs in their own way and time,” continued Hadley. “One Indiau
killed another, and, by the red man’s law, the next of kin, a brother,
called on him to demand his life in payment. The man received his
visitor quietly, only asking a delay until the next morning. The brother
consented and went away, leaving him perfectly free. Probably a white
man would have run away and escaped, for the time. The Indian slept as
usual that night, helped to dig his own grave, and gave the signal to fire.”
“What a fool he was!” exclaimed Will.
“ I don’t know—he would have been branded as a coward if he hadn’t
done just so,” answered Ernest wisely.
“The Indian is very hospitable now, as well as he was in the olden
time, when Canassatego, a chief of the Six Nations, said: ‘ If a white
man enters one of our cabins, we will treat him as I do you; we dry him
if he is wet; we warm him if he is cold ; we give him meat and drink
that he may allay his hunger and thirst, and we spread soft furs for him
to rest and lie on. We demand nothing in return. But if I go into a
white man’s house and ask for victuals and drink, they say, “Where is
your money?” and if I have none, they cry out: ‘ Get out, you Indian
dog! ’ ” Ray asserted laughingly.
“ Yes,” continued Will. “When Captain Willard Glazier went on
the tonr of exploration which established Lake Glazier as the true
source of the Mississippi River, White Cloud, a Chippewa chief, after
expressing sorrow that the white man did not know geography better
said:—‘ Chenowagesic is a good hunter and a faithful guide ; he will
accompany you The Chippewas are your friends and will give you
shelter in their wigwams.’ Then Chenowagesic said:—‘ My brother?
the country which you are going to is my hunting ground. I have
hunted there many years and have planted corn on the shores of Lake
Itasca. My father, now an old man, remembers the first white chief who
came to look for the source of the Father of Waters. I will furnish the
maps which yon have called for and will guide yon onward.”’
BRAVE PAWNEE INDIAN.
“ Before we finish our lesson I want to tell you the story of a Pawnee,
brave, called Petalasharoo,” cried Teddy. “He was the son of a chief
and before he was twenty-one he had earned the title of the ( Bravest of
the Brave.’ A female captive, belonging to another tribe, was being
burned at the stake when he rushed to her, cut the cords which bound
her, and bore her to a place where two horses were in waiting. Placing
her on one he mounted the other and conducted her to a spot where she
could easily reach her friends and people. An ordinary warrior could
not have done this and return to his tribe, but his influence was so great
that no one ever questioned his right to do the deed of kindness, and the
Pawnees have not tortured their prisoners since. The young brave was
presented with a silver medal in 1821, by the young ladies of Miss
White’s boarding school in Washington.”
“ I would like to know how an Indian looked with his best dress on,”
said Ernest slowly.
u I can tell you that, or I will read what Mrs. Custer says in ‘ Boots
and Saddles,’ ” replied Hadley. “ They were gorgeous in full dress. Iron
Horse wore an elaborately beaded and painted buckskin shirt, with masses
of solid embroidery of porcupine quills. The sleeves and shoulders
were ornamented with a fringe of scalp locks * * * on his shoulders
was a sort of cape, trimmed with a fringe of snow}^ ermine. His leggings
and moccasins were a mass of bead-work. He wore a cap of otter without
a crown, for it is their custom to leave the top of the head uncovered
His hair was wound round and round with strips of otter that hung
down his back ; the scalp lock was also tightly wound.”
A CHIEF IN WAR COSTUME
“Where were his feathers?” interrupted Will.
%l Three eagle feathers, denoting the number of warriors which he
had killed, were so fastened to the lock that they stood upright. There
were several perforations in each ear, from which depended ear-rings.
He had armlets of burnished brass, and thrown around him was a beaded
blanket. The red clay pipe had a wooden stem inlaid with silver, and
was embellished with the breast feathers of brilliantly colored birds.
The tobacco bag, about two feet long, had not an inch which was not
decorated. The costume was simply superb. The next in rank was
dressed nearly as well.”
“ What were they going to do, to be decked out so ? ” asked Roy.
“ They took their places, by rank, around General Custer, and ‘The
pipe was filled and a match lighted by one of their number of inferior
grade, and handed to Iron Horse, who took a few leisurely whiffs. After
they had all smoked a little, the general included, the pipe was passed
back to the chief. It was then relighted, and he began again. It
seemed to me that it went back and forth an endless number of times-
No matter how pressing the emergency, every council begins in this
“Now we will have a little music and wait until another time to
begin about their feasts and festivals,” said Uncle Jack, with a motion of
“ And be easy,” called the guide, in a tone of mock entreaty. “ If
you can’t be easy, be as easy as you can.”
“ We make no promises and have none to break,” flashed Teddy.
“ Ye who love a nation’s legends,
Love the ballads of a people,
That, like voices from afar off,
Call on us to pause and listen—
Listen to this Indian legend.”
i EVERAL nations sometimes banded together to observe feasts
and festivals,” Uncle Jack began.
“Just like a World’s Fair!” exclaimed Teddy.
“Well—on a somewhat smaller scale. I think we will begin the
lesson with a singular annual religions ceremony which some of the
tribes had. I will tell it to you. A man was seen approaching upon the
appointed morning, whom they all hailed as Nu-mock-muck-a-nah, or
the first and only man. He slowly and gravely entered the village and
saluted them, telling them that he had just arrived from the west.”
“ How did he look,” asked Ernest?
“ He was dressed in white wolf skins, and his body was painted a
bright red color. His head dress was composed of the glistening, jetty
feathers of the raven, and he carried a great pipe in his hand. He
demanded a tribute at every house—a knife, an ax, or bows and arrows—
‘for,’ he said, ‘with these the great canoe was built.’ ”
“Noah’s ark!” breathed Hadley, in surprise.
“ These articles were placed in the medicine lodge, and after the
ceremonies were over they were thrown into the water, never to be used
again. At sunrise the next morning a number of young men followed
Nu-mock-muck-a-nah into the medicine lodge, where they underwent
such cruel tortures that some of them died under them, but the ones who
survived were braves forever after. Then the conductor of ceremonies
entered the lodge, painted a bright yellow, with a buffalo skin cap on
his head. The first man gave him the great pipe, and left for the west
again, becoming invisible until tbe next annual ceremony called for bis
“ And that was all ? ” inquired Ray.
“ No, indeed ; it was tbe beginning. During tbe next three days
fantastically dressed and painted forms went tbrougb numerous dances
in front of tbe medicine lodge. Curious songs were sung, and strange
ceremonies performed around an elevated mound of eartb, on top of
wbicb was a model of tbe great canoe. Tbe principal actors were eight
persons, variously painted and nearly naked.”
“Eight people went into tbe ark !” exclaimed Roy.
“ These eight people held wreaths of willow in their bands, for 1 the
twig wbicb tbe dove brought to tbe great canoe bad leaves upon it.’
On tbe third day tbe village was again thrown into great confusion
by a man, naked and painted black, except bis face, wbicb was red and
white, who ran from lodge to lodge, treating every one rudely, but con¬
stantly balked by tbe master of ceremonies, who thrust tbe sacred pipe
between him and bis victim continuallly. At last be was driven
out, and peace was restored. Tbe name of this man was 1 Tbe Evil
WOMEN HAVE THEIR OWN DANCES.
“ Do tbe women dance, too ? ” asked Will.
“ In some of tbe tribes, they are not allowed to, as in tbe general
tribe dancing; but they sometimes borrow tbe finery of tbe warriors and
have a dance of their own. Tbe Iroquois alone bad thirty-two distinct
dances and seven yearly feasts. These were : tbe maple, when tbe sap
began to run ; another, when tbe corn was planted ; plant-fruit festival,
when tbe strawberries were ripe ; the bush-fruit feast, when tbe whortle¬
berries ripened; tbe green-corn, when tbe corn was gathered ; Thanksgiv¬
ing, when tbe crops of tbe year were all stored away; and tbe New Year,
on tbe first of February. Mrs. Harriet Maxwell Converse was adopted
into tbe Seneca band of tbe Six Nations, nearly twenty years ago, under
the name of Ya-ie-wa-nob. Ernest, will you read us what she says of
tbe Strawberry Festival ? ”
u She was there and—soon after the people had all entered the Long
House—the priest began the ceremony with a prayer. ‘ In this prayer.
AN INDIAN FESTIVAL—WELCOMING VISITORS.
thanks were given for the first fruits of the plant—the strawberry—foi
the earth which had nurtured its root, for the air that nourished its
buds, for the rain and dews that refreshed its blossoms and for the sun
that ripened its fruit. Thanks were also given, for the privilege of this
festival, that the people could come together to praise the Great Spiiit *
also, to take part in social recreations and the feast.’ ”
“That wasn’t all of it!” cried Teddy.
“ Oh, no. There were many speeches after the prayer, and then the
Great Feather-Dance was called. Mrs. Converse says :—‘ This dance,
one of the most imposing dances of the Iroquois, is performed by a
selected band of costumed dancers, each member being distinguished for
powers of endurance, suppleness, and gracefulness of carriage. In all
its features, the Feather-Dance is wholly unlike the war-dance. All
the movements are of a gentle character, expressive of pleasure and
“ What next ? ” questioned Roy impatiently.
DIFFERENT IN STEP AND SONG.
“Then, the ‘Shuffling,’ ‘Shaking of the Rattle,’ and ‘Snake’ dances
were given, all different from each other in step and song, as they
were different from the first. Then came the feast; and after the feast,
various games were played until the ‘ feast sign,’ the round new moon,
arose in the sky.”
“A feast was given, when a boy was first successful in the chase;
and he was urged to go on the warpath, so that he might win the
coveted war-eagle feather for his hair, and get the chance to boast of his
deeds in the great war-dance,” said Ernest.
“ What was a war-dance ? ” asked Ray.
“ When two tribes were about to go to war, a leading chief would
paint his body jet black, from the crown of his head to the sole of his
foot, then hide in some cave or in the thick woods. There he fasted and
prayed to the Great Spirit. If he dreamed of a war-eagle, hovering near
him, he was happy, for that was a sign of triumph. Then, he would
joyfully return to his people, tell them that the Great Spirit was on
their side and incite them to war.”
“ What if a warrior of the other tribe had the same dream ? ” ques¬
u Probably they often did, and so each side was sure of tbe victory.
The chief would then invite all of the braves to a feast, he was no longer
painted black, but sat with them in the most fantastic war-paint. After
the feast the war-dance began. It was a weird scene, the blackness of
night lighted by the blazing pine torches and roaring fires. The crowd
sat in a circle around a painted post. One chief after another would
leap into the circle, sing of his own
and of his father’s brave deeds,
striking at the post as if it was an
enemy. At last all of the warriors
would be shouting, brandishing
their weapons, stabbing the air,
and making a scene worse than
Dante's Inferno. The whole night
would pass in this way and, when
daylight dawned, the braves would
file into the woods, where each one
took off his finery and gave it to the
women who followed them to bring
it back, and then, silently and
stealthily, they went to the attack.”
“ Before they set out on the
warpath they sometimes held
‘ Ghost Dances ’ for days, can you
tell us anything about those,
Hadley ? ” chief with head-dress.
“ The selected warriors must fast twenty-four hours, then, at sun¬
rise, they performed the rite of ‘ purification.’ That was done by enter¬
ing i a sweat lodge,’ such as a vapor bath was taken in. They had to
remain in the lodge an hour. Then they painted their faces dark blue
with a red cross on each cheek ; and the medicine man painted two light
blue crescents on the forehead, and gave them holy, bullet-proof shirts
of white muslin ! At noon the warriors formed a circle, joining hands,
and this was almost the only dance in which they joined hands. At a
signal every brave looked steadily to the ground and began to circle
around, singing, in a weird, mournful way, the words which would mean
‘Father, Father, we want to see you. Father, Father, we want buffalo.
Father, Father, we want our lands.’ After they continued this for an
hour or more the medicine men came out of the tepee. This was the
signal for them to break their circle, throw their heads back, look at the
sun and whirl around singly and madly. Soon they got dizzy and fell,
then they were considered fit to receive the Holy Spirit. It is really
the ‘ Holy Ghost Dance.’ ”
“ And after they returned with the spoils of war they had another,
called the Scalp Dance. What was that like, Ray ? ”
FRIGHTFUL GRIMACES AND YELLS,
“ The dance generally lasted fifteen nights, if the expedition was a
successful one. A number of the young women stood in the middle of
a circle, holding the scalps up in view, while the warriors danced around
them, brandishing their weapons and yelling in the most fearful man¬
ner. Each warrior tried to out-do his comrades in making horrible
faces, as if they were really in the midst of the battles of which they
sang between the yells. This dance was always in the night, with fires
blazing all around the circle.”
“The Stick Indians have queer, masked dances. The dancers
must be the most noted of their tribe, and wear curious wooden masks,
representing eagles, birds, which they claim as ancestors. The eyes
are made of red glass, and the great jaws can be opened and shut by
cunningly contrived strings. Now, Will, can yon tell ns of the Strong
Heart Dance of the Arickarees ? ”
“ The dancers wore no clothing except the cloth about the loins.
They wore bead and metal ornaments in their belts, and some of them
had the tail feathers of the wild turkey stuck in their girdles. They
were grotesquely painted, one leg and one arm being in a brilliant ver¬
milion or blue, while the other was the brightest green, and their faces
painted with all the colors of the rainbow—and a few more! Some of
them wore bear’s claws as necklaces. The drummers sat in a charmed
circle near the fire, in the center of the lodge, droning a low monotone as
they beat their drums. ”
INDIAN SCALP DANCE.
“What are you stopping for? Why don’t you tell all at once ? ”
demanded Teddy impatiently.
“Sometimes boys, aided by their mothers, would kill a wounded
enemy, and thus earn the right to engage in this dance with the warriors
wearing eagle feathers in their tiny scalp-locks. The dancers whirled
around for awhile, howling as they spun. When one wanted to speak
he made a sign and the dance music stopped, the rest all squatting around
him while he told of his courage and bravery. Sometimes a warrior from
another tribe would bound into the circle and tauntingly tell how many
of their people he had made to ‘bite the dust/ and he would be allowed
to go away in peace, as he could not be touched by the law of the dance.”
“ I should think that they would get him before he got back to his
own people,” said Roy.
“They did sometimes. Such events were not very common, for the
daring brave took his life in his hand and might be tracked and over¬
taken after he left the sacred spot. It was a strong heart, indeed, who
would attempt to taunt his enemies in that way. The unearthly music,
the weird gloom, and the barbaric sights lasted throughout the night,
the excitement increasing until a pandemonium reigned.”
CELEBRATING THE FIRST THUNDER.
“The Blackfeet. have a feast as soon as the first thunder is heard in
vhe spring, and prayers are offered for a large berry crop, for they say
thunder brings rain, and rain makes the berries grow large. Two great
kettles of cooked berries are prepared and each guest is given a large
bowlful. Before eating each one rubs a few of the berries into the ground,
saying: ‘ Take pity on us all Above People, and give us good.’ ”
“What else?” asked Hadley.
“ When they have finished eating the pipe is brought in for a smoke.
The medicine man takes it and, holding it high, says: ‘Listen, sun.
‘Listen, thunder. Listen, Old Man. All Above Animals, all Above
People, listen. Pity us. We fill the sacred pipe. Let us not starve.
Give us rain during the summer. Make the berries large and sweet.
Cover the bushes with them. Let us reach old age. Let our lives be
complete. Let us destroy our enemies. Help our young men in battle.
Man, woman, child, we all pray to you ; pity us and give ns good.’ Then
he danced and the warriors smoked, and the ashes were all put into a
hole and carefully covered with earth. If it thundered during the cere¬
mony it was a very good sign, for their prayers were heard and granted/’
il The Feast of the Dead is stranger than that, ” declared Roy.
“The fire was put out and skins hung over the door to keep out every ray
of light. The ashes were removed from the fireplace, which was sprinkled
with clean sand. A fire was built outside of the lodge. All things
were performed in strict silence because the spirits of the dead delighted
in silence. As soon as it was completely dark all were invited to come
inside of the tent of the man who was about to give a feast to his departed
friends. Each guest was given a spoon and a dish containing two ears
oi corn as soon as he entered the door, and told to be seated. The owner
of the lodge then made a speech, begging the spirits to come and eat
with them, and also to be kind and assist him in the chase. When the
speech was finished they ate their corn in silence, being very careful not
to break the cobs, a thing which would displease the spirits very much !
Then a fire was kindled on the hearth, the cobs were carefully buried
near it, and a dance began which lasted until daylight. This was gen¬
erally on the night of November first.
WHITE EAGLE’S SACRED FEATHERS.
“ What about the Calumet Dance, Ernest ? The Peace Calumet
was ornamented with the feathers of the white eagle, and the bearer of it
was safe anywhere, in war as well as in peace, for it was considered sacred
by all of the tribes. It was made of red stone, polished like marble with
a stem two feet long. ”
“That dance was performed only on important occasions. In winter
in a cabin, in summer out of doors. A large mat of rushes was spread in
the centre, upon which was placed the manitou of the one who gave the
dance. Nearby was the calumet, surrounded by the warrior’s weapons.
The best musicians sat in an outside circle; the participants, one at a
time, advanced, took a whiff from the pipe and blew the smoke into the
face of the manitou, then each one danced with the calumet, chanting a
song. When the song was ended the dancer challenged a brave to a
mock fight, the drums beating all the while. After this miniature duel
ended, always without bloodshed, the dancer told of his battles, the cap-
tives wliicli he Lad taken, and his brave deeds generally, and received a
present from the presiding chief. ”
“ And this was their song, ” laughed Teddy, springing to his feet
and whirling around to the time of his own voice, as he sang ;—‘ Nina-
hari, ninahari, ninahari—naniongo ! ’
INDIAN VILLAGE IN WINTER.
“ Better practice that before you try that again,” said Ernest, with a
touch of quiet sarcasm.
“ And there was the Buffalo Dance,” cried Hadley. “ Each dancer
wore a mask, consisting of the head and horns of a buffalo, while a strip
of the hide, including the tail, was allowed to hang down his back. The
dancers, armed for the chase, formed a circle, while the medicine men
beat the sacred drums vigorously. The circle revolved continually, each
one stamping and trying to imitate the sounds made by buffalo. This
dance must be continued day and nigbt until the scouts return and tell
of the discovery of a berd; sometimes weeks are spent in waiting, and,
when a dancer could stand it no longer, he was shot with a blunt arrow,
feigned death, and then withdrew from the circle. This was to give the
appearance of death as a reason for retiring and giving up his place. ”
“ There is about as much sense to that as there is to the Pipe Dance
of the Assinneboins ! ” exclaimed Will. “ A fire was built in front of the
village, around which the dancers collected, each seating himself upon a
robe. Then the medicine man, with a long pipe in his hand, seated
himself by the fire and smoked for a great while, muttering words, which
he alone knew the meaning of, at intervals, while the drums beat and
songs echoed through the forests from the outside circles. Soon one of
the dancers leaped up, whirled around alone for a time, shaking his
clenched fist before each one in turn, and at last jerking one of them to
his feet. Both danced and sang awhile then jerked up two more, and so
on until all of them were dancing and howling around the fire where
the medicine man coolly and serenely puffed at his pipe. The dance
generally lasted about an hour, then closed with the most horrible yells,
and barking in imitation of dogs.”
GUESTS HONORED WITH DOGS’ MEAT.
“ Indians valued dogs more than other people did and it was the
highest mark of friendship to use them at a feast, the greatest compli¬
ment that could be paid a guest. The Ojibways used them at their
medicine feasts, but they used deer, moose or bear at their war-dances.
The Dog Feast of the Sioux was different, can you tell ns what it was
like, Roy ? ”
“ About a hundred warriors seated themselves in a circle around a
large pole, and smoked a few moments in silence. They wore thebieech-
cloth and carried a long knife. A wild whoop was the signal for them to
spring up and begin a weird dance to the monotonous beating of a drum.
There was a howl and a yelp outside of the circle, then a squaw threw
the carcass of a dog into the circle. The animal was seized with a loud
yell, Ills liver taken out and hung on the pole, and the dance went on.
Each dancer, in turn, stepped up and cut off a bit of the liver. When
that liver was gone there was another yelp, and the body of another dog
was thrown in, and so on until ten or a dozen dogs had died, that the
hearts of the chosen warriors might be made strong. None but the
bravest and most distinguished were allowed to take part in this dance.”
“ Yon haven’t told us about the Medicine Dance, so I will tell you
now,” laughed Teddy. “ When
the Medicine Lodge is completed
a rudely carved image is sus¬
pended from the center, and
near the top of the lodge. Then
a large round space is roped off
for the dancers, and the selection
is announced by the Medicine
Man. One warrior is generally
selected from every hundred
persons, and there is an equal
number of guards. Each dancer
is clad in the breech-cloth, and
holds a small whistle in his
mouth, to the lower end of
which a tail feather of the
1 medicine bird ’ is fastened.
MEDICINE MAN IN FANTASTIC COSTUME. The dancers f orm a circle fao
ing the center, fix their gaze on the suspended image, blow continually
on the whistles, and begin the monotonous Indian dance, the whole line
moving slowly in a circle. Some of the younger ones leap into the air
at intervals, but the older ones reserve theiv strength, for it is a dance of
“ How is that ? ” asked Ernest.
“ Because it is. The will of th<& gods is to be known by the effect of
the ceremony on the dancers. Until the Master of Ceremonies is satis-
fled, they must continue the round without sleep, food or drink. The
friends watch every movement and endeavor to keep up the spirits of the
flagging. When a dancer reels and falls the women rush about and
shriek, the body is dragged out of the circle, laid upon its back, and the
high priest paints various symbols on the face and person, then buckets
of water are thrown over it.”
“ I suppose that brings the warrior to his senses again !” cried Will.
“ Generally, and then the women set up a howl of delight. The
dancer may then be excused or told to enter the ring again, just as the
high priest feels about it. If the dancer can promise enough ponies he
is excused. The dance continues until the
dancers have all fallen, once at least. If
there has been no death, good 1 medicine’
is announced, the dance stops and the lodge
is taken down. A council is called and the
program for the year is usually war. But
sometimes one or more dancers do not
revive. Then tjie camp becomes a perfect
pandemonium with the howls of men and
the wailing of women. The dance is
broken up, horses are killed for the use of
the dead in the happy hunting ground, their widows inflict ghastlj
wounds on themselves, and the whole camp is in mourning.”
“ And they make the warriors go all over it again, I suppose !”
u No warrior is ever required to take the Medicine Dance more than
once. Some of them have been known to dance for three days and nights
without intermission or nourishment.”
u The Fleeka, or Arrow Dance of the Pueblos, is the best,” declared
Ernest. “ One of the braves is led up in front of his friends, who are
drawn up in two ranks. He is placed upon one knee, his bow and
arrow in hand, while the Malinchi, a richly dressed young girl, begins
the dance. A skin of the silvery gray fox hangs from her right wrist
and the ends of lier embroidered scarf are fringed with bells which jingle
at every movement. At first she dances along the line in front, her
steady movements showing that she is describing the warpath. Slowly
and steadily she pursues ; suddenly her step quickens ; she sights the
enemy! The brave follows her with his eye and by a motion of his head
implies that she is right. She dances faster and faster; suddenly she
snatches an arrow from the brave, and then shows by her frantic gestures
that the fight has begun in earnest. She points with the arrow, shows
how it wings its course, how the scalps are taken, and how victory comes
to her tribe. She returns the arrow and the dance is ended. Firearms
are discharged and others come forward, and thus the dance is kept up
SINGULAR MODE OF GETTING HORSES.
“ Pho, the way that the Comanches get horses when they need them
is better than that !’ 7 Hadley exclaimed. “When they are about to take
the warpath, and find that they are in need of horses, they send a runner
to a friendly tribe saying that, on a certain day, a certain number of
their braves will visit them to 1 smoke ’ horses. At the appointed time
they appear, clad in a full coat of war paint. They enter the village in
silence and seat themselves in a circle, the people forming another larger
circle around them.”
“ Then what ? ” demanded Teddy.
“Gravely taking their pipes, they begin to smoke, looking neither
to the right nor to the left. Soon an equal number of mounted warriors
come in single file, and, as they gallop around the circle of visitors,
armed with long, stinging whips, each one stoops a little from his horse’s
back and, with all his strength, strikes the one whom he selects. This
is continued until the men’s shoulders are covered with blood, when the
leader springs from his horse, places the bridle in the hand of the man
that he whipped, and says : ‘You are a beggar, I present you with a horse,
but you will always carry my mark upon your back.’ The rest follow
his example, and the Comanches have won their steeds. The test is to
smoke in unconscious silence, and endure every blow without flinching.”
‘‘Ernest and I have got something that is the strangest, but yon will
have to read it for yourselves. Here is the Lord’s prayer in the Warn*
CHIEF PACER—APACHE TRIBE.
panoag language,” cried Will. “Read mine first.” And this is what
Uncle Jack managed to read to them : 11 Noo-shnn Kes-uk-qut, qut-tian-
at-am-unch koo-we-su-onk, kuk-ket-as-soo-tam-oonk pey-an-moo-ntch kut-
te-nan-tam-oo-onk ne nai, ne-ya-ne ka-suk-qut kah oh-ke-it. As-sa-ma-b
in-ne-an ko-ko-ke-suk-o-da-e nut-as-e-suk-ok-ke pe-tuk-qun-neg. Kak ah«
quo-an-tam-a-i-in-ne an num-match-e-se-ong-an-on-ash, ne-wutch-e ne-na-
wun wonk nut-ak-quo-an-tam-au-o-un-non-og nish-noh, pasuk noo-na-
mon-tuk-quoh-who-nan, kak akque sag-kom-pa-gin-ne-an en qutch-e-het-
tu-ong-a-nit, qut, pok-qua-wus-sin-ne-an wutck match-i-tut.”
“That was from Elliot’s Indian Bible,” nodded Will in a satisfied
tone. “The other is in the Mohegan language. Read that too, Uncle
Jack.” And Uncle Jack took a long breath, and began: “Nogh-nuh,
ne spummuck oi-e-on, tangk mau-wek wnek wtu-ko-ae-auk ne-an-ne an-
nu-woi-e-on. Taugk ne aun-chu-wut-am-mun wa-wek-tn-seek ma-wek
nok pnin-mek. Ne ae-noi-kit-teeh mau-wek aw-an-neek nok kkey oie-
ckeek, ne aun-cku-wut-am-mun, ne an-noi-hit-teet neek spum-muk oie-
ckeek. Men-e-nau-nnk noo-nook wnh-kam-auk tqnogk nnk uh-hug-u-
tam-auk ngum-mau-wek. Ohq-u-ut-a-mou-we-nau-nuh au-nek mu-ma-
ckoi-e-an-kek he annek ohq-u-ut-a-mon-woi-e-auk num-pek neek mu-ma-
cken-an-nek-o-quau-keet. Ckeen kqu-nk-quan-ckek-si-u-kek an-nek-e-
kenan-nuk. Pan-nee-wek kton-we-nau-nnh, neen maum-tek-keh ke-ak
ng-wek-chek kwi-ou-wau-weh mau-wek nok pnm-mek; kt-an-woi; es-
tak aw-aun w-tin-noi-yn-wnn ne au-noi-e-you ; kan-wee-wek ne kt-in-
“ Are you not glad to get it done, Uncle Jack ? ” asked Ernest, with
a breath of relief. “Will and I thought that yon would like to see
those things, but—how can they be correct if the Ckerokees are the only
ones who have a written language ? ”
“The one who wrote them gave the words the sounds as near as he
could, of course,” replied Ray. “But see our guide is fast asleep on the
bench out there,” and he pointed through the open door.
“I’ll wake him—beat the drum, somebody !” and Teddy sprang out
into the moonlight with a war-whoop, and began a frantic dance around
the guide who was asleep no longer.
“I’ll—yon young Injun—yon need killing!” the bewildered man
cried, with a vain clutch at Teddy’s whirling figure. “ I’ll die if I have
to listen to all of these yarns, and have ’em acted out to boot!”
u O’er the water, floating, flying,
Something in the hazy distance,
Something in the mists of morning,
Loomed and lifted from the water,
Now seemed floating, now seemed flying,
Coming nearer, nearer, nearer.
--a birch canoe with paddles,
Rising, sinking in the water ;
And within it came a people
From the farthest realms of morning.”
I 7E are going to give you a concert
V V to-night,” Ernest announced, as
they seated themselves for the
next study hour.
“I have no objection to that after your
study hour is over,” smiled Uncle Jack. “ I
think that we shall all enjoy a little music.”
“ I shall be obliged to leave you on pressing
business,” said the guide grimly.
“It is too bad you do not like music
better,” Teddy observed in a sarcastic tone.
u I do, youngster,” was the calm reply. “ 3
do like music, but ——”
:t If you don’t like ours you can better it,” flashed Will, but the
guide had disappeared in the forest.
“ Attention, young men. Can you tell me how the Norsemen used
the natives, and how they were used by them? ” asked Uncle Jack.
“ They used the Indians well enough at the first, and they often via>
tted them to exchange furs for articles which they had brought from ice
land, tilings which they had never seen before,’ * answered Hadley
“But that did not last long!” cried Ray. “It was in the spring of
1002 that Thorwald sailed around the point of land which he called Keel
Cape. The Danish Society thought that the place was what is now Cape
Cod, the general outline of which resembles the keel to a ship. The
vessel was shipwrecked there but, after repairing it, he sailed into a beau¬
tiful bay and was so well pleased with the land which he saw that
he decided to stay there for awhile.”
“ What has all that to do with the Indians ? ” asked Will impatiently.
“A great deal, as you will soon see. The Norsemen soon came
upon three canoes filled with Indians, upon whom they fired and killed
all but one. This one got away and told his friends what the white
strangers had done to his comrades.”
FIRST BATTLE WITH THE INDIANS.
“And of course they all rallied to avenge the deed,” nodded Roy.
M I should say that they would and did, and who can blame them ?
Thorwald was the only one who was wounded. He called his men
around him, asked if any of them were harmed, and said : 1 1 have
received a wound which I feel will be mortal. I advise you to prepare
immediately for your return; but ye shall first carry my body to the
promontory which I have thought so beautiful, and where I had thought
to reside. There bury me.’ He did die, and they buried him there, and
that was the first battle with the Indians in America so far as I could
find out,” ejaculated Ernest.
“What can you tell us about his wife, the good and wis^ Gudrida,
“ She came back wdth Thorfinn, her second husband, and t he Indians
were very friendly at first, often visiting them to trade, and bringing
them supplies of all kinds which they had. But after that thay became
so hostile that the settlement was abandoned, and no attempt was mad^
by the Norsemen to establish another,” continued Ernest.
11 What more can you tell us of the Indians in the time of the adven¬
turous Northmen, Hadley?”
u It was in the year 1026 that Gudleif started for Dublin, in Ireland,
but his vessel was caught in a storm and driven to the American coast,
where the crew were taken by the natives and carried into the interior.
They were greatly surprised to find there an old chief who addressed
them in their own language. He would not tell his name, nor how he
came to be there, but they thought that they knew who he was. That
is the first mention that I saw of a white man becoming chief among the
“ It was quite a common thing later,” returned Roy. “But who was
he ? Do you know, Teddy ? ”
“ He sent a gold ring to Thurida, the sister of Snorre Gode, and a
sword to her son, and the men were sure that he was Biorne the Bard,
who had been her lover, and had left Iceland in 998,” replied Teddy„
“Of course they didn’t know that this was so, but they thought it.”
ADVENTURERS SEARCHING FOR GOLD.
“ A great many years passed before explorers saw the shores of
America again, or if any did, no record was kept of the voyage. More¬
over there has always been various opinions as to who should rightfully
have the honor of discovering America the next time. So we will begin
with Columbus. How did he use the owners of the land which he found?”
asked Uncle Jack.
“ He found the island inhabited by a humane and hospitable people,
and he took some of them away with him to show what kind of a race
lived in the land which he had discovered—I don’t know whether they
wanted to go with him or not. The simple Indians thought that the
white men who came in the 1 canoes with wings ’ were gods from Cheba-
kunah, the land of souls. They were frightened when they fired their
guns, and prostrated themselves before them at eve^ movement,” Ray
“ He saw many of these natives running along the shore and watch
LANDING OF COLUMBUS ON THE ISLAND OF SAN SALVADOR,
Ing the white strangers in utter astonishment and wonder,” continued
Will. “ He took some of the fruits and flowers of the new world, as well
as seven of the natives^ and sailed for home. But first he made a small
fort in Hayti, or^ Hispaniola, as they called that island, because of its
fancied resemblance to the Spain which they had left. ”
“ This fort was called La Navidad, and Columbus left men to garrison
it, with commands to use the Indians fairU. Can you tell me what
happened to that fort, Roy ? ” inquired Uncle Jack.
u Although the men whom he left promised him that they would be
good to the natives, they were not. Almost before the Nina was out of
sight they broke every promise thus made. They stole the gold orna¬
ments which the women wore, and each man took two or three of them
as his wives. Then they searched the island over for the treasures—
which they did not find. They made the Indians do all of their work,
and they did not pay them anything for it either.”
“ What was the result of this treachery, Ernest ? ”
u Why, the colony was destroyed, of course; didn’t it serve them
right? The natives did it in revenge, just as the Indians of America
have kept doing ever since. But Columbus planted another settle¬
ment when he came again, and so the colonization of that island
“ What sort of men were these early discoverers, Teddy?”
“ They were rude, fearless, and ambitious—adventurers in search of
gold and treasure, who considered that might made right in all things.
They regarded the natives as beasts almost, instead of thinking of them
as human beings like themselves, and did not hesitate to take from them
whatever they pleased, even their homes, their liberty and their lives.”
“ Yes, they almost always went at them with swords and guns, even
when there was no need for it,” declared Hadley. “ When they spared
their lives it was to take them away from their homes and sell them as
slaves in a distant land.”
54 But all of them were not like tkat ; there were some good o aes
among the early discoverers of this new land,” protested Teddy.
u We are speaking of the majority, my boy, and that was the begin¬
ning of the white man’s reign in America, when men, calling themselves
Christians, made a desolate land of misery and woe, for many, many
cruel years, of the beautiful country which was a pagan Eden when they
found it,” said Uncle Jack sadly. 44 How did the Indians take the com¬
ing of these strangers ? Can you tell us what was done when they first
came, Ray ? ”
CONSTERNATION AMONG THE NATIVES,
44 There was astonishment and confusion. Runners carried the
incredible news along the narrow Indian trails which led from the coast
to the interior. The strange tale was whispered from lodge to lodge, and
gravely commented on in the councils. Alas, the simple red men little
dreamed that the coming of the more powerful white man marked the
twilight of their own supremacy in the broad land of America.”
44 1 question that; it isn’t original ! ” cried Teddy. 44 We must teb
everything in our own words, mustn’t we, Uncle Jack ?”
44 We will make that a rule if we haven’t before,” answered Uncle
Jack. 44 You will remember it better if you tell it in your own words, as
you have understood it. You may go on Teddy.”
44 When Columbus made his last voyage his men were more cruel
and unjust to the natives than ever before, and the Indians refused to
give them any supplies. They would have starved if Columbus hadn’t
remembered how very superstitious the Indians were. He knew that an
eclipse of the sun was nearly due, and threatened that he would cause
the great and glorious sun to lose its light. When the black shadow
began to creep over its bright surface the poor Indians were so fright¬
ened that they were willing to do whatever he wanted.”
44 Hadn’t they ever seen an eclipse ? ” demanded Will.
41 You must ask some one else, history does not say a word about
that! Perhaps it would spoil a good story to study into it too closely.
Now tell us how the Indians met the new comers, Roy ?”
“ They met them cordially, and offered
them the best that they had to offer, but they
soon learned the lesson of treachery and dis¬
trust. The red men of this continent have
been largely what their white brothers have
made them, and many of the cruelties which
they have shown have been learned from
¥ them. You cannot for-
M get that the Spaniards
| burned Hatuey and the
p Inca, and were the
f means of Montezuma’s
NATIVES ASTONISHED BY ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. 'death.”
“No, we cannot forget that,” answered Hadley earnestly.
“ Now we will hear about the Indian slavery which existed in this
free land of ours before Negro slavery did. Ernest, you may begin with
some historical instance of kidnapping Indians to sell as slaves ” said
“ The different tribes were widely scattered and often at war with
each other, but they soon learned the lesson of ‘ an eye for an eye ’ too
well for the white man’s comfort. All of the earliest voyagers carried
away natives as curiosities, or to sell for slaves. Caspar Cortereal, in
1501, enticed fifty-seven of them aboard his ship and sailed away with
them. He was killed while trying to take more at another place, and I
don’t care if he was. This was at Labrador, and the name of that coun¬
try is to commemorate the cruel deed, for it is called Terra de Labrador,
or the Land of Laborers.”
BEGINNING OF THE SLAVE TRADE.
“ Go on, Teddy.”
u Columbus began the slave trade. The most truthful natives
became treacherous and suspicious. The story was much the same
everywhere in the New World, where the white man made a settlement.
In 1494 Columbus, while cruising in the West Indies, sent twelve ship¬
loads of Indian captives to Spain as slaves. Even De Soto wrote about
the ‘ sport of killing Indians,’ and I think much less of this greatly
admired adventurer than I do of Hirihigua, the hated Seminole, who
fought so valiantly for the homes of his people.”
“ Drake tells a pretty good story of a white man who, meeting an
Indian saluted him as 1 brother.’ ‘ Ugh, how we be brothers ? ’ asked
the Indian. 1 Oh, by way of old Adam, I suppose,’ was the laughing
answer. The red man did not answer for some minutes, and then he
said very gravely : ‘Ugh, me tank Him Great Spirit we be no nearer
brothers.’ I call that pretty good for an answer,” laughed Ernest.
“I don’t wonder that he wanted no nearer relationship, and I would
not have admitted that much,” said Teddy thoughtfully.
“What can you say of John Verrazzani, an Italian explorer, Ray?”
“ He reached America and was the first white man to land on the
shore of North Carolina. The astonished natives received him with
fearless hospitality. These Indians were dressed in the skins of animals,
and wore necklaces of coral with feather ornaments.”
“ One of his crew was sent on shore with presents, hut he was so
frightened when he saw the Indians waiting for him that he turned
about and tried to swim back to the ship. He was nearly drowned when
the natives rescued him, but they dried his clothes, warmed him, and
then retired to a distance until a boat from the ship came to take him
away,” added Hadley.
“Yes, and to pay for this kindness to one of their number the
visitors took a child away from its mother, and tried to capture a young
woman 1 of tall stature and very beautiful/ I guess the Indians wished
that they had let him drown ! ” exclaimed Teddy indignantly.
ON THE NEW ENGLAND COAST.
“ Did they land at any other point in America, Will?”
“ Oh, yes. They entered the harbors of New York and Newport,
then skirted New England to Nova Scotia, and perhaps they went
farther north. There they found that the natives were not friendly,
because, as yon remember, Cortereal had been kidnapping along that
coast, and they thought that all white men were alike, and would not
trust any of them.”
“ And they were about right! ” Ray declared indignantly. “ Others
had been kidnapping there. Sebastian Cabot made Henry VII a present
of three natives from Newfoundland before that. And if you hunt yon;
histories you will find more accounts of this business.”
“Have you anything further to tell us, Ernest?”
“Vasquez de Ay lion sent two ships from San Domingo to the
Bahamas for Indians to be sold as slaves. The native population of the
West Indies had died out so rapidly under the cruel rule of their con¬
querors that it was necessary to find laborers elsewhere to work the
plantations and mines. So Vasquez formed a company, fitted out two
snips, and started on a kidnapping expedition.”
u They went to the Bahamas first, and then to South Carolina,”
continued Roy. “ And they named the country where they landed
Chicora. The Indians had not learned to be afraid of their white
brothers, and, although they were rather timid at first, they soon gained
confidence in the visitors who gave them such wonderful presents.”
“ What did Vasquez do then, Ernest ? ”
w He invited them to visit the ship and a great many of them came.
When he thought that he had all that his vessels would carry, he
hoisted the sails and carried them away from their homes and native
land to slave for cruel strangers. But he did not gain as much by the
deed as he hoped to do. One of his ships went down in a violent storm
with all on board of her, and the most of the remaining captives died o /
FAILED TO CONQUER
s< Did he ever return, Teddy ? ”
“Yes. Charles V appointed him governor of Chicora, and he
returned to conquer the country. He spent all of his fortune in the
enterprise, and failed. He found that the natives were not likely to
forget his former treachery, and nearly all of his men were killed. He
died of grief and mortification almost as soon as he reached home.”
“ Will, what have you to tell us ? ” asked Uncle Jack, in the pause
u Captain Weymouth kidnapped five natives, taking also their boat
bows and arrows, and similar outrages were perpetrated all along the
coast. Instead of making heroes of these early adventurers, I would
tell the stories of Tuscaloosa, the Chickasaw chief; of Hirihigua, the
Seminole; of Capafi, the Creek, and of the young chieftainess of Cofita-
chiqui. They suffered in defence of their homes, which the newcomers
were trying to take from them.”
“ Go on, Roy.”
When Ponce de Leon went in search of the fabulous Fountain oi
Youth, in 1513, he was wounded by the Indians of Florida, and returned
to Cuba to die, finding a grave instead of perpetual youth. By this
time the Indians of the coast had learned to try and keep the strangers
from landing—that is, those of them who had had any experience with
the white men.”
“ It was in April, 1528, that Pamphilo de Narvaez cast anchor in
Tampa Bay, and a week later he took possession of all Florida in the
name of Spain. He was very wealthy, but put his whole fortune into
the enterprise of conquering the
country between the Atlantic and the
River of Palms. Many younger
sons of noble families were with
him. He found the natives very
hostile, but he would not turn back.
He stole corn from the Indians and
killed the horses for food. Only a
handful of his men were ever heard
from again after they started for the
interior in search of gold, and four
of them, at least, were captives among
the Indians for more than six years/' 7
“Who visited Florida in 1539,
Ferdinand de soto. <c It was De Soto, and one of the
bloodiest battles ever fought in America between the red and white
men was the one fought by De Soto and the Cherokee Confederation, at
the Indian village of Mavilla, on the Alabama river.”
“How was this expedition received by the Indians, Ray? ”
“Well, I guess they were not very welcome. The Indian guides
continually led the Spaniards out of the way, and then the Spaniards
had them torn to pieces by the blood-hounds. Yet this dreadful punish'
rnent did not keep the next guide from doing the same thing and brav«
mg the same fate. In 1540 De Soto had one of these guides burned
“ I don’t blame the Indians one bit for being treacherous with him,
for they couldn’t get even by fair means,” declared Will emphatically.
“ The Spaniards cut off their hands for every little fault, burned them
alive, gave them to the hounds, chained them in pairs by the neck, and
forced them to carry their baggage.”
“What can you tell us about the town of Mavilla, Rcy?”
u I read that the town consisted of eighty houses, each one large
enough to hold a thousand men, but I don’t know whether to believe it
or not. These houses were surrounded by a high wall made of
great tree trunks set very close together and interwoven with stont
“ What next, Ernest ? ”
“ Why, the Spaniards attacked the town, and there was a desperate
battle, in which they won the victory, but the place was burned and the
white men lost the most of their baggage.”
A WINTER OF GREAT PRIVATION.
u I suppose they gave up the enterprise, then, Hadley ? ”
“ Oh, no. They spent the winter in a deserted Chickasaw village,
living on the corn which had been left standing in the fields. We must
give those early explorers credit for courage and perseverance, if they
“ What happened to them in the spring of 1541, Teddy ? ”
u De Soto ordered a Chickasaw chief to furnish him with two
hundred men to carry his baggage, and the chief refused. That night
the Indians attacked them, the village was burned, and they lost all thaC
had been saved before. Still they pushed on until they reached the
Mississippi, where the natives treated them kindly. But De Soto died
in June, 1542, and was buried in the river at midnight, in order to
conceal his death from the Indians, who thought that he was im¬
“ What became of bis followers, Hadley ? ”
“ They set out across the country to Mexico, although he had
advised them to continue down the river ; but they aroused the whole
country by their barbarous treatment of the natives, and at last they
were driven back, and were obliged to make boats and go down the river
SPANIARDS DESCENDING THE MISSISSIPPI AFTER THE DEATH OF DE SOTO.
after all. Their progress was very slow, for they were harassed by the
Indians on the shores, and they had a continual fight every mile of the
“ It was no wonder that the Indians had suspicions of the godliness
of the Spaniards,” declared Ray. u When Cortez went to Mexico it had
been foretold that an invincible people would come to avenge the angry
gods in a terrible way, as the gods were irritated at the many crimes oi
the inhabitants of the land. So when the Spaniards came the natives
accepted and reverenced them at first. They saw them on horseback
and thought that man and horse were one wonderful creature. They had
very vivid imaginations.”
“ But some of them decided to prove whether they were really gods or
not,” Teddy interrupted. “They were sent to bring a young Spaniard
to a cacique’s house on a visit, and they pushed him overboard while
they were rowing him across the river, and resolutely held him under
the water until he was dead. Then they carried him to the shore very
gently, and watched the body three days and nights to see if life
would return to it. When they discovered signs of death instead of
returning life, they knew that the Spaniards were human like themselves,
and ceased to fear them so much.”
THOUGHT GUNPOWDER WAS MADE FOR NEGROES.
“ I can tell a story, too,” cried Will eagerly. “The Americans of
South America, when they saw Negroes with the Spaniards, thought
that gunpowder was made from their bodies—they were so very black.
So they caught one of them as quickly as they could and burned him,
hoping to discover thereby the secret of the 4 white man’s thunder that
killed.’ They were very much surprised as well as bewildered by the
“ Indians could generous to a brave enemy, and they often were !”
Teddy exclaimed. * I found this story of Major Elliot, who died fight¬
ing them desperately. You know Indians believe that if a man is
scalped he cannot go to the happy hunting grounds, and so they scalp
all the enemies they can to keep them out. But they did not scalp him.
They said that so brave a man ought to go to heaven, still they cut off
his right hand and foot so that he could do them no harm there, when
they all got to paradise l Wasn’t they generous ? ”
“ The Indians gave the white men lots of things that they never
heard of,” Ernest asserted. “We know that the squaws baked beans
in earthen pots, as we do now, but they had more than beans—vegetables
and fruits, wild geese and ducks, turkeys and pigeons. Then they had
corn, tobacco, potatoes, artichokes, tapioca, arrowroot, cocoa, vanilla,
pimento, pepper, pineapples, guava—all of these, and more, were hers
when America was discovered by the white man.”
“ Guess how they cooked potatoes at first! ” cried Roy. “ They
thought that the balls were the part to eat and they did not like
them any too well. When they learned enough to eat the potatoes they
cooked them in a funny way sometimes. I asked mamma to try it but
she said she didn’t want to waste the potatoes ! ”
“ Why don’t you tell us how it was ?” said Ro}^
“ Why, they boiled and mashed the potatoes, seasoned them with
cinnamon, nutmeg, and pepper ; then treated them with sugar, butter,
and grape j uice ; and frosted them with rosewater and sugar. I would
rather have plain boiled potatoes, wouldn’t you ? ”
THEIR MUD DWELLINGS.
“ Did you find anything about their villages, Teddy ? ”
“ Natchez Indians were first visited by La Salle in 1682, and he lound
* large, square dwellings, built of sun-baked mud, mixed with straw.
These were covered with dome-shaped roofs of cane, and were placed in
regular order around an open space, or court. Two of them were larger
and better than the rest. One was the lodge of the chief, the other was
the temple of the Sun * * * and before it burned the perpetual fire
* * * a strong mud wall surrounding it, planted with stakes, upon
which were the skulls of the enemy who had been sacrificed there to the
Sun. ’ ”
“ What was the greatest cause of the Indian’s trouble with the white
man, Will ? ”
“ Worse than the white man’s deceit, or swords, or guns, was the
‘white man’s firewater.’ The downfall of the poor Indian in that respect
is the most eloquent sermon on temperance that ever was spoken or
written in the history of a people. Drunkenness was unknown until the
white man brought it to them—a fatal gift—for it has destroyed more
than all the disease and wars, which, by the way, have come to them
from the same source.’*
* Who first gave it to them ? ”
“ Henry Hudson was the first to give strong drink to the Indian,”
answered Roy positively. “The simple red men thought that he, with
his brilliant red coat trimmed with golden lace, must be the Great Spirit
Himself—so fine did he appear.”
“ Yes,” added Ernest; “ It was an evil day for the red men of Amer¬
ica when the ‘ Half Moon,’ manned by her picked crew, entered New
York harbor. Even Hudson’s
sad fate does not excuse his
conduct, or make people for¬
“ What was that ?” asked
Teddy. “Oh, I know. He,
with his son and four sick men,
were placed in a frail shallop
and set adrift. That was in
Hudson’s Bay, and the gloomy
waters became his tomb and
his monument, for the bay
bears his name to this day.”
“Well, I want to know
more about his treatment of
the Indians,” demanded Had- HENDRIK HUDSON,
ley. “I know that he thought the Hudson river was just a passage to
“ He was very cruel and unjust to them, and such treatment brought
its usual result,” answered Ray. “ When he offered them the strong
drink they would only smell of it at first. Then one of the chiefs, think¬
ing that they would offend the Great Spirit if they didn’t drink what he
offered them, and being, perhaps, a little braver than his fellows, bade
his comrades a last, solemn farewell, and drained the glass.”
“And got drunk !” ejaculated Teddy.
“Well, he soon began to stagger, then fell, and his friends thought
that lie had gone to the happy hunting ground surely. They were very
much astonished when he came to life after a little while. He told them
that it was the strongest water that he had ever seen, and that he was
never so happy in his life before.”
“And that settled it! ” cried Ernest. “ Then every Indian took some,
and it has destroyed more of them than war has done. Strong drink has
been the curse of the red man as well as of his white brother.”
“ To-morrow we will continue our talk, but I think we have had
enough for this time. Do you see the moonlight on the water ? I take
its glimmer as an invitation to take a sail in its path of light,” said Uncle
Jack, as he went to the door of the camp.
“You mean that the invitation comes from you, and we are all
ready to accept it,” laughed Hadley, following him.
MORE ABOUT EARLY DAYS.
“ Oh ! the gallant knights of old, for their valor so renowned !
With sword and lance, and armor strong, they scoured the country round;
And whatever aught to tempt them they met by wood or wold,
By right of sword they seized the prize—those gallant knights of old ! ”
1,4 T 1 7E will begin where our last lesson left off,” said Uncle Jack
V V “I think you told me that some of the white men who came
here purchased their lands of the original owners. Who can
tell us about this ? ”
“ When the white men did buy their lands they did not pay much
for them,” declared Hadley. “New York was purchased for twenty-
four dollars’ worth of scarlet cloth, brass buttons and other trinkets, the
real cost being about one-sixth of a cent per acre.”
“And the pay was not always of such harmless stuff as cloth and
trinkets,” said Ray significantly.
“No. Mr. Turner says: 1 From the hour when Henry Hudson
first lured the Indians on board his vessel, on the river which bears his
name, and gave them their first taste of spirituous liquors, the whole
history of British intercourse with the Indians is marked by the use of
this accursed agent as a principal means of success. What do you say
to that?” questioned Ernest.
“ What was the Indian opinion of these things? Can you tell us.
Roy ? ”
“ Red Jacket said once : 4 The red man knew nothing of trouble
until it came from the white man. As soon as they crossed the Great
Water they wanted to take our country from us, and in return they have
always been ready to teach us to quarrel about their religion. The
things they teach us we do not understand, and the light they give us
makes the straight and plain path trod by our fathers dark and dreary.’ ”
MORE ABOUT EARLY DAYS.
“ But all of tlie early discoverers did not treat the Indians badly, I
know that,” protested Will.
“No; some of them, like Penn, purchased the lands instead of
taking v/hat they wanted by force. In 1634 Maquacomen, a Pawtuxet
chief of some influence, said : i I love the English so well that, if they
should go about to kill me, if I had so much breath as to speak, I would
command my people not to revenge my death, for I know they would do
no such thing except it was through my own fault,’ ” answered Uncle
Jack. “But two hundred and forty-two years later, in 1876, Sitting
Bull, an Ogallalla Sioux, said bitterly, ‘ There is not one white man who
loves an Indian, and not one true Indian but what hates a white man.’
Quite a marked difference of opinion, wasn’t it ? Ninigret, a famous
chief and warrior, when asked to allow Christianity to be taught to his
people said : 4 It would be better to preach it to the English until they
are good.’ He was very fierce and proud, but perhaps he had reason
“Some of their sayings are very sad, and they show the distrust
with which they had learned to regard the white man,” said Roy. “Let
me tell you about Menawa, who, as he left his home when his people
were 4 Going West,’ said sadly : 1 Last evening I saw the sun set for the
last time, and its light shone upon the tree tops and the land, and the water
that I am never to look upon again. No other evening will come, bring¬
ing to Menawa’s eyes the rays of the setting sun upon the home that he
has left forever.’ ”
DID NOT WANT TO SEE A WHITE MAN,
“That was not all that he said,” declared Will. “Before he went he
took his portrait to a white man whom he called his friend, saying to
him: 1 I am going away. I have brought you this picture; I have
always found you true to me, but, great as my regard for you is, I never
wish to see you in that new country to which I am going ; for, when I
cross the great river, my desire is that I niav never again see the face oi
a white man,’ ”
MORE ABOUT EARLY DAYS.
“ Gracious, how he must have hated the race! ” ejaculated Teddy.
“I want you to tell me why the Indians always wore blankets, and
many of them wear them yet,” said Ernest.
44 Oh, you want me to tell you the story of the first Indian blanket,
do you?” laughed Teddy. “Well, I suppose I can do it. When this
world was all new there was a man who went forth to hunt, so that he
might help his people, but he had naught wherewith to clothe himself,
save only a bunch of grass tied about his loins.”
“Wasn’t he cold? ” asked Roy soberly; but Teddy went on without
noticing the interruption.
THE FORM OF A DEER.
H4 There arose a storm, and he was cold, very cold; and he was sore
distressed and like to die. Lo ! then of a sudden, came forth from the
East Land what seemed to be a mighty deer, but it was really one of the
Masters of Life in the form and person of a deer only.’ I am telling
you this in the same words that I found, for it sounds better than I can
tell it in my own.”
“Nevermind that, goon,” cried Ernest impatiently.
44 4 As he approached, he lifted his foot and moved it to and fro, as if
in sign of peace. His antlers were wide spreading, his back was covered
with long, thick hair, like a mantle of fur, giving him warmth, so that
far better clothed was he than the Indian standing before him. And he
said to the man who stood there, startled and trembling : 4 Look now, oh
son, give heed to what I say, for I live not here only, and in this form
which thou dost see, but lo! I live in all the six regions round about
the world. I breathe in the wind’s breaths of all directions, and what
though thou kill me, yet will I not be slain.’ ”
44 Did he kill him ? ” demanded Hadley.
44 He said: 4 Smite me, therefore, with thine arrow here,’ and he
motioned to a spot over his heart, behind his shoulder, 4 and when I fall
cut so, and so, and so,’ said he, pointing out in all the directions that
ever since that day Indians have followed in taking off the skin from the
MORE ABOUT EARLY DAYS,
deer. 1 When thou hast done all these things, thou shalt take the skin
which thou hast thus lifted from off my form and stretch it over the
ground until it becomes larger and straightened.’ ”
“ What other direction did he give him?” asked Ray.
u He continued :—‘Then thou shalt soften it by rubbing it between
the hands and drawing it over the knees and feet, and when this is done
thou shalt cut off the longer pieces which now cover my hinder legs,
and with them make a girdle, whilst with the part that covers my back
cover thou thy back, folding the strips that are now upon my fore legs
over thy shoulders, and girding the broader part that hangs below thy
waist. Thus shalt thou have a mantle wherewith to cover thee, even as
it covers me now, from the cold and rain, and thy arms will be free for
use, and thy legs for running as free as mine.’ ”
“And that Indian killed him, I suppose,” ejaculated Ray. “1
would have run, yes sir, I would, if a deer talked to me like that!”
AN ANCIENT MAN APPEARED.
“ ‘ The Indian folded his arms across his breast, and bowed his head
and breathed deeply from his hands, that he might remember and do
these things ; but he liked not to smite the deer, and though he lifted
his bow, he dropped it again and again, until commanded anew. Then
quickly he drew an arrow to the head and aimed it and loosed it, and it
sank deep in the side of the deer and he fell to the ground. Behold!
The mists of his dying breath assumed, ere they vanished, the form of
an ancient man-’ ”
“ Gee whiz ! ” cried Will wildly. “ If that Indian stayed there after
that he was pretty plucky.”
“This man of mist said to him: ‘The rest of this form of mine
thou shalt see freely use for thy needs and for the needs of thy people
and children ; and thou shalt tell them everything which I have told and
shown to thee, without omission. Thus through all ages of the world,
as it waxeth old, there will be great numbers of my kind for, remember¬
ing these things, f h 0 u nor thy many children will kill us wantonly.
MORE ABOUT EARLY DAYS
Only that ye may have mantles to wear and meat to eat, will ye kill us.”
The Indian did as he was bidden and lo ! even unto this day the deer
endure, what though generations of men have slain them ; and the
Indians love the mantle warm with the life of the first father of the deer
kind, who gave it to their father when the world was new.’ ”
“That is the best legend yet—except that of the first robin*” nod*
“I am afraid that we are drifting
back to legends and, while they
may be very interesting and we might
spend days in searching them out^
there are other things which are much
more important to us now. It is the
history of the American Indian that
we are after, you remember,” Uncle
Jack reminded them. “Can you tell
me what happened in 1578, Will ? ”
“ Sir Humphrey Gilbert sailed
for America, but it was an ill-fated
expedition and he lost his life. Then
his half brother, Sir Walter Raleigh,
a nobleman in more than name, de¬
termined to plant a colony in Carolina.
He fitted out two vessels under the
command of Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow, and sent them to explore
“ How did they find the natives there, Roy ? ”
“ Sir Walter said that‘the natives are as kindly as their climate
and soil.’ It was these vessels sent out by him that were so kindly wel¬
comed at Roanoke Island by the wife of Granganimo.”
“ Can you give the account of how she did receive them, Ernest ?
Give it in the words of the historian.”
“ Hakyluyt gives this letter as written by Amidas or Barlow to Sit
SIR WALTER RALEIGH.
MORE ABOUT EARLY DAYS.
Walter: ‘ The soile is most plentifull, sweete, fruitfull, and wholesome
of all the world . . . the wife of Granganimo, the king’s brother, came
running out to meete us very cheerfully and friendly, her husband not
being in the village. Some of her people shee commanded to drawe our
boate on shore for the beating of the billoe, others shee appointed to cary
us on their backes to the dry ground, and the others to bring our oares
into the house for feare of stealing . . ”
“ Was that all of the story, Teddy ? ”
“ Oh, no. He said: ‘ Shee caused us to sit downe by a greate fire,
and after tooke off our clothes and washed them and dried them againe.
Some of the women plucked off our stockings and washed onr feete in
warm water, and shee herself tooke greate pains to see all things ordered
in the best manner shee could, making greate haste to dresse some meate
for us to eate.’ ”
“ I would like to know what she gave them to eat,” laughed Ray.
“ That is easy enough to find out, for the same writer goes on to
say : ‘ After we had thus dried ourselves, shee brought us into the inner
roome, where shee sat on the board standing along the house, some wheate
like furmentie; sodden venison and roasted; fish, sodden, boyled, and
roasted ; melons raw and sodden ; roots of divers kinds ; and divers fruits.
Their drinke is commonly water, but while the grape lasteth they drink
wine, but it is sodden with ginger in it, and black sinamon, and some¬
times sassaphras, and divers other wholesome and medicinable hearbes
and trees,’ ” answered Hadley.
“And he asserted further: ‘We were entertained with alle love and
kindnesse, and with as much bountie, after their manner, as they could
possibly devise. We found the people mo c t gentle, loving, and faithfull;
voide of alle guile and treason, and such as live after the manner of the
golden age,’ ” continued Will.
“Amidas and Barlow were greatly pleased with the country as well
as the inhabitants, and published glowing accounts of it when they
MORE ABOUT EARLY DAYS.
reached England, so that many people wanted to go to America. The}
took two Indians away with them—perhaps they wanted to go —they
were Wanchese and Manteo, the latter of which was afterwards of great
service as an interpreter. But a grave mistake was made in this busi¬
ness ; can you tell us what it was, Roy ? ”
“Sir Walter Raleigh made the mistake. When Amidas and Barlow
INDIANS TATOOING A WHITE MAN.
told what a fine country it was he resolved to send out another expedi¬
tion immediately, but he was not careful in selecting the men whom he
permitted to go, any more than our emigration officers are now. The
expedition was composed for the most part of adventurers whose heads
were turned by the prospect of great gain, and who had little respect for
the rights of others, especially the Indian.”
“Sir Richard Grenville commanded the expedition,” Will con¬
tinued. “ They landed and went to the same place where the former ex-
MORE ABOUT EARLY DAYS.
pedition had been. On the march a silver cnp was lost or stolen b}
some of the Indians and Grenville did a very wrong thing. He ordered
the village where the supposed thief lived to be burned and all of the
standing corn destroyed.”
“ And he didn’t even know that the cnp was stolen !” exclaimed
Ray indignantly. “ What did the Indians do about it ? I guess they
“ Their first thought was for revenge, and Grenville soon returned
to England, leaving a colony to hold the place. Those old commanders
often had a way of leaving colonies and getting to a safer place them¬
“ Was that the last attempt that Raleigh made to found a settle¬
ment in the New World ? ”
THOUGHT THEY MUST BE IMMORTAL.
“No indeed, and the simple Indians who thought that, as these men
had no women with them, they must be immortal, soon found out theix
mistake. They grew alarmed at the growing power of the white men
and began to plan their destruction. Governor Lane grew suspicious of
them, too, and laid a plan which was even more treacherous than any
plan of the savages.”
“ What, was that ? ” asked Hadley quickly. “Those old fellows seemed
to lay a great many such plans and carry them out, too.”
“Why, he visited Wingina, one of the most active chiefs. The
Indians received him kiudly, because he said that he and his men came
to them as friends, to pay them a friendly visit. While they were talking
he gave the signal which had been agreed on, and the white men put all
that they could to death immediately, and Wingina was among them.”
“Did the colony prosper after that treacherous act ?” demanded
Teddy. “ Do you know, Hadley? ”
“ No, they got tired of waiting for supplies, and when Sir Francis
Drake called at the island they went off with him. Two weeks latex
Grenville came with the expected supplies, found the place
MORE ABOUT EARLY DAYS.
FLIGHT OF THE INDIANS AFTER THE MASSACRE.
deserted, and left fifteen men to hold it wliile lie went to England again,
These men met the fate which Governor Lane gave to Wingina and his
braves, which was only to be expected,’*
MORE ABOUT EARLY DAYS.
44 Didn’t Grenville know they would?” cried Teddy. “He must
have had an awful grudge towards those fifteen men to leave them alone
surrounded by the Indians of Wingina’s tribe.”
44 But Raleigh tried again to make a settlement by sending out
women and children with the colony, under the command of Governor
White. By this time the Indians were bitterly hostile, and White was
soon obliged to return to England for reinforcements and supplies. His
granddaughter, Virginia Dare, was the first English child born in the
United States, she was born just before he left,” Ray added.
NO ONE KNOWS THEIR FATE.
44 What became of that colony? Did the Indians kill them, too?”
44 When White returned, in 1590, he found no trace of them, nor has
any certainty of their fate ever been discovered. No one knows to this
day whether they were killed or adopted by the Indians, or whether they
died of disease.”
44 But there is a tradition that they were adopted into the tribe of
Hatteras Indians and intermarried with them. People have even said
that the looks and character of these Indians plainly prove their white
blood,” declared Will.
14 That would be better than to think that they were all murdered,”
44 Well, the Indians were cruel as well as the discoverers. I don’t
chink either party could complain much of the other,” nodded Ernest
44 Yes, but could they excel our own ancestors in that line?” asked
Uncle Jack pointedly. 44 1 think not. William Wallace, the Scotch
patriot, was first hanged, cut down before he was dead, revived and tor¬
tured. portions of his body being cut off and burned before his eyes.
After suffering the greatest torture, he was beheaded and his head stuck
upon a pole on London Bridge.”
44 1 know the rest of that!” cried Teddy. “Then his body was
MORE ABOUT EARLY DAYS.
quartered, his left arm being sent to Berwick, his right to Newcastle,
one leg to Perth, and one to Aberdeen. This was done to frighten the
Scotch people out of trying for their liberty, but it strikes me as being
nearly as barbarous as anything that the American Indian has ever
done. The Indian is not much worse than other people.
INDIANS HUNTING WILD BUFFALOES.
u I think this finishes our lesson for to-night, and you are excused,”
smiled Uncle Jack.
“Then now for our concert,” shouted Ernest. “ We’ll tune up with
the Warrior’s song. How lucky that Uncle Jack got Alice Fletcher’s
Indian Song and Story ! Here we go with a ‘Hi a ha ha a he a we aho
he-e-e-e hu he a he ahe va a ho e dho he-e-e-e hu e a-a-he ya a ha e dho
he-e-e he,’ he concluded, whirling around with the tamborine.
“Or the prayer song before smoking the pipe,” added Teddy, softly
MORE ABOUT EARLY DAYS.
singing, Wa-kon-da dka-ni ga cThe ke. Wa-kon-da dka-ni ga dhe ke,
Wa-kon-da dka-ni ga dhe ke. E-ka dka-ni kin ga we dko ke dho.’ ”
“I like tke laugking song best,” Hadley interrupted, springing to
kis feet witk ‘Ha-ha-ha ka-ka ka-ka ki-ki ka-ka ki !’ as ke danced out of
doors into tke moonligkt, followed by tke otkers witk tkeir instruments.
“ Tke dance song isn’t bad,” asserted Roy. “‘Ni-ka wi-ta wa-gun-
dka ti-be-no. Ni-ka wi-ta wa-gun-dka ti-be-no dko-e. Nu-da hunga.
Ick-i-buz-zki dka-da-e dkinke de.’ ”
“ Here’s tke song of tke Bird’s Nest,” laugked Will. ‘ Ho-o-o
Ha-re ka-re re ka-re. Re wka-ka ka-re re ka-re wka-ka ka-re re ka-re.’ ”
“And we will end tke concert witk tke * Higk-yi-yi High-yi’ol
tke Ckippeway scalp dance song,” Ray was telling tkem, wken Teddy
leaped up witk a Comancke yell and started for tke camp. Tke otkers,
astonisked and startled, followed to see wkat tke trouble was. Tkey
met Teddy in tke door.
“ Now you needn’t laugk, you fellows,” ke said in a skamed way,
before anyone could speak. “ Any of you would kave run if yon kad
seen wkat I did, just as Ray was screecking 4 Higk-yi-yi/ too.”
“ Wkat was it ? ”
“ We didn’t see a thing.”
“ Wkat did it look like? ”
“ Wky don’t }mu tell us?”
SAW AN INDIAN FEATHERS AND ALU
They exclaimed in ckorus.
“ I did ; I saw an Indian, featkers and all, and it did take a rise out
of me and tkat’s tke truth, but now I’m going back to see wkat it was,”
answered Teddy boldly.
“ Perkaps it was tke ghost of that deer,” suggested Ernest. “ I
don’t know whether I like to hear these Indian yarns out here in tke
woods or not, but I guess we will remember tkem better.”
“ It does make things seem pretty real, don’t it ? ” mused Ray*
“Where is Uncle Jack?” asked Hadley suddenly.
MORE ABOUT EARLY DAYS.
“ He didn’t come in, but—-there he is now, and two men are with
him- and one is the guide,” gasped Teddy. “And he had the feathers
of some bird fixed on his head, and they are all laughing as if it was a
good joke ! I’ll get even with that guide.”
“ Tut, tut, youngster, he was only getting even with yon for your
war dance the other night. Howsomever, it was all a happen-so except
the feathers, and I will own up that they were stuck there on purpose
to take a good rise out of you.”
“ Is he an Indian ? ” whispered Ray nervously, as he pulled at the
“ That’s what he is, and you youngsters have not given me a chance
to introduce him,” was the laughing reply. “This is old John Hunter;
I found him at the lake doing a little trapping, and I just brought him
along to show you fellows what a white-hearted red man is like. We
two have guided together more times than you are years old, and I guess
we can go another bout. He’ll stay with us awhile anyway, and I
know that you will like him.”
The Indian made them a short, quick bow in reply to their
greeting, and took his place at the farther side of the camp in silence.
“ He don’t look much like the pictures of Indians in McKenney’s
and Hall’s history,” muttered Teddy, who could not yet forget or forgive
Then the boys quietly laid away their musical instruments and
tumbled into their berths, where they could watch a real live Indian
without seeming to.
FIRST SETTLERS AND THEIR DANGERS.
“ Quiet and calm, without a fear
Of danger darkly lurking near,
The weary laborer left his plough—
The milk-maid carolled by her cow —”
“ a ^though we liave been learning something of the usage of
L\ the Indians by the white men, we will continue our lesson
to-night by looking further on that subject,” Uncle Jack began.
“Wendell Philips once said that neither Greece nor Germany nor France
nor Scotland could show a prouder record than the North American
Indian. The Spaniards were not the only people who abused the natives
of the new land which they coveted. French, English, Dutch, Swede—-
all of them—regarded them as wild beasts and heathen, fit only to be
driven about and deceived. It is no wonder that the Indians said that
‘ the white skins have forked tongues and hawk’s fingers.’ It is a
significant fact that Quakers had no wars with their red brethren.
Ernest, you may begin and tell us what you know of the matter.”
“I don’t think that the colonists were very wise, for while they were
cheating and deceiving the Indians, they sold them the arms which
would make them deadly foes. Sir Francis Drake treated the Indians
of the Pacifie coast kindly and they crowned him king. Captain George
Weymouth, who kidnapped some Indians, tells that they had great
difficulty in getting them into the boats, and adds coolly that their best
hold was their long hair ! ”
“ I can tell you the story of Hatuey of Cuba,” cried Teddy eagerly.
“When Diego de Velasquez invaded Cuba it is said that a native cacique
named Hatuey, told his people to throw all of their gold into the sea, be¬
cause gold was the god of the Spaniards, and ‘ there was no place but the
bottom of the sea which would elude their search for it.’ So they collected
all the treasure they could and threw it into the ocean.”
FIRST SETTLERS AND THEIR DANGERS. 125
“ Afterwards Hatuey was taken and condemned to death, by burning/*
continued Ernest. “As he stood bound to the stake, dry wood smeared,
with pitch piled high around him, a priest came forward to baptize him
ere he was murdered, so that he might be sure of the joys of paradise.
‘ Do Spaniards go to that heaven ? * demanded the cacique, drawing back.
*' Certainly, all good men do/ was the smiling reply. ‘ Then leave me, I
will not go where there is any danger of meeting one of them/ was
Hatuey’s startling answer, as the black smoke closed around him.”
DROVE THE NATIVES FROM THE ISLAND.
“ Can you tell us what was done to the other natives of the West
u I can tell about some of them, and I suppose that the story was
much the same in all of the islands. These Indians were nearly all
Caribs, the same race that had so many killed on St. Vincent in 1902.
The French settled Martinique in 1635, and drove the natives from the
island ; they also settled St. Lucia in 1650, under a man named Rous-
selan, who married a native woman and was greatly beloved by them,
but they killed three of his successors.”
“You have forgotten to tell us about the Caribs of Grenada,” Ray
interrupted. “The French took possession of that island and were so
cruel that, at last, the natives were despairing and desperate. Then
they collected, what were left of them, at the top of a high rock and
“ What did they—why they committed a wholesale suicide ! ” cried
Will in dismay.
“ They did it to escape the power of the terrible French—they
thought it was the only way,” was the sad reply.
“These few instances tell the story of the natives of the West
Indies. They disappeared first because they were first discovered,” said
Uncle Jack. “Now we will go on. What occurred in 1603, Roy ?”
“ A company of merchants of Rouen sent Samuel Chamberlain to
explore Canada. He traded with the Indians very successfully, and
FIRST SETTLERS AND THEIR DANGERS.
the Jesuit priests who followed him had a great influence in the
French and English wars, in which the Indians were allies on both
“You may tell us something about Captain John Smith, Ernest.”
“He visited America more than once, trading with the natives and
exploring. He made a map of the coast from the Penobscot River to
Cape Cod, and named that country New England. It was before this
that Captain Weymouth kid¬
napped the five Indians to be
educated in England as in¬
“And it was shortly after
that that Captain Hunt kid¬
napped a lot to be sold as
slaves in Spain. Squanto
was among them,” inter¬
“Smith was a great
boaster, but he was square in
his dealings with the Indians,
and they liked him almost
as much as they feared him,”
“ I don’t know abou#
CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH. that,” said Ray decidedly.
44 When the others were so homesick that they couldn’t or wouldn’t work,
he was always at it, always generous, always cheerful, always hopeful,
I think he had something to boast of. He helped to build the huts,
tended the sick, and visited the Indians. The colony was saved from
destruction by his firmness and energy, for he managed to buy corn of
the natives, and he made the men hunt for game, saying that those who
would not work could not eat ”
44 When was the settlement at Jamestown made, Will? We must
FIRST SETTLERS AND THEIR DANGERS.
be particular in these details for it was one of the events of the Indian
history of America.”
“ The settlement was begun May 13, 1607, and John Smith was one
of the leading spirits in the enterprise. He was the ‘Father of Virginia,
and he ought to have been the first Governor of the colony, but Wing¬
field was chosen instead.”
“ What was the name of the principal chief who held the country
where they concluded to settle, Roy ? ”
“It was Powhatan, and he lived
near where Richmond is, on the
bank of the river, a few miles below
the falls. He was a very large man,
past middle age, and had many war¬
riors. When his people did not want
the whites to stay there he said:
* They hurt you not; they only want
a little land.’ But Governor Wing¬
field did not understand his business,
the settlement was soon attacked by
the Indians and was only saved by
the fire from the ship.”
“ When are you coming to Poca¬
hontas?” asked Ernest impatiently.
“ It was in December, after the houses were all completed and
a supply of corn was stored for use that Smith set out to explore
the country. His little party went up the Chickahominy as far as they
could in boats, then continued the journey on foot. Soon they were
attacked by the Indians, all the men were killed and Smith was taken
prisoner,” said Teddy.
“The Indians suffered before they took him, though,” cried Hadley.
“He caught one Indian with his left hand and held him as a shield
before him, while he killed three others. They wouldn’t have got him,
I think, but he stepped in a miry place and fell.”
FIRST SETTLERS AND THEIR DANGERS.
‘‘Even then his coolness saved his life, for when they were about
to beat his brains out, he calmly took out his pocket compass and held it
up before them. They had never seen the like of that before, and they
thought he was a much greater man than he really was,” laughed
“ But they condemned him to death and he was saved by Poca¬
hontas ! ” exclaimed Teddy.
“So he was,” returned Hadley. “But he came very near never
getting to Powhatan to get his death sentence—he would have been
killed without it if it hadn’t been for that useful compass. Yes, they
took him to the great chief, visiting all of the villages from the Chicka-
hominy to the Potomac. For a while he was a prisoner at the home ot
Opechancanough, where the wise men of the tribe held a three days’ coun¬
cil concerning his fate, medicine men performing all sorts of incantations
over him, but he was so calm and fearless they didn’t hardly dare to put
him to death unless the head chief said so. They treated him kindly
enough, but gave him no chance to escape.”
MEANT TO PUT HIM TO DEATH.
“ Yes, he amused them several days after he got to Powhatan’s home
with that wonderful compass, and taught them many things which they
had never known before. After they got tired of this they made a great
fire, painted themselves in their gayest colors, all decked out in bright
feathers, to put him to death,” said Will.
“ Well, I want to know first what Powhatan said to him when he got
there,” demanded Ray.
“Oh, he received him in great state, and the braves set up a shout
when they saw him,” answered Roy. “ A pretty young squaw brought
him water to wash in, and another gave him feathers to dry his hands
on. Then they brought him the best food that they had, and while he
ate it, they began to debate on his fate.”
“Did he know that,” questioned Will.
“ Although he was cool and appeared to take no notice of them he
9-AI POCAHONTAS INTERCEDING FOR THE UF£ OF CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH* 129
FIRST SETTLERS AND THEIR DANGERS.
read his doom from their gestures. As soon as they decided that he was
to die a great log was brought in and laid before Powhatan. Smith
was seized, dragged to the spot, and his head laid upon the log, while
two savages stood by, armed with the terrible war clubs.”
“ And Pocahontas saved him,” interrupted Will.
“Yes,” smiled Ernest. “We all know that story, so there is no
need of repeating it. The little maid was only ten or twelve years old,
and she was the great chief’s ‘dearly beloved daughter.’ The Indians
were astonished at such behavior in one of their children, and thought
that it must be the will of the Great Spirit to have him live.”
“What did they do then?” asked Boy as eagerly as if he had not
heard the story a hundred times.
GUEST OF POWHATAN.
“They let him go about the camp as the servant of the little girl
who had saved him, and the mighty Powhatan begged him to come and
live with them. He even tried to get him to help them attack the colony,
but before Smith left he had agreed to be friends with the whites ‘foi
his sake’ ” answered Teddy.
“Did he stay long with the Indians ?” asked Uncle Jack.
“No ; they soon allowed him to go, making him promise that he
would send Powhatan a grindstone and two cannons,” replied Hadley.
“ But while he was a prisoner he learned their language and customs
and taught them many things.”
“ Did he give them cannon ?”
“ No, but some Indians went with him to bring them back. When
they reached Jamestown he told them to lift one of the largest ones and
they could nol do it, neither could they lift the grindstone. Then Smith
had the cannons fired, and they were so frightened that they declared
they wouldn’t take them home—which was just what Smith wanted.
But he gave them other gifts for Powhatan and sent them back to the
tribe,” Roy replied.
“ Did they keep the promise to be friends, Teddy ?”
FIRST SETTLERS AND THEIR DANGERS. 131
“Yes, Smiths adventure was a blessing, for if the colonists had
been at war through the winter they must have died of starvation, brl
now Pocahontas came with corn every little while. Smith was able to
purchase supplies from the natives and to explore the country in safety. 5 '
“ What became of Pocahontas, or Matoaka ?—that was her real name. 5 '
“She saved Smith’s life more than once and was a true friend to the
colony. As long as Smith was with them the Indians were friendly, but
after he left the colony they would no longer furnish food, and became
hostile in many ways. Once they planned to attack the town and kill
all of the inhabitants, but Pocahontas warned them in the night at the
risk of her own life. To repay her for this Captain Argali took hei
prisoner and demanded a ransom of her father,” answered Hadley.
“ What happened then ?”
MARRIAGE OF POCAHONTAS.
“ Powhatan prepared for war and would not pay a ransom for his
child. Three months passed, and in that short time the Indian girl was
baptized, joined the church, and was shortly married to John Rolfe,
with whom she went to England and was known at Court as the Lady
Rebecca. She died, leaving one son, who came to Virginia, settled at
Henrico, and was quite influential. He had a daughter who married
Colonel Robert Bolling. She had a son, Major John Bolling, who left
many children, from whom descended some of the best families in Vir¬
ginia, proud of their relationship to the Indian girl of history,”
“ That Captain Argali was a wild, daring adventurer, we should
call him a pirate now. He would sail along the coast, stopping now and
then to attack an Indian village, and seize the women and children to sell
as slaves. When he took Pocahontas, Powhatan was furious, although
he did not offer to ransom her. There would have been another Indian
war in history if she had not married John Rolfe, just as she did,”
“ But all is well that ends well—he made peace with the settlers on
FIRST SETTLERS AND THEIR DANGERS.
account of that marriage*
and he tried to keep that
peace as long as he lived.
But the white men did
hot know how to use the
red men, and Indians
surely had no great love
for them, so he did not
always succeed. Still the
^ ^ ' 1
CAPTAIN SMITH’S FIGHT WITH AN INDIAN CHIEF,
colony prospered and little villages sprang up along the James River,
extending far into the wilderness,” Roy concluded.
FIRST SETTLERS AND THEIR DANGERS.
“ Powhatan had a brother, Opechancanough, who became head
chief after his death. He was the one that Smith seized by the scalp-
lock and threatened to shoot if any of his men were harmed,” laughed
“ That was one time when Smith discovered a plot to kill the whites,
and they were completely surrounded by the Indians,” nodded Teddy.
THE PISTOL AND THE CHARCOAL.
“ Well, anyway the Indians were scared into peace for a while
longer. Smith took many ways to gain power over them, and sometimes
accidents helped him queerly,” said Hadley. “ Let me tell you about
the pistol and the charcoal. An Indian stole a pistol and Smith seized
his two brothers as pledges ; he sent one of them after the pistol telling
him that his brother would be hanged in twelve hours if he didn’t fetch
“That was pretty hard lines, I call it,” exclaimed Ray. “Did he
bring it ? ”
“Wait and see. They put the Indian prisoner in a dungeon, and
Smith pitied him enough to send him something to eat and some char¬
coal for a fire. The brother returned with the pistol in time, but they
found the poor fellow in the dungeon nearly stupefied by the fumes of
the coal, besides being badly burned.
“ What did Smith do then ? ” asked Will.
“He very coolly told the brother that, if he would promise never to
steal again, he would bring him to life ! This was easy enough, and
Smith got more credit than he deserved. The news spread like wildfire,
and all of the Indians thought that the white chief could bring the dead
to life ! So they were glad to keep the peace.”
“ I think that we will have the accounts of the wars with Opechan¬
canough now, although his first massacre was in 1622. It seems to
come in connection with what we have been talking about. Smith had
returned to England and Powhatan was dead. Opechancanough thought
that he had reason to hate the white men, as he did, because they had
FIRST SETTLERS AND THEIR DANGERS.
taken possession of tke best lands that the Indians had, without a
thought of their rights. Can you tell me about that time, Roy ?”
“The Indians pretended to be friendly and even declared that the
sky would fall before they would molest their white neighbors and
brothers ! They brought the settlers presents of game, and some of the
savages were in the homes of those whom they were to kill when the
fatal hour arrived.”
“ Opechancanough thought that something must be done, and so he
decided on a war of extermination. He collected about fifteen hundred
warriors, and the whites numbered about four thousand. The Indians
made up their lack of numbers with deceit, for while making the settlers
believe that they were friends, they set a date when all of the settle¬
ments were to be attacked at one time,” continued Ray.
M In an hour’s time 347 men, women, and children were slain, the
distant plantations being entirely destroyed, and out of eighty little
clusters of happy homes only eight remained,” said Hadley.
“ I can tell you a story about that time !” cried Will. “Some years
before that a hungry Indian lad was fed, clothed, and kept in the family
of a settler for some time. Their home was burned while the fathei
was away, and the wife and children were taken prisoners. The Indian
boy, now a warrior, claimed them for his slaves, treated them kindly,
and sent them home as soon as he could safely do so.”
“ It was a great blow for Virginia,” Ernest went on. “ What white
men there were left began to hunt the Indians like wild beasts, shooting
them at sight, whether innocent or guilty, destroying their towns and
fields of corn, and their fishing nets as well. At last they hunted them
with bloodhounds, which had been trained to tear them in pieces when
they caught them. This was a terrible war, and lasted many years, the
[ndians being as cruel and treacherous as it was possible for savage
men to be.”
u That wasn’t the last of Opechancanough,” declared Teddy, “ In
INDIANS MAKING A MIDNIGHT ATTACK UPON SETTLERS.
FIRST SETTLERS AND THEIR DANGERS.
1644 lie planned another outbreak, and three hundred more people were
killed. He was now an old, old man, who had to be carried upon a littei
borne upon the shoulders of his young men. He was taken prisoner
and served as a show in Jamestown for a time, before he was assassinated
by one of his guards. He said to Governor Berkerley : ‘ Had it been
my fortune to have taken you prisoner, I would not meanly have ex¬
posed you as a show to my people.’ ”
“ Poor old Opechancanough! He did not remember that the
Indians had grown weaker in twenty years while the English had been
growing stronger. He was feared by his enemies and loved by his
people to the last,” added Hadley.
LONG AND MERCILESS WAR.
“ Then, for more than ten years, the warfare continued, for the
whites resolved to ‘ destroy the Indians entirely or drive them into the
interior,’ and the Indians declined to be destroyed or driven. It was a
merciless war on both sides, and the defenceless settlers were the
sufferers. Many a family were aroused from peaceful slumber to be
hurled into eternity and burned with their blazing homes, and this was
the kindest treatment which they could receive at the hands of theii
relentless enemies,” continued Ray.
“ Here is a good story of that time, which shows that some Indians
were friendly while others were on the warpath,” Teddy began.
“ McDougal was a Scotchman who settled on the frontier. One day,
while he was from home, his wife went to look for the cows and was lost
in the woods. An Indian hunter found her and knew her. He could
not talk English much, so made signs for her to follow him, and she did
not dare to refuse. He led her to his wigwam, and his wife divided the
wigwam with deer skins and made her a bed to rest on. The next
morning the hunter found the cows and led her to the edge of the clear¬
ing where her home was.”
“ That wasn’t all of that story,” declared Will. “ A little while
after that he came and tried to get the Scotchman and his wife to follow
FIRST SETTLERS AND THEIR DANGERS.
him. When he saw that they would not do so he seized their baby and
ran into the woods with it. Of course they followed and he led them to
the edge of a beautiful valley where he gave them the child and said in
broken English : ‘ Yon think Indian steal child ; no, no, him have child
his own. You kind to Indian ; give him meat, and drink and clothes.
Indian want you come here ; no come ; Indian sorry ; take child, for
know then you come quick ; here good ground, few trees ; make road in
half a moon. Indians friends, help you, come here.’ McDougal saw
that the Indian was right and took his advice gladly. The Indian kept
his word to the letter. He brought a party of his comrades, helped to
build a new cabin, to move the family to it, and was always friendly
“ Oh, there are Indians and Indians, and there are white men and
white men—good and bad of both races,” observed Teddy very wisely,
u The trouble is to pick them out.”
“ I see that you like the stories better than the wars, and I think
that we will have a story lesson to-morrow night. After that you must
take the Indian history by the historical dates and look it up faithfully/*
smiled Uncle Jack, with a signal of dismissal,
STORIES OF MEANING.
" You plough the Indian’s grave; you till his land—
Is there no blood, white man, upon your hand? ”
66 A /OU have already told us ho\»
the early discoverers treated
the Indians, bnt yon may
repeat it, Hadley,” Uncle Jack said
when they were all ready for the
lesson to begin.
“ The Spaniards tortured and
killed their Indian guides for not
leading them to great treasures, for
they thought that these surely ex¬
isted in the land which they had
found. They took provisions from
them whenever they wanted to,
whether they had any left for them¬
selves or not.”
u And that wasn’t the worst that
they did,” interrupted Ray. “They
cut off their hands, burned them at
the stake, and set the bloodhounds
after them if they tried to get away. They chained them in pairs and
made them carry their baggage.”
41 Can you tell us why they were so cruel, Will ?”
u It was not so much that they delighted in such things, but they
were very selfish and regarded the Indians as beasts rather than as
human beings, neither did they count on such retaliation as they made.”
STORIES OF MEANING.
44 But the Indians did not believe all that they told them,” Ray
declared. “ For, when De Soto tried to make the Natchez Indians
think that he was a child of the sun, a chief made this answer :— 1 Dry
up the river and we will believe yon. If you wish to see me come to
the town where I dwell. If yon come in peace I will receive you with
special good will; if in war I will not shrink one foot back.’ ”
“De Soto was not the only one who used the Indians badly,” Ray
protested. “In 1660 Governor Berkerley was making money in the fur
trade in Virginia and was afraid to punish some dissatisfied Indians
who were causing considerable trouble, because they were bringing so
many skins to him. A settler who was fatally wounded said that the
Doeg Indians did it. So the other settlers immediately started in pursuit
and came to a Doeg wigwam, where they killed eleven persons,” Will
“And what do you think?” cried Teddy. “They said:— 4 It is
more than likely that they were the murderers’—they were not sure of it.”
OPENED A HOT FIRE.
“ Then another party of settlers came to a wigwam and opened fire af
once. After they had killed fourteen they found out that the Indians
were friendly Susquehannahs instead of hostile Doegs. And, strange to
relate, the Susquehannah tribe resented this act and called it a murder
by white men ! ” Ray continued.
“That was very strange ! Were they rash enough to do anything
about it ? ” asked Uncle Jack.
u Six chiefs were called to council. A fresh outrage was discovered
and five of them were put to death for it, although they were not at the
place where it happened! The result was an uprising of many tribes,”
“ And the white men fooled them in every way that they could
Yon see the Indians believed what they told them at the first,” said Ray.
“ Once a white man sold an Indian a quantity of gunpowder, telling him
to plant it like corn, and he would raise plenty without buying. It did
STORIES OF MEANING.
not come up. Then the Indian cunningly contrived to get into debt to the
white man, and did not hasten to pay. When the white man ashed him
for the money he coolly answered—‘ Me pay you when my powder
“ In bright contrast to these accounts are the labors of love which
Fere carried on among the Indians, by which many learned the Chris¬
tian religion. John Eliot was one of the foremost missionaries, and
won the name of ‘ the Apostle Eliot.’ He translated the Bible into the
Indian language, he taught them to read and write, he taught the
women to spin and weave, and the men the art of agriculture. He gave
them a code of laws and appointed a justice to administer them.”
“ I know, and the first justice was named Waban,” interrupted
Teddy. “He was said to be speedy and impartial, but he gave rather
queer summons. His warrants were all verbal and were something like
this: ‘ You big constable, quick you catch um Jeremiah Offscow, strong
you hold um, safe you bring um afore me, Waban Justice Peace.’ ”
REFUSED TO DECLARE WAR.
“ It was not in war alone that cruelties were practiced,” added Ray.
“Squando, chief of the Sokokis tribe, lived near Saco. His wife and child
were in a canoe, which the woman was paddling along. Some English
sailors saw her, seized the canoe, and told her that they had heard that
Indian babies would not sink and wanted to see if it was true. They
overturned the canoe and the child sank. The mother rescued it but it
died, and it was queer, but the father tried to arouse the Indians to a war
of extermination. Still one instance is on record where he rescued a
captive white girl and sent her home.”
“Just listen to this ! ” cried Hadley. u A Kennebec Indian, friendly
and industrious, lost his child, and a little while afterwards he said
to a white neighbor : When white man’s child die, Indian man he be sorry,
he help bury him. When my child die, no one speak to me—I make his
grave alone. I can no live here.’ And he took the child up, and carried
it with him, over two hundred miles through the woods, to Canada 19
jOHN ELIOT PREACHING TO THE INDIANS
STORIES OF MEANING
“ In tlie Rockaway conference between the Indian chiefs and the
envoys of the colonies, one of the head chiefs arose, holding a bundle of
sticks in his hand, and said to them : ‘ When yon first came to our
shores yon were destitute of food. We gave yon our beans and corn, we
fed you with oysters and fish, now yon murder our people;’ he laid down
one of the sticks and continued : ‘ The traders whom your first ships
left on our shores were cherished by ns as the apple of our eye. We gave
them our daughters for their wives, and among those whom yon have
murdered were those of your own blood;’ another stick was laid beside
the first, and so he continued until all of the sticks had been placed to
bear witness to a wrong. But the war went on for two more relentless
and bloody years,” Ray continued.
KINDNESS RETURNED FOR GOOD WILL
“ You know how Oglethorpe used the Indians of Georgia, and how
fully they returned his kindness and trust. Not only the Yamacraws,
but the Muskogees, the Creeks, the Cherokees, the Oconees, and the
Choctaws ‘ were well pleased with his frank and kind manner of dealing
with them, and trusted implicitly in the promises which he made them.’
What was that story about the Yamacraw chief, Ernest ? ”
u His name was Tomochichi, and he brought Oglethorpe a fine
buffalo skin, on the inside of which the feathers and head of an eagle
were painted. He gave it to him with these significant words :—‘ Here
is a little present for you. The feathers of the eagle are soft and signify
love ; the buffalo skin is warm and is the emblem of protection ; therefore
love and protect our little families.’ ”
“ William Penn purchased his lands of the king and also of the In¬
dians who lived on it, and it is an historical fact that not a drop of Quaker
blood was ever knowingly shed by the Indians—in all of the Indian wars !
I read how a Quaker family was spared once when all around them were
murdered, and when they dared to venture out of doors they found a
white feather over their door,” added Will.
u That shows what a very little thing will save a body sometimes.
STORIES OF MEANING.
What if the feather had blown away ? I found an instance where a prisoner
called out in the Quaker dialect and was spared, although the wood was
all ready to burn him at the stake. And he wasn’t a Quaker either—
he fooled them ! ” cried Ray.
“ The Indians could be good to each other as well as to the whites,”
said Teddy. “Once a Sioux chief found a member of a hostile tribe
stealing his traps. The thief expected to be killed at a second’s warning,
but the Sioux said :—‘ Be not alarmed, I come to present you with the
trap of which I see that you stand in need. You are welcome to it. Take
my rifle also, for I see that you are poor and have none of your own.
Depart with it to the land of your countrymen, and linger not here, lest
some of my young men, who are panting for the blood of their enemies,
should discover your footsteps in our hunting grounds and should fall
upon you and kill you.’ He handed him his rifle and returned to the
village, of which he was the chief, alone and unarmed.”
CURSES FOR WHITE MAN.
(l Did you read about the missionary who met the Indian in the
forest ? ” asked Hadley. “The Indian wanted to know why he was there
and he replied confidently: ‘ I am traveling to the homes of your brothers,
to teach them the knowledge of the only true God, and to lead them to
happiness and peace.’ ‘Happiness and peace!’the Indian cried, his
eyes flashing fire. ‘ Behold the blessings which follow in the footsteps
of the white man ! Wherever he comes the red men of the forest fade
away like the mists of the morning ! Our people once roamed in free¬
dom through the woods, and hunted the beaver, the elk, and the bear
unmolested. From the further side of the Great Water came the white
man, armed with thunder and lightning. In war he hunted us like
wild beasts; in peace he destroyed us by deadly liquors. Depart,
dangerous man, and may the Great Spirit protect you on your journey
homeward ; but I warn you to depart.’ ”
“ I think that the prophet of the Alleghany knew what he was
talking about when he said : ‘ Hear me, oh my people, for the last time 1
STORIES OF MEANING.
What will be the fate of our tribes ? In a little while they will go the
way that their brethren have gone. They will vanish like a vapor from
'he face of the earth. Their very history will be lost, and the places
vhich know them now will know them no more forever. We are driven
Jack until we can retreat no further ; our hatchets are broken ; our bows
are snapped ; our fires are extinguished. A little longer the white mat]
will cease to prosecute us, for we shall have ceased to exist!’ ” said Ray.
“ Who can read the story of Logan and blame him for fighting the
whites ? ” questioned Will. “ Madokowondo was a chief of the Penobscot
tribe who was friendly
to the whites until
they destroyed his
corn, and did him
other injuries which
he went to war to re¬
venge. Magus was
a squaw sachem of
who was captured
and put to death by
the English during
King Philip’s war.”
“Step by step the
Indian has been driven from the land of his fathers, move by move
has he been obliged to make towards the setting sun. In nearly all of
the frontier wars the settler has been the one who gave cause for the war
by taking the Indian’s lands, legally if he could, but any way to get it I
They took their lands for just what they chose to give, and the simple
red men thought that they were selling the right to use the lands in
common with themselves. They had no idea of selling the land out*
right and debarring themselves from it forever, and they could not
understand how it could be so,” Ray added quickly.
“Som^ commissioners once went to treat with a certain tribe cob-
missionary PREACHING TO THE INDIANS.
STORIES OF MEANING.
cernin g another ‘ removal,’ as their lands were wanted in the onward rush
of settlement. The chief heard their arguments in silence. Then
one of them seated himself upon a log which was already occupied
by one of the commissioners. The log was quite a long one, and
the farther end overhung a steep rock, with jagged stones at the
bottom of the descent. The Indian began to quietly crowd the com¬
missioner along the log, the others looking on in grave silence, with faces
that completely concealed their thoughts and purpose. Finally the end
of the log was reached and the puzzled commissioner started to get up.
The chief laid his hand on his arm and said significantly:—‘ No, brother.
Move on ! ’ ‘ I cannot, I have arrived at the end,’ answered the com¬
missioner, very unwisely. 1 That is it,’ was the stern reply of the old
chief. ‘We cannot move further,—we have reached the end!’ There
is a whole lesson in that, isn’t there, Uncle Jack?” asked Teddy
WHAT A FAMOUS CHIEF SAID.
u Pachgantschilias, a Delaware chief, once said wisely :— 4 1 admit
that there are good white men, but they bear no proportion to the bad;
the bad must be the strongest, for they rule. * * * They enslave
those who are not of their own color * * * they would make slaves
of us if they could, but as they cannot do that, they will kill us ! There
is no faith to be placed in their words. They are not like the Indians,
who are enemies only while in war, and are friends in peace. * * *
Remember that this day I have warned you to beware of such friends as
these. I know the Longknives, they are not to be trusted ! ’ Quite com*
plimentary, wasn’t it? ” laughed Ray.
“To my mind, Joseph, the Nez Perces chief, was wisest and best of
all that I have read about,” Ernest declared. He said :—‘ The Great
Spirit Chief who rules above seems to be looking the other way, and does
not see what is being done to my people. I know that my race must
change. We cannot hold our own with the white man as we are. We
only ask an even chance to live as other men live. We ask to be recog-
STORIES OF MEANING,
nized as men. If the Indian breaks the law, punish him with the law ;
if the white man breaks the law punish him also. We ask that the same
law shall be alike to all mend ”
“ That was when the white folks were trying to make them i move
on/ and there was some sense in the talk—don’t you think so?” asked
Will. “ Was that all of his speech ? ”
“ Oh no. He continued :— £ Let me be a free man, free to think, act
CAMP OF THE NEZ PERCES.
and talk for myself, and I will obey every law or submit to the penalty.
When white men treat the Indians as they treat each other, then we shall
have no more wars. Then the Great Spirit Chief, who rules above, will
smile upon this land, and will send rain to wash from the face of the
earth the bloody stains made by brothers’ hands. For this the Indian
race is waiting and praying.’ ”
“ Still one of the reverend fathers of early times wrote : £ The Lord
STORIES OF MEANING.
God of our fathers hath given to us the land of the heathen people,
amongst whom we live, for a rightful inheritance.’ I wonder what he
would have said if he would have been one of the ‘ heathen people ! f
That was one trouble, they called all of their cruel deeds the Lord’s will*
and tried to see how bad they could be. I wouldn’t wonder if the angels
wept at what they laid to the Lord sometimes ! ” protested Teddy.
“Why Teddy Morse!” exclaimed Roy.
“I meant just what I said,” he nodded firmly. “I wouldn’t wondet
if they did.”
“We will look over the principal Indian events since 1862 and see
where the blame lies. We can easily find out about them. It was in
1862 that the Sioux massacred over six hundred men, women and chil¬
dren, besides killing nearly a hundred soldiers. Why ? ” asked
“ Because the money due them was not paid when it was due,”
answered Ernest promptly.
A FOUL MURDER.
“ In 1864, there was the Sand Creek massacre of nearly one hundred
and fifty Indians, mostly women and children, and they were, in a way,
under the protection of the United States Government at the time they
were murdered by men under Colonel Chivington and Major Anthony.
Why ? ”
“That isn’t an easy question to answer, as they were at the place
where they were told to go as non-combatants. And the United States
flag was flying over Black Kettle’s tent, with a white flag under it at the
time,” replied Will.
“ Well, perhaps we shall see something more about that. Then
there was the Fetterman massacre, when the Sioux got over eighty
soldiers in an ambuscade and none escaped, in 1866. In 1868, the Chey¬
ennes, Arrapahoes, Kiowas, Camanches and some Brule and Ogal
lalla Sioux were on the warpath. In 1873, Colonel Baker’s men
massacred one hundred and seventy-three Pieg^ns, and fifty-three 0/
STORIES OF MEANING.
them were women and children. This was followed by the treacherous
murder of the Peace Commissioners the same year. And it was in 187c
CHIEF SA-TANT-TA, KIOWA TRIBE.
chat General Custer and all of his command were hilled at the Big Horn.”
“ I have always wanted to know how they could tell so much about
that fight if every one was killed,” observed Roy.
STORIES OF MEANING.
“ An old trapper named Ridgely was a prisoner in Sitting Bull’s
camp at the time that General Custer attacked it. He was probably the
only man who witnessed the fight and lived to tell of it,” answered
Uncle Jack. “ In 1874, the Hulapais were sent to a new home which was
so unhealthy that they ran away from it to prevent utter extermination*
and we all know about the disgraceful ‘ removal ’ of the Poncas. What
happened in 1877 ?”
“The Nez Perces war. It was caused by trying to force a portion
of that nation, the lower Nez Perces, who had been guilty of no depre¬
dations against the whites, to go to the Lapwai reservation instead of
letting them return to their own homes which had never been purchased
from them,” answered Hadley.
CAUSE OF THE INDIAN WARS.
“The wars with the Chiricahua Apaches have been caused by try¬
ing to compel them to go to the San Carlos agency, an unhealthy place
for these free Indians of the mountains, and already occupied by bands
hostile to them. That was also the cause of the wars with the Mimbre-
nos Apaches. What about the Nothern Cheyennes ? ”
“They did not want to stay in the Indian Territory, as it was not
healthy for them there, and a war was the result. And the White
Mountain Coyoteros were always friendly to the whites, but that didn’t
save them from being removed from their farms to the unhealthy valley
of the Gila. In despair they gave up farming and became almost
demoralized, where they had been making great progress in their old
homes,” answered Ray.
“What about the Modoc war and the Sioux war of 1876?”
“The Modoc war was caused by trying to keep them on a reserva¬
tion with the Klamaths, with whom they could not live peacefully, noi
would they be able to raise any food for themselves. The Sioux war was
caused by trying to drive them from the Powder River country, which
had been guaranteed to them for a hunting ground, and there was but
very little game on their regular reservation,” Rruest replied.
STORIES OF MEANING.
* c These few instances speak the tale of our numerous Indian wars,
for they all have much the same cause. We shall hear more about
CHIEF HO-WEAR, COMANCHE TRIBE,
them under their proper date, but nothing different from what I have
stated. How many Indians are in the United States ? ”
STORIES OF MEANING.
“There were about two hundred and seventy thousand in 1886.
That was partly by estimation, for some of them do not like to be
counted and make a bother about it if they can,” responded Teddy.
“Who can tell me how many were here when America was dis¬
covered ? ”
“ There are many opinions about that, and I reckon no one knows
how to answer that question. Dodge says that there were possibly a
million, but probably not half of that number, and I guess he knows as
much about it as any one,” answered Hadley.
“ Did the Pueblos ever rebel, Ray ? ”
“Yes, when their territory became a part of the United States they
committed their one offence against the government, and in that they
were led on by the Mexicans. But only the Taosan band was concerned
in the uprising.”
DISHONEST TREATMENT OF MISSION INDIANS.
“Will, what of the Mission Indians of California?”
“ Under the priests they were happy and contented, and were
advancing in the ways of civilization, but they have been used badly, and
are a miserable people now. They were skilled workmen in almost every
branch, and their labor created the buildings and fertile fields of the
Missions, which have become government property without recompense
to the founders. For some time they were sold with the land they occu¬
pied and considered themselves slaves like the negroes in the South.
“I don’t know exactly where this story belongs,” said Hadley
“ But it is a good one and I thought I would tell it to you. The first
settler of Whitesborough was one Mr. White, and there were Indians in
the vicinity with whom he had smoked the pipe of peace, but who did
not exactly trust his professions of friendship. So Shenandoah, one of
the tribe, went to the house and said:—I am come to ask for your little
daughter to take home with me to-night.’ The mother was frightened
and was about to refuse the request, but the father smiled and granted it
STORIES OF MEANING.
“ Why did he do so ?” demanded Roy. “ Wasn’t he afraid to ?”
“ He was afraid not to. It would not have saved the child to refuse,
if the Indians were going to kill them, and he saw that it might do
much good to grant the request,—just as it did. The chief took the
little girl by the hand, saying:—‘To-morrow, when the sun is high in
he heaven, I will bring her back.’ ”
“ Did that make them feel any better about it?” asked Ray.
“ Not very much. The poor mother did not sleep that night, think¬
ing of the possible fate of her child. And she watched, almost without
hope, until the sun reached the noon mark, then she saw them coming
•from the woods, the little girl all decked out in feathers, beaded
moccasins and shells. From that time the Indians were their friends
and fully repaid the trust which the father had put in them. Shenandoah
lived to be over a hundred years old, and fought with the Americans in
the Revolution, when his influence brought many of his tribe with him.
He was called 4 The White Man’s Friend’ and saved more than one
lonely settlement by timely warnings.”
“ I shouldn’t think you did know where that story belongs!”
ejaculated Ray. “It belongs to the Revolution times.”
“Well, it is told now, so what difference does it make?” was the
“Another concert to-night?” inquired Uncle Jack, with twink¬
“Yes, we will finish what we began last night,” cried Teddy, with
a defiant look at the guide who was talking with the Indian in the moon¬
light by the river. He arose and came to the camp at these words.
“ Hold on there, youngsters, put up your drums and tooters. John
is going to give us a war-dance, the real thing as he used to see it when
he was a kid, and he don’t want any of your music to dance to, either.
Take a seat and keep quiet,”he said.
And that dance was something which they dreamed of, but they
never asked to have it repeated.
MILES STAN DISH AND THE PILGRIMS.
Our fortress is the good green wood.
Our tent the cypress tree ;
We know the forest round us
, As seamen know the sea.”
ELL, what is the subject of our lesson
to-night?” asked Uncle Jack, with an
inquiring look around the circle of eager,
boyish faces. “I think yon begin to like history for
its own sake, young men.”
“Indeed we do—with yon to help ns understand
it,” returned Will gratefully.
“The coining of the Pilgrims is next,” cried
Ernest. “It was a superstitions fact that the Puritans
thought that every victory was a direct blessing from God, and a defeat
was a punishment for some sin or omission. At one time, when nine
settlers were killed, the Reverend Increase Mather said : 1 This Provi¬
dence is observable that the nine men who were killed at that time
belonged to nine different towns. It is as if the Lord saith that He
hath a controversy with each plantation, and therefore that all have
need to repent and reform their ways.’ So I suppose they thought that
their wars with the Indians were something which they could not avoid.”
“ It seems to me that they did not have as many wars with them as
some of the other colonies did anyhow,” said Teddy thoughtfully.
“Perhaps they used them better, more like human beings.”
“Hadley, you may begin with the time when the Mayflower lay at
anchor in Plymouth harbor, while a party of the Puritans explored the
coast for a suitable place to begin their settlement. You can tell us
what they found.”
“ They found a little corn and an Indian graveyard. When they
MILES STANDISH AND THE PILGRIMS
had followed the shore about a mile they saw several natives watching
them curiously, and advanced towards them, but they ran away into the
forest as soon as they found that they were discovered. The Puritans
followed but could not overtake them, so they went into camp there for the
THE “MAYFLOWER” IN PLYMOUTH HARBOR.
“ It was this time that Mr. Bradford was caught in a deer trap,”
“ I never heard of such a thing,” exclaimed Will in surprise.
“What was it ? Tell us about it if you know.”
u Oh, it wasn’t a steel one you needn’t think. It was made by
MILES STANDISH AND THE PILGRIMS.
Dending the top of a sapling to the earth, and fastening it in such a way
' it would he released when a person or animal, passing by, stepped
in to a noose, which was cunningly concealed by dry leaves and rubbish.
I knew a man down in Maine that got caught in one once, and would
have been hung up all night if some one hadn’t happened to come that
way and help him out. Yon see, when the tree was released they found
themselves between the earth and sky the first thing they knew, and
that’s the way that the Indians used to catch large game sometimes.”
“ Did they stay in that place long ? ”
“ No, they took the corn which they found in a pit, and carried it to
the ship to save for seed, but they did not steal it, for afterwards they
found out what Indians it belonged to and paid them for it,” answered Roy.
MADE A SHALLOP.
“ Did they go out again to explore the coast before they landed, and
what adventure did they have, Ernest ? ”
“They made a shallop before they went, then skirted the coast foi
some distance. They went as far as the bottom of Cape Cod bay and
landed there, a part of them going along the shore by land, while the
others followed with the boat. They found Indian graves and deserted
wigwams, but saw no natives.”
“They saw some the next morning though,” cried Teddy. “ They
encamped near Nantasket that night and just as they had finished
their prayers in the morning, they were startled by an Indian war-
whoop, and the arrows began to fall around them in an uncomfortable
“ These Indians were under a chief called Aspinet,” continued
Hadley, “and they ran away as soon as the Puritans fired their muskets.
Some of the histories say that Captain Miles Standish shattered the arm
of a big warrior, who gave such a yell that they all followed him as he
fled, but I don’t know how they knew it.”
“They found it out after they got acquainted with the Indians—
that’s easy enough,” said Ernest, shrugging his shoulders.
MILES STANDISH AND THE PILGRIMS.
“Can you tell us of any possible reason why tbe Indians should
attack them, Ray ? ”
“Why, some of their people had been kidnapped a few years before
that, and taken away to be sold as slaves, and they thought that the
Puritans were after more of them. Was it any wonder that they wanted
to drive them away from their land ? ”
“Yes, they were mad because Weymouth and Hunt had been kid¬
napping all along that coast,” nodded Roy. “It was about 1616 when
Captain Hunt took over twenty natives, with their chief, Squanto, to
Spain and sold them as slaves.”
“Not Squanto, the Indian that aided the Pilgrims ?” ejaculated
LUCKY FOR THE WHITE MEN.
il Yes, that very one, and all things considered it was a lucky thing
for the white men, for he learned to be an interpreter, and he wouldn’t
have been if he had never been kidnapped,” Roy went on. “He was
bought by some kind monks who educated him, and he escaped to Eng¬
land, where he learned the English language before returning to his
“Some of the histories say that Tisquantum was Squanto, and that
he was carried off by Weymouth in 1605. Perhaps there were two of
the same name and one was taken by Hunt,” suggested Will.
“ What aid the Puritans say about this man? ” asked Uncle Jack.
“They thought that he ‘ was a special instrument sent of God fol
their good beyond their expectation.’ He taught them how to raise
corn, putting a fish or two in each hill to fertilize it, and how to hunt
and fish. He was their interpreter and always a true friend. Hobbomak
was another friend to the white men. He became a servant to Miles
Standish, and served him faithfully for over twenty years,” answered
“ Wait, you are getting ahead of the times, young men. Did they
see any more of the Indians before they landed at Plymouth and built
their houses, Ernest ?”
milks standish and the pilgrims.
“ I think not. The next Indian visit that I read of was in March,
1621, when the colony was much surprised and startled to see an Indian
walk boldly into the village, but they were more amazed when he
greeted them in English, saying: ‘Welcome, Englishmen.’ He belonged
to the Wampanoag tribe, his name was Samoset, and he had learned a
few English words of the fishermen at Penobscot.”
“ Is that all about him, Hadley ? ”
u Oh no. He told them that some time before that time a pesti¬
lence, something like our yellow fever, had swept among the tribes from
the Penobscot River to the Narragansett Bay, and that nearly all of the
natives had perished of it. That they could possess the land in peace,
as the red men who had owned it had gone to the happy hunting
ground. He remained that night and went away to his people in the
morning, taking the presents which they gave him.”
TRADE WITH THE INDIANS.
“ What sort of presents were they ? ” asked Ray curiously.
“ Oh, they gave him a ring, a bracelet, and a knife, and he went
back to his people, saying that he would soon return and bring others to
trade with them. That was the beginning of the barter trade with the
Indians in New England,” answered Will.
“ Was that his last visit, Roy ? ”
“No indeed. He was afterwards of great service to the Puritans.
In a few days he came back with the Indian called Squanto. They told
the settlers that the great and powerful chief, Massasoit, with his brother,
Quadequina, and sixty warriors of the tribe, were coming to visit them.
And, in fact, they were right at their heels.”
“ Weren’t the Puritans afraid then ? ” asked Ernest.
“No. Captain Standish knew what he was about. He would not
let many of the Indians come into the village at one time, but Edward
Winslow had to go and stay with the warriors as a hostage while the
chief stayed in the settlement,” replied Teddy.
“ What can you tell ns about this tribe of Indians, Hadley ? ”
MIXES STANDISH AND THE PIEGRIMS.
“They were not a very numerous tribe, and they had their head¬
quarters where Bristol, R. I., is now. I guess that they roamed all
through Massachusetts and Rhode Island—they did anyway in the
time of King Philip’s war.”
TREATY BETWEEN PLYMOUTH COLONY AND MASSASOIT.
“What sort of a man was this great Indian chief? What was his
character, and how did he appear? ”
“John S. C. Abbott says of him;—‘ He was a remarkable man,
majestic in statue, in the prime of life, of grave and stately demeanor,
reserved in speech, and ever proving faithful to his obligations,’ ”
“ I say, fellows,, but that was a pretty good recommend,” laughed
Ernest. “ Any white man might be proud to have John S. C. Abbott say
that of him.”
“ That wasn’t all of it,” said Teddy. “ Mr Abbott goes on to say
* He wore a chain of white bone beads about his neck, and a little bag
of tobacco, from which he smoked and presented to his white friends tc
smoke with him. His face was painted of a deep red color, and that and
MILES STANDISH AND THE PILGRIMS.
his hair were oiled until they were glossy.’ It is supposed that he had
a very large family but only two sons, Alexander and Philip, are com¬
monly mentioned in history.”
“ Did he make any agreement to be friendly with the whites,
“ Yes, and he kept that treaty to his death—for almost fifty 3'ears.
He pledged himself that his people should not harm the settlers. If any
of the lawless ones did so they should be given up for punishment, and
he would immediately send word to his confederate tribes, advising them
to observe the treaty which he had made. He and the governor agreed
that stolen property, on either side, should be restored, and that when
either party visited the other they should go unharmed.”
WATCHED ALL NIGHT.
“ Did any more of them visit the settlement at that time, Teddy ? ”
“ After Massasoit went back to his braves, Qnadequina made them
a call, Winslow was released, and all of the Indians withdrew to the
forest, except Samoset and Squanto, who remained in the settlement.
Both the red men and the white men watched all through the night,
for in spite of the treaty neither party seemed to have much faith in the
other. Then Massasoit came and camped close by, and visits between
the Indians and the settlers were frequent and pleasant, each party
strictly observing the conditions of the treaty and going unharmed.”
“Did they have trouble with any other Indians about this time,
Hadley ? ”
u Canonicus, chief of the Narragansetts, was an enemy to Massasoit,
and was not disposed to make friends with his friends and allies. These
Narragansetts were a warlike and powerful tribe, and so conceited that
they thought they could conquer any other people in the world.”
“ They found that there were others in the world as big as they
were,” interrupted Teddy.
“ What did this great chief do, Ernest? ”
“ He didn’t do so much as he threatened to do. He sent a challenge
MILES STANDISH AND THE PILGRIMS.
of defiance to the Puritans—a bundle of arrows wrapped about with a
rattlesnake’s skin. Governor Bradford snatched the arrows from the skin
and filled it to the jaws with powder and balls, and then sent it back.”
“ What did the Indians say to that, Roy ?”
“They thought that it was a witch charm and wouldn’t touch it if
they could help it. It was sent from one place to another, none of them
daring to keep or to destroy it! Finally it came back to Plymouth as
full as when it started out, in answer to the haughty chief.”
ALARMED BY GOVERNOR’S ANSWER.
“What effect did the sending of it have, Ray?”
u Canonicus was frightened by the governor’s stern answer and by
t fie strange witch charm which he sent to destroy them, and soon wanted
to make a treaty of peace also. You may believe that the Puritans were
very glad to do it.”
“Can you tell us about the colony at Weymouth, and how they
nearly made trouble for the Puritans, Will ?
“ It was a settlement of about sixty men, who led an idle life,
ill treating the Indians and stealing their corn instead of planting for
themselves. They were not Puritans but they were white men, so Miles
Standish went to help them when they got into trouble with their red
neighbors. He killed the leader and his men killed two others, before
the Indians were scared and ran away. Standish took the head of the
dead chief back to Plymouth, where he stuck it on a pole after a
fashion of those days.”
“This was about the time of tbe first massacre in Virginia by
Opechancanough’s tribe; that was why they were so frightened,”
“You haven’t told us how they came to know that there was a plan
to attack Weymouth, and possibly of exterminating the white men in
Massachusetts. Do you know anything about it, Ernest?”
“ Massasoit told them of the plot because he was so grateful when
Winslow cured him of his sickness.”
MILES STANDISH AND THE PILGRIMS.
“ That is something els~ ’.hat we have not heard of, I believe,” said
v Jncle Jack quietly.
“Why, didn’t I tell you? I meant to,” cried Teddy. “ Massasoit
was taken very ill and Winslow and Hampden, with Hobbomak as guide,
went to see him. They found his house filled with medicine men, all
holding a regular pow-wow, and making the most hideous noises to drive
away the evil spirit of death.”
H What did Winslow do then ?”
THE FIRST CHURCH IN NEW ENGLAND.
(s He drove them all out and gave the sick chief relief by giving
him some simple medicine and perfect quiet. Soon he was able
to sit up and eat, and the Indians were as puzzled and awed as they were
pleased at his unlooked-for recovery,” said Roy.
“Yes, I read that Winslow even made him a broth of pounded corn
strawberry leaves and sassafrass root, well boiled, and that he strained
it through his handkerchief! Massasoit’s recovery was so remarkable
that Indians came a hundred miles to prove the truth of it, and the great
MILES STANDISH AND THE PILGRIMS.
thief said gratefully;—‘Now I see that the English are my friends and
love me. And while I live I will never forget this kindness which they
have shown me,’ ” said Ray.
“ He never did forget it, and this incident had a very great influence
as .showing the power of the white men, for Winslow got rather more
credit than he deserved,” laughed Teddy. “ It was fortunate that the
chief was not dangerously sick ! If he had died the story would have
v ad another ending.”
PLOT TO MASSACRE THE WHITES.
r: Then Massasoit told Winslow that there was a plot to massacre
every white man in the country, because those at Weymouth were bad,
and they thought that all might be. But Captain Miles Standish soon
stopped that,” Hadley concluded,
“ Well, Massasoit helped the colonists all that he could, even if
they did pay him back as much, or more than he gave. One day a boy
belonging to the settlement was lost in the woods, and after he wandered
about for five long days, he was found by some of the same tribe of
Indians that Captain Hunt kidnapped the twenty men from, Massasoit
found where he was and he was delivered to those who went for him,
safe and unharmed, although considerably frightened,” said Ray,
“Then the Puritans did not have any serious trouble with the
Indians as long as Massasoit lived, was that so, Teddy ?”
“Yes; Captain Miles Standish had a brush or two with them—you
have read about it in Longfellow’s poems—but while Massasoit lived,
they had a peaceful time compared to what followed.”
“Say, you know the Puritans gathered an abundant harvest in the
fall of 1623 > who can tell us about the first Thanksgiving Day in New
England ?” asked Ernest, breathlessly.
“ Pho, I could tell you all about that, but I think that Edward Wins¬
low’s letter to a friend in England will describe it better than I can,”
said Teddy. “ He said:—‘ Our harvest being in, Governor Bradford sent
four men out fowling, so that we might, after a special manner, rejoice
MILES STANDISH AND THE PILGRIMS.
together after w@ had gathered the fruits of our labors. They four, iu
one day, killed as many fowls as, with a little help outside, served the
company at least a week. At which time, among other recreations, we
exercised our arms, and among the rest was their greatest king, Massa-
soit, with ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted,
and they went out and killed four deer, which they brought to the plan¬
tation, and bestowed upon our governor, the captain and others.’ ”
ORIGIN OF OUR THANKSGIVING.
“And that was the beginning of our Thanksgivings,’’said Will,
musingly. “ Does it strike any of you as a little significant that the
Indians and the white men should celebrate the first American
Thanksgiving Day together? ”
“Why—I never thought of it, but it surely was a little queer,”
answered Roy. “ And how many times both parties have put an end to
the thanksgiving of the other!”
“ I want to tell you a story, it will show what some of the men of
those days were like,” cried Ernest. “ One of the Weymouth men stole
some corn from an Indian storehouse. The owner followed his trail and
demanded satisfaction. The settlers were afraid to try to shield him for
fear of what the Indians would do, so the commander of the company
called them all together, and they finally decided that they would put the
man’s clothes upon an old person who was too infirm to work, and hang
him in the other’s stead.”
“There’s justice and common sense for you!” exclaimed Teddy,
aghast at the thought. “Did they do it?”
“ No, they had a long discussion, and as they did not exactly agree,
they decided to hang the real thief. Then there was another difficulty,
for the man was almost a second Samson, and they were afraid to try to
hang him. No one could be found to arrest him and carry out the
“ I saw that, and I will tell you what they did do. They got the
man to let them bind him hand and foot in fun—I don’t know just how
MILES STANDISH AND THE PILGRIMS,
it was done, and I guess lie didn’t either—and then they hung him tu
earnest !” interrupted Will.
“ I don’t believe that story.” said Hadley decidedly. “No man
would have been fool enough foi that in those times.”
“ I don’t know,” said Uncle Jack slowly. “If our histories tell the
truth fools were not very scarce then. Now we will go on. It was in
TRADING WITH THE INDIANS.
1626 that Peter Minuits bought the island of Manhattan from the coun¬
cil of Indian chiefs, and won their friendship by purchasing that which
others had taken without a question of ownership. He governed New
Amsterdam about six years, and managed the Indians with such tact and
firmness that they remained friendly, bringing cargoes of furs to trade.
Who wa& the next governor, Ray, and how did he treat the Indians ?”
“He yas Van Twill er, and he treated them fairly well, but there
MILES STANDISH AND THE PILGRIMS.
were quarrels between the savages and tbe settlers constantly. Of
course there was wrong on both sides. The white men were brutal and
overbearing, and the red men were treacherous and suspicious.’’
“ The next governor was William Keift. President Roosevelt calls
him the worst of the four Dutch governors, in his ‘ Historic Towns.’ He
was mean and cruel and had no faculty of managing men. He should
bear the blame of the Dutch
wars with the Indians from
1640 to 1645,” continued Will.
u And he took good care
to keep his own precious self
in the fort, and would take
advice of no man. If he had
been strong and wise the
Dutch history of New York
would have been far different.
1 le was not mnch like de
Vries, who was always kind
but firm with the Indians, and
was beloved and respected by
them,” added Roy.
“What began thesj In-
d ; an troubles, Ernest ?”
“ The colonists had been
forbidden to sell arms to the
Indians, but some of the
traders disobeyed, for there was great profit in the business when the
red men would pay almost any price for a musket, and at least four hun¬
dred Mohawk warriors were provided with guns. They felt rather
independent, as a matter of course, and when Kieft ordered them to
pay tribute they flatly refused. Their liking for the Dutch began to
die away then, and they were not slow to take offence whenever offered.”
u It was in 1634 that Cecil, Lord Baltimore, purchased lands of the
Indians and founded St. Mary, in Maryland, appointing his brother
SQUAW AND PAPOOSE.
MILES STANDISH AND THE PILGRIMS.
Leonard Calvert, Governor of the place. They treated the natives fairly
and won their friendship,” said Will.
“ Yes, the native chiefs visited the colony often. The native women
taught their English sisters to make Indian meal and bread, while the
hunters taught the men to get game in the forest. They lived in peace
for ten years or more, many of the Indians sending their children to be
instructed by the priests,” continued Roy.
“But with the increase of white population the troubles and mis¬
understandings with the Indians increased also, and not always in pro¬
portion. As late as 1730 it was ordered by the General Assembly that
no treaties of peace should be made with the natives, an act which plainly
shows the feeling of the times,” said Uncle Jack, with a sigh. “Now
bring your instruments, we will serenade the owls, and show John whaJ
civilized music is. Do your best boys.”
THE PEQUODS AND ROGER WILLIAMS.
Was that the tread of many feet,
Which downward from the hillside beat ?
What forms were those which darkly stood
Just on the margin of the wood ? ”
66 INDIAN troubles became frequent and serious about 1636. Cap»
tain Oldman and bis crew were murdered by the Indians while
exploring the river, and the Pequods refused to give up the mur¬
derers but they offered to ransom them according to Indian custom. This
was refused and two of their villages were burned. These Pequods were
the most powerful and warlike tribe in New England, with many warriors
ready for a fight. But, strong as they were, they hesitated to make war
upon the whites alone, and tried to get the Narragansetts to help them.
Why didn’t that tribe join them ? ” asked LTncle Jack.
“ They would if it hadn’t been for Roger Williams, who was a friend
of Miantonomoh, their chief,” answered Will.
“Who was Roger Williams, Ray ? ”
“He was a man who came to America in 1631. He was a young
minister, one whom the old records describes as ‘ lovely in his carriage
godly and zealous, having precious gifts.’ ”
“ Was he popular, Teddy ? ”
“He was at first, but when he advanced the opinion that all men
should be free to follow the dictates of their own conscience, it did not
please the stern old Puritans very well, and the result was that they
drove him out of the colony.”
“ The Puritans treated the Indians fairly, and won their confidence
and friendship. Many tribes made alliance with them and the sachem of
the Mohegans asked them to establish a colony in Connecticut, in 1632,”
THE PBQUODS AND ROGER WILLIAMS.
a But that has nothing to do with Roger Williams, and we want to
learn more about him just now. How did they drive him out of the
colony, Ray ? ”
“ The people began to flock to hear him talk and the magistrates
were alarmed ; so it was decided to send him to England in a ship which
was about ready to sail. He was ordered to go to Boston and take passage
in that ship, but he would not do it, and a boat’s crew was sent to bring
him by force, but they did not find him.”
“ Can you tell where he went, Will ? ”
“ He left Salem, a wanderer for conscience sake, in the bitter cold of
a northern winter. The snow was deep upon the ground and the weather
was very cold. He says himself, that, for fourteen weeks, he ‘ was sorely
tost in a bitter season, not knowing what bed or bread did mean.’ ”
KINDLY WELCOMED BY THE SAVAGES.
“That isn’t telling where he went,” cried Roy. “When he was
banished from the settlements of his own race he sought the country and
villages of the Indians, whose friendship he had won during his stay in
the colony. He had learned their language while he was at Plymouth,
and could speak it almost as well as a native. So he went from lodge
to lodge, always kindly welcomed by the savages, sometimes spending
the night in a hollow tree, until he reached Mount Hope, where his
friend Massasoit lived.”
“ And he received a warm, true welcome. Was any other great chief
his friend, Ernest ? ”
“Yes, Canonicns, the great chieftain of the Narragansett tribe, loved
him so tenderly that his love ceased only with his life. It was in the
homes of these friendly Indians that Roger Williams passed that first
winter of exile in safety. He never ceased to be grateful for their aid
in his distress, and, during his whole life, he was the especial friend and
champion of the New England tribes.”
“He intended to settle at Seekonk, but when he found that the land
there belonged to the Plymouth colony, he went on to Narragansett Bay.
THE PEQUODS AND ROGER WILLIAMS.
and became tbe ‘ Father of Rhode Island.’ He did not want to stay
under the laws of Plymouth,” nodded Teddy.
“ Can you blame him for that ? What did he name his colony,
Hadley, and why ? ”
“ Because it was to be an asylum for all oppressed people, and in
gratitude for his deliverance from the many dangers which he had
passed through, he called the place Providence. He tried to buy the
land for settlement, but Canonicus refused to sell it, and gave it to him
as a friend, ‘to be his to enjoy forever.’ It was not a donation for the site
of a settlement, but was to belong to Williams to do as he pleased with.”
“Then he was a rich man! ” exclaimed Ray joyfully. “How did
those old fellows who turned him out feel about it ? I’ll bet they were
more than a little mad. Of course he sold the land to settlers at a good
GAVE LAND TO ALL SETTLERS.
“ Others probably would have done so, and he might have made
money in that way, but he would not do it. He gave a share of the land
to all who came there to settle, and the government of the place was
administered by all of the people that lived there. All public measures
were decided b}^ a majority, but every man was left to answer to God
alone in matters of conscience. All forms of religious beliefs were pro¬
tected, and even infidelity was saved from punishment. Thus did Roger
Williams live up to the principles which he advanced,” Will explained.
“There was a woman about that time who was just like him, that
is, she was too liberal to suit those stern, old Puritans,” said Ray. “Her
name was Anne Hutchinson, and when she was driven away from Mas¬
sachusetts she went into the terrtiory of the Dutch, and was finally mur¬
dered by the Indians, with her whole family, except a child who was
taken away as prisoner. So you see those first settlers were not always
good to their own race. There is a queer thing about that. The Purn
tans came here to get a chance to do as they had a mind to, and they
wanted everybody to do j ust as they told them to and were mad if thej
THE PEQUODS AND ROGER WILLIAMS.
u Now we will return to tire account of tire Pequod war,” Uncle
Jack reminded them. “ Will, you said that the Narragansetts would
have joined the tribe if it hadn’t been for Roger Williams. How
was that ?”
u Why—he prevented them from doing it.”
“ And now fellows, what do you think ? The very men who had
driven him into exile in the midst of a New England winter, now begged of
him to use his influence with the Narragansett chief, so that that tribe
would at least remain neutral, if they could not be persuaded to
LANDING OF ROGER WILLIAMS AT PROVIDENCE.
help the whites. They knew the Narragansetts wouldn’t do it to please
them. Wasn’t that cheeky ?” demanded Ernest indignantly.
“ And did Miantonomoh remain friendly to the whites ?”
“ Yes, he did ; and his tribe with him. Roger Williams stayed rigln
there three days and nights, talking with them, and when he went away
they had agreed to help the whites if there was a war, instead of fighting
against them. Hurrah for Roger Williams!” shouted Teddy with
a If he had failed and Miantonomoh had not protected him ? he
THE PEQUODS AND ROGER WILLIAMS.
would have been killed instantly, for the Peqnod chiefs were already
there, and the Narragansetts had made np their minds to help them,”
“ Will, did the Peqnods make war after all ?
“Yes, they decided they had warriors enongh to try it alone, and
began to kill the settlers along the Connecticut river. Captain John
Mason was sent against them with eighty men, and he went to Canonicus
to ask him to help him. That chief hardly wanted to give open aid, but
more than two hundred of his braves agreed to go, and they were joined
by seventy Mohegans nnder Chief Uncas.”
“ They attacked the Peqnod fort, where the barking of a dog gave
an unexpected alarm and the attack was a hurried one. To make a sure
thing of it the wigwams, all made of matting, were set on fire, and the
Indians tried in vain to put the fire out. The English withdrew to a
safe place where they could see and pick off the poor Pequods as the}"
fled from their blazing homes. More than six hundred of them perished,
the most of them being burned in the wigwams. The battle lasted only
^n hour, and only two white men were killed,” added Ray.
STORY OF THE PEQUODS.
“ The warlike Peqnods were not really related to the Indians around
them,” continued Ernest. “ They came from the country of the
Mowhaks and had given the colonists considerable trouble before this
happened. But perhaps the fault was not all with them.”
“The Pequod fort which the English destroyed at that time, was
their largest and strongest one, and they did not think that it could
be taken by the whites. It was a terrible fight. Whenever a Pequod
appeared he was shot down without delay or mercy. What was the
result of it, Teddy ?”
“As the sun rose, a body of three hundred Pequod warriors were
seen coming from a second fort. They expected to find the English all
dead, and came to rejoice with victorious comrades. Instead of that they
saw a ruined and smoking fort and its dead defenders. They were furi
THE PEQUODS AND ROGER WILLIAMS.
ous, screaming, stamping, and tearing their hair in their desperation
and despair. Mason held them in check with a few of his men, while
the others hastened home to protect the settlement from any possible
“ But they had other forts and villages.”
a Well, the whole tribe were so bewildered and frightened by this
sudden attack that it was an easy thing to finish them up. Their pride
was crushed, and they made but a feeble resistance. They fled to the
West, closely pursued by the English, who destroyed their cornfields
burned their villages, and put their women and children to death with¬
out mercy. They made one last, desperate stand, but were defeated with
great slaughter, and the Pequod tribe lived only in the historv of a
growing nation,” continued Hadley.
FLED WITH HIS FOLLOWERS,
“ Sassacus was their great chief, and his name had been a terror to
the tribes all around, as well as to the white men, but his four thousand
warriors were scattered or killed, and he fled to the Mohawks with a
small remnant of his followers. He hoped to find a safe refuge there,”
“ But it didn’t do him any good,” added Ray. u He was killed there
and his scalp was sent to the English. Some say that the Mohawks
killed him, and others that he was slain by his own men, who blamed
him for the sudden annihilation of his tribe. There were not more than
two hundred left by this time, and they surrendered soon.”
“ Were they killed also, Ernest ? ”
u No, they were given a worse fate, so bad that I bet they wished
they had been killed. Some were given up to their enemies, the Narra-
gansetts and Mohegans, who probably put them to torture; and the rest
were sold as slaves in the West Indies. It was a short war, but it was
one without mercy on either side, and the horror of it remained with
the Indians for nearly forty years.”
“ Yes,” added Teddy. “The thoroughness of the work struck terror
THE PEQUODS AND ROGER WILLIAMS.
to all of tlie surrounding tribes, and made them see tbe power of fhe
white man as never before. If tbe powerful Pequods could be thus beaten,
wbat would tbeir fate be if they were rasb enough to attempt to drive
the English out?”
“And for nearly forty years the horror of this fearful time was
fresh in the savage minds, and that was a protection to the young
settlements, greater than the most vigilant watchfulness would have
been,” observed Hadley.
“Yes, for nearly forty years the war cry was not heard in New
England, although individuals on both sides committed depredations on
each other, and sometimes one was killed. So, if it was a bad thing for
the Pequods, it was good for the colonies, for it prevented other uprisings
of the red men,” nodded Ray.
OLD CHIEF TAKEN PRISONER.
“ But, as soon as it was over, the people of Connecticut forgot what
they owed to the fidelity of the brave Narragansett chieftain, Miantono
moh, who had befriended them through it all. His people went to war
with the Mohegans, and the old chief was taken prisoner. His enemies
referred his fate to the same white men whom he had helped, and they
deliberately decided to give him up to his bitter enemy, Uncas, knowing
full well the terrible death which would be his. And they did more
than that. They sent two men to see him executed ! There’s gratitude
for you !” cried Ernest.
“ There was too much of such gratitude in those days,” said Uncle
Jack quietly. “Ray, the Dutch had a war with the Mohawks in 1643,
can you tell us the cause of it ? ”
u Governor Kieft was responsible for it, although there had been an
increasing bad feeling between the Indians and the settlers for some
time. It really commenced in this way. The Mohawks sent an armed
band to collect tribute of the river tribes, who belonged to the Algonquin
family. These Indians fled in terror to seek the protection of the Dutch,
who professed to give it.”
THE PEQUODS AND ROGER WILLIAMS.
4i And were they protected, Will ? ”
“Well, I don’t want any such protection. We ought to go back a
little so as to understand this business better, I think. A year or two
before the Mohawk war the colonists accused the Raritan tribe of steal¬
ing some hogs, which, in truth, were taken by some Dutch traders.
Governor Kieft did not bother to investigate the matter any, but sent
soldiers to destroy the growing corn of the Raritans as a punishment
and some of the Indians were killed.. The savages retaliated by attack¬
ing the settlement which De Vries—who had always been a true friend
to the Indians—had founded on Staten Island. Four men were killed.”
“ That was another unreasonable circumstance,” declared Ray.
“President Roosevelt says that De Vries was a handsome, gallant man,
of brave and generous nature. ‘ He was greatly beloved by the Indians,
co whom he was always both firm and kind ; and the settlers likewise
loved and respected him, for he never trespassed on their rights, and was
their leader in every work of danger.’ ”
A BOY WHO HAD HIS REVENGE.
l l can tell you a story of what happened before that!” cried Ernest.
(l Two Indians were coming to the fort to sell beaver skins one day, and
one of them had a little boy, his nephew, with him. Three Dutchmen
resolved to rob them, and did do it, taking their furs and killing the
uncle of the little boy, who got away, registering a vow of vengeance,
after the Indian custom. Fifteen years afterwards, when he had grown
to be a bold warrior, he killed Claes Smits, another Dutchman, who
likely knew nothing about the affair.”
“ What was done about it, Teddy ? ”
“ Kieft ordered the Indians to surrender the young man that he
might be punished for the crime; but the savages refused to give him
up, as by their laws it was only blood for blood, but they offered to
ransom him. Kieft refused their proposition, and the matter remained
an open source of trouble.”
“ There was provocation surely, but was it enough to execute the
176 THE FEQUODS AND ROGER WIEEIAMS.
barbarity and cowardly treachery of Governor Kieft on Shrovetide night?
One wrong never makes another one right. Tell us about it, Hadley.”
“ The garrison of the fort, with some Dutch privateers, attacked the
Indians in the night, while they were peacefully sleeping, fully believing
in the protection of their murderers. The poor c matures so suddenly
awakened, could make but a very little resistance. Some of them escaped
INDIANS ATTACKING THE HOUSE OF A WHITE SETTLER.
to the woods, but were relentlessly pursued, and driven into the icy wafer
of the Hudson, where they soon chilled and perished.”
“ We ~e they all killed ? ” asked Uncle Jack.
“ Yes ; none were spared—neither men, women, nor children—-and
their shrieks made the good people of New Amsterdam tremble in their
comfortable beds ! ”
a Was that the only party of Indians who were attacked, Ray?”
THE PEQUODS AND ROGER WILLIAMS.
“ Another company of Indians, trusting to the friendship of the
Dutch, had encamped near the fort, and they were all killed. It is but
1 ust to say that this was not the work of the colonists, who had to pay
for it, for when the Algonquins found out that their comrades had been
killed by the Dutch instead of by the Mohawks, there was a general
uprising, and Governor Kieft was soon glad to make peace. It was in
this war that Mrs. Anne Hutchinson and her family were killed.”
“ It did not take the Indians long to drive all of the Dutch settlers,
who escaped with their lives, to take refuge in the fort. A palisade was
erected where Wall street now runs. The Indians tortured their prisoners
cruelly, and the Dutch retaliated with the same barbarous deeds. Women
and children were spared on neither side. The terrible war lasted five
years, and was going on about the time of the second Opechancanougb
massacre in Virginia,” said Will.
REJOICING OVER THE CLOSE OF THE WAR.
“ Finally, on the thirtieth of August, 1645, the chiefs of the Algon¬
quins and a deputation from their old enemies, the Mohawks, who came
as mediators, met the whites on the spot now known as the Battery,
and concluded a peace,” Roy concluded.
u How did the people feel about it, and what became of Kieft? ”
u The close' of the war was hailed with rejoicings throughout the
colony. Kieft was regarded with universal hatred as the author of the
terrible sufferings of the struggle, his barbarous conduct was censured
and disavowed by the company, and he was recalled. As he neared th r
shores of the old world, his ship was wrecked on the coast of Wales, and
all on board perished,” answered Ernest.
U I don’t care, do you?” questioned Teddy. “ But the next Governor,
Stuyvesant, practiced kindness and justice toward the Indians and
soon secured their friendship again.”
“ And when New Amsterdam was surrendered to the English, the
Mohawks, who had been friends to the Dutch, entered into an alliance
With them. This proved to be a lucky thing in the French and English
178 THE PEQUODS AND ROGER WILLIAMS.
wars, for the Indians hated the French and kept them back,” continued
“It was in 1642 that a party of Mohawks took two priests, Father
Jognes and Father Goupil, while their escort of Huron Indians nearly
all escaped. They were led by the great Huron war chief, Ahasistari,
who, when he saw that his white friends were prisoners in the hands of
his enemies, strode into the circle of astonished Mohawks who sur¬
rounded them, and took his place beside Father Jognes, saying: ‘My
brother, I made oath to thee that I would share thy fortune, whether
death or life, and I am here to keep my word,’ ” added Ray.
“ And the Mohawks were only too glad to get him in any way, I
can tell you I ” cried Teddy. “They took him at his word, and he died
at the stake like a hero.”
PRIESTS COMPELLED TO RUN THE GAUNTLET.
‘Can yon tell us what became of the priests, Roy?”
“They were carried to the Mohawk, and in each village which they
passed through, they were compelled to run the gauntlet. Still they
tried to make converts. Father Jognes found a few drops of dew upon
an ear of corn which was thrown him as food, with which he baptized
“Father Goupil was more unfortunate. An Indian saw him making
the sign of a cross over his child, and, thinking he was working a spell,
he killed him instantly with his tomahawk. Father Jognes escaped and
reached Albany, but he boldly entered the Mohawk land, and was mur¬
dered by a warrior,” continued Ray. “ Other missionaries afterwards
suffered death by torture at the hands of these Indians.”
“The Mohawk and Huron war was in 1648,” asserted Will. “There
had been a short peace between them, but the war that came was a fiercer
one than ever before. Bands of Mohawk warriors invaded the Huron
territory, and both savage and missionary fell before their fury. It was
on the morning of July the 4th that the village of St. Joseph was
attacked by a Mohawk war party.”
THE ATTACK ON THE DOEG WIGWAM.. 179
THE PEQUODS AND ROGER WILLIAMS.
“This was a village which had been founded by the missionaries
Brabenf and Daniel, the latter of which was an old man,” added Roy.
“He was killed, while his companions, Brabenf and Lallemand, were
taken prisoners and tortured to death. The Hnrons were scattered, and
their country was added to that of the Five Nations. Many of the
conquered Hurons were adopted into the conquering tribes.”
“This was the time when the Mokawks learned to hate the French
so thoroughly. Champlain took sides with the Hnrons and Algonqnins,
and the Five Nations never forgave them for it. They would never
overlook it,” Ernest asserted.
PEACE PIPE HUNG AROUND HIS NECK.
“Teddy, can yon tell ns why Father Marquette was not molested
by the Indians when he descended the Mississippi River in 1673 ? ”
“It was because a friendly Indian chief hung a peace pipe around
his neck, telling him to hold it out to every savage whom he met, and it
would always be a safeguard to him. He did so, and went among all of
the tribes unharmed.”
“These Indians once kept a letter safely for fourteen years, and
then delivered it,” exclaimed Hadley. “It was in this way : Tonti
addressed it to La Salle, and told the Indians to guard it carefully, and
give it to the first Frenchman that came that way. They gave it to
“They proved their fidelity by caring for it so long. I think there
was a difficulty with the Indians in Virginia, where Berkerly was gov*
ernor, about 1660. What can yon tell ns about it, Ray ?”
“ Berkerly would not do a thing to the Indians when they got to
acting out, because he was making money in the fur trade with them,
and the settlers decided to take matters into their own hands. They
succeeded in making a war just as they always did. It wasn’t very long
before a friendly Indian was killed, and a settler, who was mortally
wounded at the same time, said that it was the work of some Doeg
THE PEQUODS AND ROGER WILLIAMS.
“That was enough to send thirty men off in pursuit of the Doegs,”
interrupted Will. “They came to a Doeg wigwam where they killed
eleven Indians. They didn’t know sure, but they thought ‘ more than
likely ’ that they were the right ones to punish ! Another party of set¬
tlers came to a wigwam and opened fire without waiting to ask any ques¬
tions. They killed fourteen before they found out that the wigwam
belonged to some friendly Susquehannahs, and were not Doegs at all.”
“That was a grave mistake, but a common one in the early days.
What effect did it have, Roy ?”
“Why—what do you think? It aroused the tribe to fury. Colonel
John Washington had a finger in that pie. He was the great-grandfather
of George Washington, but he didn’t have half of his common sense.
The chiefs declared that their people had never harmed the whites and
the war was stayed for a short time.”
“ But not for long,” Ernest went on. “ Later five chiefs came for a
conference, and were treacherously put to death. Major Truman was
tried for their murder, but history does not tell what was done with him
—more than likely he was just sent back to the old world. That didn’t
help matters a bit, and the Indians went on the warpath at once, assail¬
ing the settlers along the Rappahannock, James and York rivers.”
“ And it was Becon who finally made peace with them,” Teddy
asserted in triumph.
“That is all for to-night. We will not begin with King Philip’s
war until our next lesson,” said Uncle Jack.
“ I say, fellows, I can’t keep it any longer, and there is no need to !”
cried Ernest excitedly. “You know how they spear salmon by torch¬
light, don’t you? Well, Jim told me this morning that he and John
were going to take ns out to-night spearing them, and they must be
ready now. Jim said not to tell you until our lesson was over, or you’d
forget all that you knew.”
“Yum—yum—yum i” flashed Teddy. “ I suppose he thought that
it made no difference if you did forget what little you knew ! Was
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
“ He saw the cloud ordained to grow
And burst upon his hills in woe ,
He saw his people withering lie
Beneath the invader’s evil eye.
Strange feet were trampling on his father’s bones „
At midnight hour he woke to gaze
Upon his happy cabin’s blaze,
And listen to his children’s dying groans.
He saw; and, maddening at the sight.
Gave his bold bosom to the fight;
To tiger rage his soul was driven,
Mercy was not, nor sought nor given ;
The pale-face from his lands must fly;
He would be free, or he would die! ”
U 1\ ] OW you may begin tbe account of King Philip’s war. What
I ^ have you to tell us about it, Ernest?” asked Uncle
“Massasoit died about 1661. He left two sons, Wamsutta or Alex¬
ander, and Pometacom or Philip. These sons married sisters, daughters
of the sachem of Pocasset. Alexander’s wife was named Wetamoo,
we shall find more about her. Philip’s wife was named Wootoneka-
“Wait a minute, Uncle Jack, I read that a full-blooded Niantic
Indian woman, now living in Wisconsin, claims to be a descendant of
the famous King Philip !” cried Teddy.
“How can that be when the histories say that King Philip’s son
was sold as a slave ? ” inquired Roy.
“ But history does not tell us whether he had a daughter or not,
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
lodded Teddy. “The article that I saw said that he did, and she
married Ninegret, chief of the Niantic Indians, and this Mrs. Stanwood
‘is certainly what she claims, a descendant of the great Indian sachem,
and a genealogy of her family from the time of Ninegret proves it beyond
a doubt.’ ”
“ Well, the Wampanoags are not extinct,” declared Hadley. “Two
sisters named Mitchel are living in Lakeville, Massachusetts, who are
direct descendants of King Philip’s sister Amy. She married Tuspaquim
the Black Sachem, chief of the Assawamsets. Tradition says that their
mother was a descendant of the Pequod chief Sassacus. They are living
on land which has been in the family for generations. The youngest
sister is named Wootonekanuske, for the unfortunate wife of King
Philip; the other sister’s name is Teweelema, and they were educated in
the public schools of the town.”
“Do you think it is so, Uncle Jack?” asked Teddy.
“ Whether these accounts are authentic or not is a personal affair,
rather than a matter of history. It has nothing to do with the terrible
New England war of 1675. Ray, you may tell us what you can about
Alexander, who became chief of the tribe when his father, Massasoit,
“ It has been said that Uncas, chief of the Mohegans, set the Eng¬
lish against him in the first place. At any rate many lawless men had
come to join the colonies, who did not treat the Indians as the first set¬
tlers had treated Massasoit and his followers. The Indians had also
grown to disregard the treaty of their old chief, and there was increasing
distrust on both sides. Uncas told the English that Alexander was pre¬
paring for war, so they had him arrested and taken to Plymouth at once.”
“That was a bitter blow for the proud old chief,” continued Ernest.
“A horse was offered for him to ride, but he refused indignantly,
saying that he would rather walk with his friends than to ride with his
enemies. History says that he was taken with a fever, brought on by
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
his rage and shame at the indignity put upon him; the Indians thought
that he had been poisoned by the English, and his wife, who was with
him, lived for revenge after that. He died before he reached his
“ I don’t wonder that the superstitious Indians thought that the
white men poisoned him,” cried Ray. “He was well and in the prime
of life when they arrested him, and his people could not understand his
sudden death in any other way.”
“Uncas was an enemy to him anyway,” declared Will.
“ But Uncas and his Mohegans were friends to the English, and he
sent his three sons and sixty warriors to help them,” added Roy.
“We haven’t come to the war yet, what more about Alexander?”
TREATMENT OF KING PHILIP.
“1 found one account which said that Philip killed his brother so
that he could be the chief, but I do not believe it. Philip saw how fast
the whites were increasing, and he was a patriot and a statesman, skilled
in the diplomacy of his nation. Secretly he sought a union of all of
the New England tribes,” answered Ray.
“And succeeded pretty well, too,” nodded Will. “He kept his own
counsel so well that the white men could only suspect what he was about,
but they treated him very harshly and compelled him to give up his
arms. That didn’t help matters much.”
“Did the Indians attack Plymouth?”
“No, a friendly Indian warned the town, but the act cost him his
life. He was condemned as a traitor, and disposed of in a way to make it
appear that he had committed suicide. His people did not dare to execute
him openly. His body was found, three of the tribe were suspected,
arrested, tried, found guilty, and put to death. Then the young warriors
of the tribe shouted for revenge,” answered Ray.
“ In spite of the order not to sell the Indians any arms many of the
colonists had done so, because of the high prices which the natives were
willing and eager to pay. They wanted muskets at any price, and so
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
the Englishmen thoughtlessly furnished the weapons for their own
execution, in their selfishness and greed,” Ernest added.
“ What two female sachems fought with Philip, Roy ?”
“ One was Anashonks, who pretended to be very friendly with the
whites, promised to put herself under English protection and allow hei
braves to fight on that side, then combined her force with Philip’s.”
“The other was Wetamoo, the enraged wife of Alexander, who
firmly believed that he had been treacherously poisoned, and was very
active in revenge,” continued Will. “When the war was ended and all
hope was gone, she sprang into the stream to escape capture or to go to
her people on the other shore, but she was drowned and her body was
washed on shore. It will never be known whether she committed suicide
in her despair, or whether her death was an accident.”
“What was done with her body, Ernest?”
DID GHASTLY THINGS.
u I don’t know, but the white men cut off her head and stuck it
upon a pole in Taunton, where it remained for some time. They had
a fashion of doing such ghastly things in those days, thinking to
frighten the rest of their enemies, I suppose. Her people saw it
there and recognized it with a howl of utter despair.”
“ Was anything unusal noticed before this war began, Ray?”
“Yes, superstitious people said that they saw an Indian bow clearly
defined in the sky, drawn ready for use ; others saw the picture of an
Indian scalp on the bright surface of the moon ; Northern lights of
unusual brilliancy glowed in the skies ; troops of phantom horsemen
were heard dashing through the air; the sighing of the night winds
sounded like the whistling of bullets ; and, to others, the persistent
howling of the wolves foretold dire disaster, and many of them found
their worst fears realized before long.”
“ Philip was now king. He saw that the English were becoming
very powerful, and he became convinced that the red man would finally
become exterminated unless the white men were driven out of the land.
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
Little by little the Indians secretly stored np munitions of war. The
colonists regarded the Indian children as young serpents, who would
surely bite when they were older, and the red mothers should also die
that they might bear no more children, so women and children were
killed at sight in this relentless war of extermination,” said Ernest.
“This King Philip was one of the ablest Indians of the New
World. He entered upon the war as a necessity, believing that his
brother had been poisoned by the
white man, fully realizing the ruin
which overshadowed his race. He
was a terrible foe, with secret and
awful modes of warfare, but there is
no evidence that he ever ordered
the torture of a captive, and there is
plenty of such evidence that the
English sometimes gave deserters
np to the torture. Deeds were laid
to him which he never did, and
he was absent from many places
when they were attacked,” added
“The conflict once begun it
was a war to the death with King
Philip. From all accounts I think that he began the war against his
better judgment and at the demands of his warriors. He was a true
hero when he resolved to do his best and share the common fate of his
nation. A reward was offered for him, forty coats to any one who would
bring him in alive, or twenty for his head ! And ten coats were offered
for any one of his braves that was taken as a prisoner,” said Uncle
Jack. “ What place was first attacked ?”
“In the war which then began without hope and waged without
mercy, the Indians knew every nook of the leafy forest, and could make
a desperate resistance. June 24, 1675, was the day appointed by the
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
governor as a day of fasting and prayer in anticipation of tlie coming
war. That was the day when the first town was attacked,” answered
“ I read that Philip hurst into tears when the news of that attack
was told him,” said Will incredulously. “ It was warriors of his own
tribe that did it, but they acted without his direct orders, and committed
the act which opened the conflict. Swanzey was quite near Mount
Hope, yon know, and that was the town.”
“The assault was made when the people were returning from
church, and only eight or nine people were killed, but the alarm was
now given and spread rapidly,” added Ray.
“ There were some strange escapes from death,” laughed Ernest.
“ One Mr. Gill buttoned a lot of thick brown paper under his coat, and
this strange armor saved his life.”
CHASED TO A SWAMP.
“Captain Church was one of the great English officers of that war
and he had a body-guard of Indians who loved him. so well that they
would not leave him. But they were traitors to their people just the
same,” cried Teddy scornfully.
“ It isn’t for ns to condemn them,” said Hadley chidingly. “ Without
them the story of King Philip’s war would have ha a different ending.”
“ What happened then ? ”
“ Philip and his warriors took refuge in a swamp, and the English
surrounded the place and intended to starve them out, but they escaped
and fled to the Nipmucks, a small tribe near Worcester, Massachusetts.
The colonists made the Narragansetts give up all of the Indians who had
fled to them for safety, and promise to remain neutral,” Ray replied.
“Didn’t Philip induce the Nipmucks to join him, Will ? ”
“Yes, and no one will ever know how many other tribes were secretly
engaged in it. People declared that the colonists were to be severe^
punished for their sins, among which were mentioned the wearing oi
gay clothes by the women; the wearing of long hair by the men ; the
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
licensing of ale-houses, and swearing. Some even asserted that it was a
judgment for not exterminating the Quakers. It was lucky for the poor
Quakers that there was an Indian war to take their attention!”
“ Was that so?” ejaculated Ray.
“Yes it was; I can read you what Northrop says about it. The
superstitious ones believed all of these signs, and made their meaning
to suit themselves.”
“Joined by the Nipmucks, Philip entered Connecticut and attacked
the settlements from Springfield to Northfield. Captain Hutchinson,
with only twenty men, was sent to treat with them. Did they succeed,
SAVED BY A RAIN-STORM.
“Hardly. They were ambushed and killed near Brookfield, and
the Indians attacked that settlement. They burned all but one house,
the strongest one in the village, to which the people had all fled. For
two days they tried in vain lo set the house on fire or force an entrance.”
“ One man escaped to the woods, and the Indians did not happen to
see him. He went for help but the rest could hardly hope that he would
bring them aid in time to save them. At last the savages took a wagon,
piled it high with flax, hemp, hay and dry wood, set it on fire and pushed
it against the house, themselves concealed behind it, so that the settlers
could not shoot them,” continued Ray.
“ They thought that they were gone sure—those settlers did! ”
exclaimed Teddy. “They could not put that fire out and the smoke
choked them. But, just as the house caught, and the smoke was very
nearly stifling them, the most thundering kind of a storm came up, the
rain fell in sheets, and not only put the fire out but fixed everything so
that the Indians could not light another. The redskins stayed around
until sunset, when help arrived, and they hastily retreated.”
“All of the Indians were not without mercy and gratitude, even in
this relentless war,” Will declared. “A prisoner who was to be tortured
the next morning was visited by an Indian in the night. He told him to
get up and fol!o w him. The white man obeyed, although he did not
ATTACK OF THE INDIANS ON BROOKFIELD,
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
know but wbat be was to be killed,. The Indian gave him a gun and
some provisions when they were at a safe distance from the encampment.
Then he led him through the woods, almost to his ruined home, when
he left him, saying ;—‘ Many months ago you gave bed and supper to
tired Indian ; he pay you now. Go and be happy.’ ”
“What was the next place which the Indians attacked, Ernest ? ”
“ It was Deerfield, and it was burned. But, before that, Captain
Lathrop had been sent out, with a small force to carry provisions from
that place to Hadley, where they intended to establish a garrison.
Almost all of them were killed at a place which is called Bloody Brook
''o this day.”
ATTACK ON HADLEY.
“ While Deerfield was still burning the Indians attacked Hadley.
The people were at church at the time,” continued Teddy.
“ What queer thing happened then, Ray ?”
“ A tall, old man, in a strange dress, appeared suddenly. Sword
n hand, he gave quick, sharp orders, and rallied and led them to victory,
for the Indians were beaten back, and forced to retreat.”
“ Can you tell us who this strange man was, Will ?”
“ Folks have always thought that it was Goffe, the regicide, who
risked his life and liberty to save the settlers then. He had been con¬
cealed in the town, and returned to his refuge when the fight was over.
But his sudden appearance and disappearance was considered very
strange at that time, and gave superstitious people something to talk
about. The Indians regarded him with awe, and thought that the Great
Spirit helped the white men at Hadley. Wasn’t it lucky that they did
have such fancies?”
“ I want to tell you what the white men paid for the town of Hadley
—here is the bill,” cried Ray :
“ 2 coats, shag and wampum,.^5, 7s.
Red shag, cotton, knife,. 7s.
Wampum and two coats,.^5, 10s.
A kettle, . £i, 5s.
For your being drunk, . 10s-
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
What do you think of that price for a whole town?”
“ What happened next, Ernest ? ”
“ Philip visited his home at Mount Hope, found it in ruins, and went
to the Narragansetts for shelter. They would not give him up to the
white men as they had the other Indians, and so the colonists determined
to make war on them before they were pursuaded to join Philip. They
forgot that they were friends, I guess.”
“ Anyway, they attacked the principal fort of the Narragansett
tribe. This village was where South Kingston is uow. It was attacked,
the houses set on fire, all of their winter supplies burned, and old men,
women, and children burned in the blazing huts. Another large body
of natives was surprised just above Turner Falls,” added Teddy.
“ The fort at Kingston was a palisaded one,” Hadley continued.
It was nearly twenty miles from the next village, and it was a bitterly
cold night in winter. Captain Church tried to get them not to set fire
to the wigwams, but it was done.”
YOUNG NARRAGANSETT CAPTIVE.
u I’ll tell you what a writer of that time said,” excil imed Ray. u He
said : ‘ The Indians were about preparing their dinner when our sudden
and unexpected assault put them beside that work, making their cooking
room too hot for them at that time, when they and their mitche fried
together.’ Probably some of them ate their supper in a colder place that
night. Most of their provisions, as well as their huts, being then con¬
sumed by fire, those who were left alive were forced to hide themselves
in a cedar swamp, where they had nothing to defend them from the cold
but boughs of spruce and pine trees.”
“ The English, to their eternal disgrace, permitted a young Narra,
gansett captive to be tortured to death by their Indian allies, ‘ partly
that they might not displease these confederates, and also that they
might have ocular demonstration of savage cruelty.’ The victim had
killed and scalped many Englishmen, as he acknowledged, and they
thought fit to let him suffer, although the sight brought tears to their
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
eyes ! Oh, the Indians were the only ones who did such things, you
know ; but wasn’t the permitting just as bad as the doing ? Answer me
that ! ” demanded Teddy.
“ In the fight at Kingston the white men lost two hundred and fifty
men, killed and wounded, including six captains. But as many as a
thousand of the Indians were slain, and quite a number made prison¬
ers,” added Will.
“ Their defeat was complete, and Canonchet, their chief, was among
the prisoners. He was offered his life and liberty if he would get his
tribe to make peace, but he refused to do so. When sentenced to death
he said scornfully: ‘ I like it well! I shall die before I say anything
unworthy of me,’ ’’continued Ray.
A FIGHT TO THE DEATH.
“No quarter was asked in this fight and no mercy was shown. The
wigwams were set on fire and all who coulci not escape were burned with
them. The Narragansetts were nearly exterminated. Philip and many
of his followers escaped and joined the Nipmucks. The next spring
Lancaster was burned, Springfield being saved for the time by the
warning of a friendly Indian,” said Roy.
“Poor Canonchet! He said: ‘We will fight to the last man rather
than become servants to the English,’ and he certainly kept his word,”
said Teddy musingly.
“ What became of those who escaped, Hadley ? ”
“ They flea to the swamp where they burrowed in the ground, and
covered themselves with boughs, living on acorns and nuts, which they
sometimes had to dig out of the snow. Many of them found a lingering
death instead of a speedy one.”
“Reverend Mr. Ruggles commented on the scene of one of these
burned villages as follows: 1 The burning of the wigwams, the shrieks
and cries of the women and children, and the yells of the warriors,
exhibited a most horrible and affecting scene, so that it greatly moved
some of the soldiers. They were in much doubt and even seriously
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
inquired whether burning their enemies alive could be consistent with
humanity and the principles of the gospel! ” exclaimed Ernest.
“ Did this put an end to the war, Ray ? ”
“No indeed ! Philip then tried to get the Mohawks into the fight
and the remnant of the Narragansetts, with his own men, kept up the
warfare as furiously as they could. It was in June, 1676, before Philip’s
cause began to appear hopeless to him, and the savages began to quarrel
“Lancaster, Medford, Weymouth, Groton, Springfield, Sudbury and
Marlborough in Massachusetts, and Providence, and Warwick in Rhode
Island were destroyed, either wholly or in part, and numerous other
settlements were attacked and made to suffer more or less severely.
What can you tell us about the attack on Lancaster, Will ? ”
DEFENDED BY MOTHER AND THREE CHILDREN.
“ The house of the Rev. Mr. Rowlandson was valliantly defended,
but Mrs. Rowlandson and three children, with others, were taken
captive. The Indians burned the town and, that night, they had a bar¬
becue of oxen, sheep, swine and fowls, which they had taken from the
settlers, cattle being roasted whole. The long march was no better than
the night of revelry, yet the savages were not unkind to the prisoners,
and even gave Mrs. Rowlandson a horse to ride. The child which she
carried died of its wounds, and the other two were claimed by different
“ What! Were they made slaves ? ” demanded Teddy.
“ It was slavery on both sides, the English sending the conquered
Indians to the West Indies, and the Indians keeping their captives in
almost hopeless bondage, when every day might be their last on earth.
Mrs. Rowlandson’s captor sold her to Quinnapin, who had married
Alexander’s widow, Weetamo, whose especial slave she became. Of this
mistress she said : * A severe and proud dame she was, powdering her
hair and painting her face, going with her necklaces and jewels in her
ears. When she had dressed herself her work was to make wampum
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
and beadwork.’ The story of this woman’s captivity was dreadful
although the Indians were not especially unkind to her, and at last ohe
and her children were ransomed,” answered Hadley.
“ While these horrors were raging Roger Williams stayed at his
post, and even reproached the savages sometimes. Nanntenoo, chief of
the Narragansetts, answered him proudly: ‘ Mr. Williams, you shall
never be injured, for you are a good man and have been kind and just
to us,’ ” added Will,
“ Because a family named Leonard had been kind to King Philip
and his band, the town of Taunton was spared for their sakes, although
the work of murder went on all around them,” said Ray.
“ I read in the paper that Mendon was going to erect a memorial
tablet to the memory of those killed there. Tradition says that only
one house was spared in the place—that of a Quaker!” said Ernest.
SCARED BY THE CAPTAIN’S WIG.
“ One Captain Mosley pulled off his wig and put it in his pocket
before going into the battle in full sight of the Indians. The act was
better than a regiment of artillery. The Indians fled from such a
mighty magician with a howl and yell of terror. They could not stand
before one who could take one head off and put it in his pocket and still
have one left to face them with,” laughed Teddy.
“How was Philip succeeding during all this time, Hadley?”
“ Not very well. He appealed to the Mohawks to take up the
hatchet, but seeing that his case was a hopeless one, they refused to
join him. So, in proud despair, he went back to Mount Hope to die.
When one of his men urged him to make peace with the whites he
struck him dead. It was about this time that his wife and son were
“ That conquered him,” declared Ernest. “ He had borne all the
rest with the determination of a hero. Now he cried despairingly, ‘My
heart breaks, I am ready to die.’ ”
“ What happened to Philip at last, Roy ? ”
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
u His warriors grew tired of such unequal warfare and began to
leave him. He was hunted from one place to another, and finally shot
by the brother of the man whom he had killed for advising him to sur¬
render. After his death his followers united with the Niantics under
Ninegret, the one who once said, 4 It would be better to preach among
the English until they become good.’ ”
“ Philip’s little son was sold as a slave in the Bermudas, and the
grandson of the great and good Massasoit, who had welcomed and
befriended the English, was condemned to pass his days in servitude in
a foreign land,” said Will indignantly.
HEAD SENT TO PLYMOUTH.
44 Captain Church would not allow the body of the forest king to be
buried. The head was sent to Plymouth, where it was exposed for
twenty years. The body was quartered and hung on four trees, after a
dreadful custom that they had in those good old days. He had one hand
which had been scarred by the bursting of a pistol, and this was given
to Alderman, the Indian who shot him, who preserved it in spirits and
4 got many pennies 5 by using it as a show,” said Ray.
“ Did the death of King Philip close the war, Will ? ”
44 It was soon followed by peace, for the spirit of the Indians was
broken. Hardly a hundred men were left alive in the Narragansetts,
and the other tribes had suffered severely. The Mohegans had remained
faithful to the English, so Connecticut had not suffered as much as the
“ What can you tell us of the losses, Ray ? ”
“ Twelve or thirteen towns were totally destroyed, and many others
in part. Six hundred houses were burned, and the money loss was half
a million of dollars, which was a great sum for those da}^s. Ovet six
hundred young men fell in the war, and there was hardly a family which
did not mourn some loved one who had given his life for his country.”
“ Did this war affect other Indians ? ”
44 It was attended by an uprising of the Maine Indians, which was
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
begun by an English sailor upsetting a canoe to see if an Indian baby
would swim naturally. The child went to the bottom at once and
although the mother got it out quickly, it died, and the father aroused
his people to war on the whites. Can you blame him for that?”
“ This was a border warfare,” continued Ernest, “ rather than a
regular one, and the French supplied the Indians with needful arms,
being very pleased to do so. The women were as brave as the men
were. One girl held a door until all her family escaped, and was left for
dead when the savages did break in. She recovered, and lived to tell the
story for many years.”
u Annawon, King Philip’s most trusted brave, gave Captain Church
Philip’s belt and some other things, saying: 4 Great captain, you have
killed Philip and conquered this country, for I believe that I and my
company are the last that war against you,’ ” said Teddy.
INDIANS TREATED INHUMANLY.
“Captain Church was the cause of taking both Tuspaquin and
Annawon, both great chiefs, promising them their lives and that he
would employ them as soldiers. But when he was absent they were
tried, condemned as murderers, and executed,” continued Roy
“ Part of the captives lived to be ransomed,” asserted Will. u I read
where Benjamin White, who went to secure the release of some of these
prisoners, wrote urgently to his friends : 4 1 pray you hasten the matter
of ransom, for it requireth great haste, stay not for the Sabbath nor for
shoeing of horses.’ ”
u I can tell you a story of this war. I know it is true for I have
seen the descendants of the people, and heard the story told,” declared
Ernest. 44 Thomas Eames, of Framingham, was in Boston, when his
house was attacked by eleven Indians, and so he escaped. They burned
the barn, house and cattle ; killed the mother and five children and
carried off six or seven children and all the plunder that they could ”
KING PHILIP AND THE INDIAN WARS.
“Tell it all!” exclaimed Teddy. U I know that story, too. Mrs.
Eames had said that she would never be taken alive. She was making
soft soap at the time, and she defended her home as long as the boiling
soap lasted. Three of the children escaped and returned home in a short
time. Another boy escaped soon after, and two girls and perhaps a boy
were carried to Canada. The youngest girl was found and redeemed by
government agents, but the others were never heard from.”
u I read this verse about King Philip, which I think is good to close
our lesson about him with,” said Ray, softly repeating:
“‘Even that he lived is for his conquerer’s tongue * -
By foes alone his death-song must be sung.
No chronicles but theirs shall tell
His mournful doom to future times.
May these upon his virtues dwell,
And in his fate forget his crimes*
3tf Through the trees fierce eyeballs glowed.
Dark forms in the moonshine showed,
Wild from their native wilderness,
With painted limbs and battle dress. 5 *
Hp'HE next day Teddy could hardly wait until the guide and his
Indian companion were out of sight and hearing before he
“I don’t suppose that you fellows know that they have gone to bring
in the bear which John shot in the swamp this morning, do you ? I was
there just after he killed him Had and I, I mean—and what do you
think he did the first thing? You can never guess, so I will tell you.
He begged that bear’s pardon for killing him ! ”
“That is an old, old custom, but I didn’t think that any of the
Indians did it now,” said Uncle Jack slowly. “In the old days, as soon
as the Indian hunters were quite sure that a bear was dead, they begged
its pardon. When they carried it into the village, all of the inhabitants
clustered around it, stroking and kissing its head, and begging its pan
don for causing its death.”
“Was that all, and what was the good of it? ” demanded Ernest.
“Then they would call it their relation—their dear grandmother or
grandfather, and would tell it that the English shot it, not they, who
loved it so. After it was cut up, the head was placed upon a scaffold,
which was adorned with all the ornaments that could be found in the
village, and a quantity of tobacco was placed under its nose, while eat¬
ables were set around it.”
“That was so that the bear could have the best that they had to
give, I suppose,” Hadley remarked sarcastically.
“Just that, my boy. The next day a feast was made to its spirit,
something like that made to the dead of their own race. All of the men
smoked hurriedly, and blew the smoke into the nostrils of the bear.
After begging its pardon again and again, they all ate heartily of its
body, which had been prepared while they were seeking its forgiveness!
Probably that custom was common when John was a boy, and he has
never forgotten it.”
“ But all of these old superstitions are passing away with the belief
in witchcraft. We white folks can’t say much,” said Ray quietly.
“ Not if all of our notions are looked up,” answered Roysignificantly
“Once I knew a boy who wouldn’t get into his berth until he had
pulled the blanket away and looked under the Deacon’s Seat.”
“Shut up, can’t you?” whispered Ray, with a nudge. “Folks that
know the most don’t tell of it.”
“You may go on, Ernest,” said Uncle Jack as soon as the laugh at
Ray’s expense had subsided.
TWO BITTER ENEMIES.
“ It was the aim of the white men, English as well as French, to
make one tribe of Indians fight another, when they did not turn them
against their own enemies, so that they would not have to fight either.
Miantonomo was an able chieftain of the Narragansetts, and Uncas
belonged to the Mohegans* These two were bitter enemies, and at last
Miantonomo was taken prisoner.”
“ I remember that, we have had it in our lessons,” interrupted Teddy.
“You remember how the case was referred to the English, who saw no
reason why mercy should be granted to him ! Even ‘ five of the most
judicious elders of the church ’ thought that he should be put to death !
He was executed in Norwich, Connecticut, at a place which is still
called 1 Sachem’s Plain,’ and a monument is erected there, which bears
the simple words ‘MIANTONOMO, 1643.’ ”
“ You are forgetful, we’ve had that,” laughed Hadley. “ We want
to tell what we know about William Penn now, and how he treated the
Indians. Isn’t that so, Uncle Jack ? ”
“Yes, but you are all excusable for forgetting, when you tell us
something which we have overlooked, or add to what has already been
said on a subject,” smiled Uncle Jack. “ William Penn was the * Father
of Pennsylvania,’ and as such holds a prominent place in the history of
our country as well as in that of the Indians. We will find who he was
before we go on with the Indian story.”
WILLIAM PENN, THE FATHER OF PENNSYLVANIA.
“ Why-e-e, he was William Penn !” cried Roy in astonishment.
“ We know that, but what about him before he was our William
Penn ? Ernest, can you tell us ? ”
“ He was the son and heir of Admiral Sir William Penn, an English
naval commander. His father liad very high hopes and desires for him,
but he became a Quaker when only a boy.”
“ What did his father say to that? ” questioned Teddy.
11 Oh, at first he didn’t say very much for he thought that it was a
boyish fancy which he would outgrow. So, when he left Oxford Univer¬
sity, he sent him to travel to improve his mind and to cure him of his
“Well, it didn’t cure him, did it? To the end of his life his
interests were with those of the Quakers. He gave them his money, his
time, and even his liberty, and was always ready to help one of them
who was in distress. When they were persecuted he was abways their
fearless champion,” cried Hadley.
TURNED HIM OUT OF DOORS.
* His father even turned him out of doors, but his mother’s
entreaties soon made him reconsider that harsh measure,” continued
Ray. “ Then he sent him to France and Italy, where he acquired an
elegant polish of manner that delighted him, but he remained a Quaker
just the same.”
“ What did his father do then, Will ? ”
i ‘ He sent him to Ireland, to the splendid court of the Earl of Ormond,
one of his friends, but the next thing that he knew young William
was in prison with the Quakers ! His father got him out, and tried to
move him by entreaties, even tears, but the best promise which he could
get from him was that he would not wear his hat in the presence of the
King, the Duke of York, and himself !”
“ He was in prison more than once after that,” added Roy. “ At one
time the jury could not, or would not agree, and they were kept for two
days without ‘ meat, drink, fire or tobacco.’ Even then they would not
convict him, and were imprisoned themselves until they could pay a fine.”
“ His friends made fun of him, and it was a common saying that
4 William Penn was a Quaker again, or some very melancholy thing.’ v
‘He was offered high, rank m the navy, the favor of his king;
and many other desirable things, but he refused them all. When his
father was dying his love for his son returned and he sent for him. It
was then that he said to him : ‘Son William, if you and your friends
keep to your plain way of preaching and living, you will surely makf
an end of the priests,’ ” nodded Teddy.
“ How old was Penn at that time, Hadley ?”
TREE UNDER WHICH PENN SIGNED HIS TREATY WITH THE INDIANS.
“ He was twenty-six years old, and his father left him much property
which he spent for his Quaker scheme. He married a woman whose
character was as beautiful as her person, and who was a fitting com*
panion for him in his noble work.”
“ It was about this time that he became interested in the new land
of America and the possibility of making a Quaker settlement there,”
Ray continued. “ King Charles II. owed his father a large sum of
money, as much, as ^16,000, and, as the king never seemed to have any
money to spare, it was a pretty poor debt.”
“ You mean every one but William Penn himself thought that it
was,” interrupted Will. “He quietly offered to take land in the New
World in payment, and the careless, jolly king was only too glad to give
him what he really didn’t own to pay the troublesome account, so he
gave him Pennsylvania.”
“It wasn’t Pennsylvania then, though,” declared Roy. “It was in
the year 1681 that Penn bought the land of the king, and the monarch
gave it the name of Pennsylvania, or Penn’s woods. Then as soon as
he could get any title from the Crown, Penn invited all peoples to help
him settle the land. And he bought the land again from the Indians.’
A FAST WALKER.
* He played them quite a trick about it though,” laughed Ray.
“They agreed fora certain sum to give him as much land as a young
man could walk around in a day, but the man walked so fast and so
far that they were astonished, and not a little provoked, for they thought
that he must have run. But Penn gave them more presents until they
said that they were satisfied.”
“Why didn’t he come over with the first colony, Teddy?”
“ He did come in 1682, and made a treaty of peace with all of the
Indians around. They called him ‘ Father Penn,’ and always brought
“They called him the Quaker king, too,” asserted Ernest.
“In memory of the meetings which they had with him the Indians
used to meet at the assembly place for a long time. There they would
repeat what he had said to their ancestors, and this practice continued
until 1780,” said Will.
“What can you tell us about one of these meetings at Shakamaxon,
the assembly place, Teddy ?”
“ Penn set a day for the Indians to meet him there. When the day
arrived, and the old chiefs and the young warriors came, they found
Penn already there; standing under the branches of a great elm tree,
waiting for them.”
“ What did he say to them, Hadley ?”
“ He ashed them to be the friends of his people, said that he did not
come to America to rob or hill them, but to live beside them as brothers
“ What about this tribe of Indians that he was talhing to, Ray?”
“ The Delawares and the Lenni Lenapes were just the same, and
the western Indians called them the Wapenachhi. Their lands were
from the Hudson to the Potomac. They were a noble, gentle people,
and the warlihe Iroquois called them women because of this disposition.
They were the devoted friends of William Penn, and his people, and
always called him Mignon, or Elder Brother.”
What can you tell us of the treaty which he made with the Indians,
THE PLEDGE OF LOVE.
M After Penn told them that he and his friends desired to live in
peace with them forever, the chiefs pledged themselves to £ live in love
with William Penn, as long as the sun and moon endured Repre¬
sentatives of the principal tibes, the Lenni Lenapes, the Mingoes and
the Shawnees, were there.”
“ Can you repeat the treaty, or any part of it, Ernest ?”
“I can read it to yon, Uncle Jack, for I have it right here,” was the
quick reply, for while the others had been talking he had been looking
it up. u It is ‘ that all of William Penn’s people, or Christians, and
all of the Indians, should be brethren, as the children of one father
joined together as with one heart, one body and one hand. That all
paths should be open and free to both Indians and Christians. That the
doors of the Christians’ houses should be open to the Indians, and the
houses of the Indians open to the Christians, and that they should
make each other welcome as their friends. That the Christians should
not believe any false reports or rumors of the Indians, nor the Indians
believe any sucli reports of the Christians, but should first come a*
brethren, to inquire of each other.’ ”
“ It would have been a good thing if more treaties like that had
been made,” observed Teddy, and Ernest went on.
“ ‘ And that both Christians and Indians, when they hear any false
reports of their brethren, should bury them as in a bottomless pit.
That if the Christians had any ill news that might be to the hurt of
the Indians, or the Indians heard any such ill news that might be to the
injury of the Christians, they should acquaint each other with it
speedily, as with friends and brethren. That the Indians should do no
manner of harm to the Christians, or their creatures, nor the Christians
do any harm to the Indians, but treat each other as their brethren.’ ”
“That was a pretty strong contract, wasn’t it?” asked Roy. “Was
that all of it? What was to be done if they didn’t mind it?”
ALLIANCE FOR NATIONAL DEFENCE.
“ It went on to say, 4 But, as there are wicked people of all nations,
if either Indians or Christians should do any harm to each other, com¬
plaint should be made of it by the people suffering that right may be
done; and when satisfaction is made, the injury or wrong shall be for¬
gotten and buried as in a bottomless pit. That the Indians should in
all things assist the Christians, and the Christians assist the Indians
against all wicked people that would disturb them.’ ”
“ Oh, you must be getting tired—I will tell the rest,” interrupted
Teddy. “ 4 And lastly, that both Christians and Indians should acquaint
their children with this league and firm chain of friendship made
between them ; and that it should always be made stronger and stronger,
and be kept bright and clean, without rust or spot, between our children
and our children’s children, while the creeks and rivers run, and while
the sun, moon and stars endure.’ ”
“Penn was always a frequent visitor to the Indians, and was gladly
welcomed by them. He was also just to his colony. Long before any
streets were laid out in Philadelphia, when only a few rude huts had
been built, and some of the settlers slept in holes in the ground and in
“ Oh, Uncle Jack ! Now I know that yon are fooling us. There
never was such a time as that !” exclaimed Ernest.
“ There certainly was, and then Penn called the people together to
make the laws which were to govern them. What happened in Europe
when it became known that in the little Quaker settlement in far-off
America, all men were considered free and equal, Hadley? ”
“ Large numbers of people wanted to leave the old country and
have a home in Penn’s City of Brotherly Love, and Philadelphia soon
grew into a large town, with a school and printing press. When Penn
died almost his last words were ‘ Mind our poor friends in America l ’ ”
A REMARKABLE CHIEF.
“ These Delaware Indians had a famous chief who was so much
beloved by the whites as well as by his own race that, after he died, he
was called a saint, and his name was placed in the calendars. Can you
tell us what his name was, Ray ? ”
“ It was spelled in more than oneway in the old books,like Tamany,
Temeny and Tamanend, but he was called St. Tammany. May first,
every year, his day was celebrated with great respect by the Revolutionary
soldiers and until Jefferson was president.”
“What was this celebration like, Will?”
“Oh, the folks formed a procession and marched to a certain
place which they called the Wigwam. There Indian speeches were
made, the peace pipe was smoked, and the day was passed in festal
enjoyments. After the noon feast they had Indian dances, then smoked
the calumet again before the company separated.”
“Did the Tammany societies, the Tammany halls and such things
come from that festival and chief?” asked Roy.
“ I guess they did,” smiled Uncle Jack.
“Then I think that the grand, old chief would be a little restless if
he knew what his name is attached to nowadays,” Teddy said dryly.
“ What war was begun in 1689, Hadley ? ”
“ There were wars right along from that time for seventy years, but
the one that you mean was called King William’s war. The frontier
towns had to bear the blunt of the warfare. The French and English
got into rows over the other side of the water and their colonies had to
pick it up whether they wanted to or not.”
“ But they hated each other, and were jealous, and so they were
always ready, I guess,” said Teddy.
“ The Algonquin Indians were the allies of the French, and the
Iroquois were true to the English,” Hadley went on. “The French were
as savage as their allies, killing men, women and children, and making
no effort to prevent torture. Of course, some of the commanders were
exceptions to this accusation. It is not just to lay all of the cruelty of
those sad times to the Indian, when some of it, especially the killing of
the women and children, was done by command of the French, who had
determined on a war of extermination.”
REWARDS FOR SCALPS.
“ But both the French and English stooped to get the Indians as
allies, and sometimes they were afraid to try to check their cruel prac¬
tices, for fear of displeasing and losing them. Both nations gave rewards
for the scalps brought in by the Indians,” said Teddy truthfully.
“Yes, great cruelties were the results of the wars between the
French and English in America, the commanders on both sides were
knowing to them, and their nations should blush at their records. In
1689 fifteen hundred Mohawks took Montreal, killing two hundred of
the inhabitants with awful cruelty, and taking as many more prisoners.
Dover, N. H., was the next to suffer, the Indians being incited by Count
Frontenac, Governor of Canada. The commander at Dover was
Waldron,” Will continued.
“What about the Five Nations, Roy?”
“ These Indians were the Iroquois. They were friendly to the
English, but hostile to the French, and their territory was between the
ARRIVAL OF INDIAN ALLIES AT THE FRENCH CAMP.
colonies of tlie two nations. When the war began the French retaliated
for Montreal by attacking Dover.”
“ Which was commanded by Major Richard Waldron, as Will said.
He was the man who seized two hundred Indians who came to him to
treat for peace and sent them to Boston. There eight or nine of them
were put to death and the rest were sold as slaves. The Indians never
forgave him for that, and were always plotting how they could get even
with him,” Teddy added.
“ They came pretty near doing it, I should say. Will, yon may
tell us how it happened that the surprise was so complete.”
STORY OF TWO INDIAN WOMEN.
“It was one June evening in 1689 when two Indian women came to
Major Waldron’s house and asked to stay all night. They were given a
place to sleep, and when the family were all slumbering, these women softly
opened the door and admitted the fierce warriors who had been waiting
outside. Waldron sprang up, and began a brave fight, but it was of no
use. He was seized, placed in a chair, and tortured until he fainted,
when the tormentors killed him.”
“Were the Indians satisfied with his death, Ernest?”
“No ; they burned the settlement, killed nearly half of the inhabit'
ants, and took the rest off in a captivity worse than death,” remarked
“ All of the frontier towns from Maine to New York, suffered severely,
and in February, 1690, the French and Indians surprised and burned
Schenectady, killed the most of the inhabitants, and carried many women
and children into captivity. The French were more fierce in waging
this war of extermination than the Indians were, and did some of the
things which were laid to their savage allies. I have read that the
savages were incited to do terrible deeds by the Jesuit priests and, after
peace was declared, two of these men, in priestly dress, openly acknowl¬
edged that they led them,” said Teddy.
“I guess that they did forget their peaceful calling a little, but
women and children were relentlessly killed by the French and English,
as well as by their savage allies,” declared Hadley.
u The French not only wanted to exterminate the English, but they
were perfectly willing that the Indian should follow them into the his¬
tory of the past, as soon as he ceased to be useful to them ! They offered
a bounty for Indian scalps, giving as high as fifty dollars for a single
one,” cried Ray.
“Massachusetts and New Hampshire offered twenty pounds for each
Indian captive, and forty pounds for every scalp. You see they thought
that dead Indians were safer than live ones,” Teddy asserted. “This
business of getting Indian scalps was a profitable one, and many unscru¬
pulous men engaged in it, not caring whether the scalps came from the
heads of friendly Indians or hostile ones. At last the bounty ran up to
one hundred pounds.”
ATTACK AT DEAD OF NIGHT.
“The people of Schenectady were asleep when the place was at¬
tacked,” Ernest told them. “It was a cold winter night in February.
At midnight the people were awakened by the awful war-cry and the
smashing of doors. The terrible story is soon told. Only a few of the
inhabitants escaped, and, in their night clothes, they ran through the
snow and cold to Albany. Sixty people were killed and many taken to
Canada as prisoners.”
“Can you tell us of any other towns which were destroyed, Teddy?”
“More than I wish I could ; and the story of one seems to be the
story of all. Another party of French and Indians attacked Salmon
Falls, in New Hampshire, where they killed the men, burned the houses,
and carried away the women and children. A third party did the same
thing for the little town of Casco, in Maine, and Pemaquid, in the same
State, was destroyed a short time after Dover was.”
“ Can you not tell us of other towns, Hadley ? ”
“I think that all of the frontier towns suffered severely, but I guess
you mean Deerfield and Haverhill in Massachusetts.”
“ I found a story about tbis dme,” said Ernest. “ A man named
Dustin lived near Haverhill. He was at work in his field when the
Indians attacked his house. He sprang upon his horse and started to
the rescue of his family, but met the most of his children coming to find
him. He saved them, but his wife and baby were taken away, together
with the nurse and a boy from Worcester. The little one was soon
killed, for it was only an incumbrance, and the others were taken to an
Indian village, just above Concord.”
THE ESCAPE OF THE DUSTIN FAMILY.
“ Every day the Indians described their modes of torture and told
them to prepare for it, but they couldn’t frighten Hannah Dustin!” cried
Teddy. “ And Sam Leonardson, the boy, was a brave one. He appeared
to be contented, and worked for those Indians like a beaver, so they
grew to like him. Then he asked his master to show him how to kill a
man with the hatchet one day. That pleased the Indian, who immedi
ately made up his mind that his adopted son would be a great warrior
H* did not know that he would be the first one for Sam to practice on.”
“ Hannah Dustin was a resolute woman, even for those times. She
had no idea of remaining a prisoner if she could escape, and planned
with her fellow captives to make the attempt. There were ten Indians,
a squaw, and a child ir the party at the time. The captives managed
to get the tomahawks, killed the men, wounded the squaw because they
couldn’t help it, and spared the child,” Hadley continued.
“ And Hannah Dustin was so mad because of the killing of her poor
little baby that she actually scalped every one of those Indians. She
took the gun and tomahawk belonging to the murderer of her child and
the dreadful bag of scalps. Sam had a canoe all ready, and they paddled
down the river to Haverhill, where they were welcomed as people arisen
from the dead,” added Ray.
“That is such an old, old story I didn’t think it worth while to
repeat it. It is in every Indian book and history, and has been ever
since I can remember,” exclaimed Roy scornfully.
WOMEN AS BRAVE AS MEN.
“ But it shows that the women of these times were as brave as the
men were. It teaches us that we owe this broad, beautiful land of
America to just such resolute men and women ! ” cried Ernest warmly.
“Can you tell us what Indian chief led the attack on Haverhill,
Hadley ? ”
“ It was Assacambuilt, and his war-club had ninety-eight notches
on it at the time, the number of English whom he had slain ! In 1706,
when on a visit*to France, he was knighted by Louis XIV, and always
wore his “badge of honor,’ which told his rank.”
“ If every man in the colonies had been as brave and energetic as
that woman and boy the French would have found Canada too warm
to stay in,” declared Ray.
“ We mustn’t forget that Lafayette was a Frenchman,” said Wilt
“ Of course he was, and he was a good one, too 1 ” admitted Ray
warmly. “But I want you to understand that, whil^ the French in
France were kind and humane, the French in Canada were so jealous of
the English, and hated them so much, that they were much more savage
than their savage allies.”
“The first Jesuit missionaries were noble men, who honestly tried
to convert the Indians and teach them better things. But their suc¬
cessors knew no higher duty than to exterminate the English colonies,
the hated English heretics ! These priests confessed and absolved the
Indians, then sent them out to murder, promising them the reward of
everlasting bliss in heaven,” said Ernest decidedly.
“ Two of them, Thury and Bigot, even tried to make the Eastern
Indians break the treaty of peace and renew the war. They did much
to make the name Jesuit a term of horror and reproach among English
speaking people,” Teddy added, quickly.
“Captain Church served in this war, aud once he put a number of
his prisoners to death, some of them women and children, because the
French and Indians were so cruel,” said Hadley. “ It seems as if 1 an
eye for an eye ’ was the chief practice in those times, when no party .
could make claim to generosity and common humanity.”
“ King William’s war came to a close in 1697. It lasted over seven
years, and caused great suffering. The Five Nations, the brave allies oi
the English, suffered most, for their country was repeatedly invaded by
the French, and by their hereditary enemies of their own race,”
“The ‘ Flower of Essex’ was ambushed by Indians, and seventy
killed in the contest known as ‘The Bars Fight.’ A monument has
been erected on the spot, the gift of James W. Barnard, of Boston, whose
ancestor, Joseph Barnard, was among the slain on that day. It was in
August, 1695,” added Roy.
“ It was only five years until Queen Anne’s war began, and they
were not years of undisturbed peace,” said Uncle Jack. “Our next
lesson will begin with that struggle.”
TROUBLES ON THE FRONTIER.
* I am fresh from the conflict— Pm drunk with the blood
Of the white men, who chased me o’er prarie and flood,
Till I trapped them at last, and exultantly swore
That my fearless red warriors should revel in gore!
I have well kept my oath, O Manitou, the Just!
Three hundred white hirelings are low in the dust.”
** what have you to tell us about Queen Anne’s war? ” Uncle
“ England went to war with France and Spain, and, of
course, the colonies of those countries in America had to take the quarrel
up. James Moore was then the governor of Carolina, and he was engaged
in the Indian slave trade.”
“ What had he to do with the war ? ” demanded Ernest.
“ He had a great deal to do with it, I can tell you. He attacked St.
A ugustine with his force of white soldiers and Indians, but Spanish ships
arrived in time to prevent his success.”
u What was his next move, Teddy ? ”
“ He attacked the Appalachee tribe, saying that he wanted to
nubdue them before they had time to take up arms on the side of Spain,
but his real object was slaves and plunder. The savages had done
nothing but accept the Catholic religion—that was enough to make the
English go to war in those days though. Many of the tribe were killed,
many more taken as prisoners, their churches were destroyed, and the
lands of the Appalachees «vere given to the Seminoles, who helped in
“The English had i selfish motive in doing that,” declared Ernest.
“ When the Seminoles settled on that land they became a barrier between
the English and Spanish colonies, and that was a good thing.”
“ What was happening in the northern part of the United States
while these things were going on in the south, Hadley ? ”
troubles on the frontier.
“ Great numbers of women and children bad been taken to Canada
and sold by the French as slaves, during King William’s war. When
peace was declared in 1697 it was hoped that better things would be
seen, but the treaty was broken again in 1702, when Queen Anne’s war
began, and the terrible scenes were repeated with horrible variations.
Deerfield was again burned, a French commander winning unenviable
fame by his relentless killing of women and children. At last even the
Indians were disgusted with their more savage leaders and refused to
kill any more, but the French gave them additional presents—and
promiser—and they kept at it.”
MASSACRE AT DEERFIELD.
u What about the attack on Deerfield, Ray ? ”
“ The town had been warned by a friendly Mohawk, and the inhabit¬
ants had kept a close watch through the winter without seeing anything
to alarm them, so they relaxed their vigilance. The first of March,
when the snow was very deep and covered by a crust nearly as hard as
ice, about two hundred French, with one hundred and forty Indians, all
under the command of Rouville, attacked the place about daybreak.”
“ Where were the sentinels ? ” asked Teddy.
u They had left their posts, thinking that there was no danger of
any attack, for they had seen no signs of the enemy through the night,”
answered Ernest. “The attacking party had a good chance to creep up
the drifts of icy snow to the top of the palisades, and then it was an easy
thing to leap inside of the enclosure, the Indians sounding the terrible
war cry. Forty were killed and one hundred and twelve taken to
“ I will be first with a story of this massacre,” cried Teddy. “A
minister by the name of Williams, his wife Eunice, and five children
were among the prisoners. The baby was soon thrown out into the
snow to die because it cried with the cold. The mother went on until she
grew so faint and tired that she could not travel, and then she was killed
with her captor’s tomahawk.”
TROUBLES OX THE FRONTIER,
u Can you tell what became of the rest of them, Ernest ? n
“ They were taken to Canada and were afterwards ransomed, with
the exception of the youngest girl, who had been adopted by some con¬
verted Indians near Montreal, and they would not give her up. She
continued to live with them and finally married a Mohawk chief. Once
she came to Deerfield, in her Indian dress, to see her relatives. They
could not persuade her to stay with them, however, and she went bach
to her children and her adopted people.”
“As late as
1837 some of the
of whom there are
The chief took the
girl’s name when
he married her,
I’ve heard. Among
these visitors was
an old woman of
eighty, who said
that Eunice was
Indians still live
on the St. Lawrence river,” added Will, continuing the history.
“It was on this time that Mr. Williams wrote : ‘ Not long before
the break of day the enemy came in like a flood upon us, our watch
being unfaithful—they came to my house in the beginning of the onset,
and by their violent endeavors to break open doors and windows,
awakened me out of sleep—about sun an hour high we were taken out
for the march. I saw my neighbors’ houses in flames—we were taken
about a mile, where we found a great number of our neighbors, nine*
RETURN OF THE DAUGHTER OF EUNICE WILLIAMS.
TROUBLES ON THF FRONTIER.
teen of which were afterwards killed by tbe way, and two more starved
to death. The prisoners were generally treated well, for they were
worth a ransom.”
“ Did none of these poor people ever return to their homes, Ernest ? ”
“ Yes, many did. In 1706 fifty-seven of them were sent to Boston
in a flagship, but there were many more of them who never left Canada.
Some died, and some married with their captors.”
u This war, or this branch of it, was conducted with the most brutal
ferocity by the French. Hertel de Rouville gained everlasting infamy
by killing helpless women and children, and his motto was ‘ no quarter.’
Vaudreuil, the governor of Canada, urged his forces to terrible deeds
and, when even the savages became weary of the work, he induced some
of them to continue. In 1708 Haverhill w 7 as surprised by the French
and Indians under Rouville, and its inhabitants suffered fiendish tor¬
tures. None of them escaped death or captivity, and death was the rnosl
merciful,” continued Teddy.
ATTACK ON HAVERHILL.
“ What can you tell us about this attack on Haverhill, Hadley ? ”
“ The village consisted of about thirty houses then. It was attacked
about daybreak by a party of the French and Indians. That was August,
29,1708. There was some queer escapes as usual, and this is one. A Mr.
Rolfe, his wife, and youngest child were killed in the beginning. They
had a slave named Hagar, who took two more of the children, one six
and the other eight years old, and hurried them to the cellar, where she
covered them with tubs, and hid herself behind a barrel. They escaped,
although the Indians were in the cellar many times for the milk which
was set upon the shelves. They even took meat from the barrel!”
“ Another girl, named Anna Whittaker, hid in an apple-chest under
a stairway, and was not discovered. There were three soldiers in Mr.
Rolfe’s house at the time, but they were too frightened to do anything
at all. They threw down their arms and begged the Indians for the
worthless lives which were not spared. An Indian hates a coward, and
TROUBLES ON THE ERONTlER.
Tiey ought to have known that they would kill them,’’ continued Ray
“ I will tell you another story!” cried Will. “In the family of
Thomas Hartshorne the father and three sous were killed and the
mother left alone with her younger children. She felt that she could
not save them all, so she left the baby on a bed in the chamber, fearing
INDIANS ATTACKING HAVERHILL.
that its cries would reveal their hiding place, and hid with the others in
the cellar, where they were not found.”
“ Did the Indians find the baby ? ” demanded Ray breathlessly.
“Yes, they plundered the house and threw the baby out of the
chamber window when they discovered it. After they went away the
mother searched for it and found it on a pile of boards, stunned but alive,
and that child grew to be such a large strong man that he was often
joked about being stunted by the Indians ! Why, he was much larger
TROUBLES ON THE FRONTIER.
than common men,—perhaps that usage made him grow,” laughed
“There are a great many other stories which might he told-—there
always is in these Indian wars, you know !” exclaimed Roy. “One poor
woman saved her child by falling so that she shielded it when she was
fatally wounded; another saved her family by spearing an Indian with
an iron spit, when he was forcing an entrance, and that when her husband
had given up and said that ‘it would be better to let them come in ;
and finally a man named Davis began to strike on the church with a
great club, and to yell ‘ Come on, we’ll have ’em ! ’ The Indians thought
that the soldiers were coming, and skedaddled in a hurry.”
TOOK SOME OF THEM PRISONERS.
“So far in our history there has been no war with the Indians in
North Carolina, although the Tuscaroras began to be suspicious and
distrustful of the increasing settlements of the whites. What happened
about 1711, Hadley ? ”
“Tracts of their lands were given to a company of Germans from
the region of the Rhine. The Indians rebelled and took some of them
prisoners, with the surveyor named Lawson. They thought that he was
to blame for the loss of their land because he surveyed it, and put him
to a cruel death.”
“ What was their next move, Ray ? ”
“Then they got the Creeks to join them, and attacked the settlements
on the Roanoke and Pamlico sound. Many innocent settlers paid the
penalty of war before the matter was settled up.”
“ That was always the way—the innocent had to suffer for what the
guilty did. But in the end the Tuscaroras were expelled from the State,”
“ What did this trouble lead to, Ray ? ”
“It led to the war with the Yammassees in 1715, when these Indians,
without any warning and by the most cunning planning, attacked the
frontier settlements. They had helped the English in the war against
TROUBLES ON THE FRONTIER.
the Tuscaroras, but when they were no longer needed the English
treated them so badly that they not only turned against them, but they
pursnaded the friendly Catabaws, Creeks, and Cherokees to go on the
warpath too. It was a long, desperate struggle, but the Indians were
driven ‘ farther west,’ as usual. ”
a The Yammassees went to Florida, but the other tribes fled to the
West,” Ernest said in correction. “ And the power of all of them was
broken—for a time.”
“ To show you how the boys behaved in those times I will tell you
a little story which I read,” said Will. “ Several of the men
had been killed in the fight, and after it was all over, a little boy came
to the doctor and asked him to take a bullet out of his head. To his sur¬
prise the doctor found that a spent ball had actually passed under the
skin on the little fellow’s forehead.”
A LITTLE HERO.
“That wasn’t all the story—I saw it myself,” declared Ray. “ ‘And
that isn’t all, Mr. Doctor,’ the child said with a tremulous smile, as he
pointed to his arm, which was broken at the elbow. Why didn’t you
say something about it before ? ’ asked his mother. ‘ Because,’ answered
the little hero coolly, ‘ the captain told us to keep still during the battle,
and I thought you would be frightened and make a noise if I told you.’ ”
“I will tell you another about Bobasheela,” added Roy. “An
Englishman once spent some time among the Indians and was given
that name. At one time, when he was floating down the river astride of
two logs, he was taken by four Indians armed with war clubs, and in full
war dress. Of course he thought he was a goner that time.”
“ Why did they take him ? Was there trouble between the red men
and the whites at that time ? ”
“ No, two Indians had been executed some time before that, their
friends thought unjustly, and these braves had sworn vengeance on the
commander of the post, although he was a new officer, and not there at
the time of the execution. The Indian leader asked Bobasheela if he
TROUBLES ON THE FRONTIER.
knew this commander, telling him they were on their way to kill him and
burn the settlement. The man answered warmly that he knew him well,
knew that he was not in command when the two warriors were executed,
and that he would be at the wedding party, which he himself had started
to attend that night.”
“ What did the Indians do then ? ” asked Teddy breathlessly.
“ Don’t tell us that they killed Bobasheela.”
“ No, for they didn’t. After a moment’s pause the chief said : k My
friend, you have said enough. If you tell me that your friend, or the
friend or enemy of any man, takes the hand of a fair daughter on that
ground to-night, we will not offend the Great Spirit by raising the war
cry there. This is the command of the Great Spirit, and a true warrior
will not break it.”
SAVED BY A WEDDING.
“Then the wedding saved their lives ! ” ejaculated Ernest.
“ So it seems, for the Indians considered it wrong to kill at such a
time, and never did if they knew it. The chief went on to say : ‘ My
friend, these warriors you see around me, with myself, had sworn to kill
the first human being that we met on our warpath. We shall not harm
you, so you see I give you your life. You will, therefore, keep your lips
shut, and we will return in peace to our village. My face is now blackened,
and the night is dark, therefore you cannot know me. But this arrow
you will keep, it matches with the others in my quiver, and by it you
may always know me. But the meeting of this night is not to be
“ Did he take the arrow,” asked Hadley.
“Yes, and he afterwards met the same Indian in the office of the
Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis, and was recognized by him.
Then they often met, even hunted together, and at last the chief gave
him the name of Bobasheela, by which the Indians knew him ever after.”
“I’ll tell you the ending of that story,” cried Teddy. “ I’ve found it
—here it is. Several years after this man returned to England he
troubles on the frontier.
attended an exhibition of Indians, and this same chief happened to be
one of them. The Indian electrified the whole audience by stopping
suddenly in the midst of the wild dance, and uttering a war-whoop, with
his eye fixed, and his finger pointing to a man well back in the hall.
The act was not on the programme and the manager was puzzled as well
as the audience.”
“ Well, don’t stop right there. What was the matter with him ? ”
asked Ray impatiently.
“ He looked at the man steadily for a minute or two, then he said
softly, in an inquiring tone, ‘ Bobasheela ? Bobasheela ? ’ He had recog
nized his friend of the wild woods of far away America. Bobasheela
came forward, and the Indian leaped from the stage to embrace him.”
“They never forget a friend—nor an enemy,” said Uncle Jack
TROUBLE WITH THE RED MEN.
“There seems to have been trouble everywhere with the Indians
about 1700, or a little after,” said Ray. “There was a small Indian
village at Norridgewock, in Maine, where a Jesuit priest, named Sebas¬
tian Rasies, lived.”
“He was one of the good Jesuits, who gave up everything in this
world to try and teach the Indians the truths of pure Christianity,”
continued Will. “ He lived as the Indians themselves did, not only that
he might be able to teach them better if he was one with them, but that
he might learn their habits, manners, and language, and thus become
a good Indian scholar.”
“Well, what happened to that little Indian village, Roy ? ”
“ The people of Massachusetts hated the Jesuits bitterly, as perhaps
they had reason to, only they didn’t try very hard to tell the guilty
from the innocent, and there was jealousy enough between the whites
and the red men. These Massachusetts people determined to capture
the good priest. They failed twice, but the third time that they attacked
the village there were only a few warriors in it. Father Rasies was
TROUBLES ON THE frontier.
killed. He did not try to escape, but stood between the enemies of bis
own race and bis red friends, to gain time for tbe Indians to get away.”
“ That’s another black mark against the English,” nodded Teddy.
u Can you tell us the story of Paugus and Chamberlain, Ernest? ”
“ It was in May, 1725, that there was a battle between the colonists
under Captain Lovewell and a tribe of Indians in New Hempsbire,
called the Pequakets.”
“ ‘Anon, there eighty Indians rose,
Who’d hid themselves in ambush dread ;
Their knives they shook, their guns they aimed,
The famous Paugus at the head.
John Lovewell, captain of tbe band,
His sword he waved, that glittered bright;
For the last time he cheered his men,
And led them onward to the fight !’ ”
Ray quoted, and then the history was continued.
AN OBJECT OF TERROR.
u Among Lovewell’s men was one John Chamberlain. He was as
tall and sinewy as the tallest Indian, two of them were hardly a match
for him, and be could outrun a moose,” Will continued. u The red men
shunned and feared him, passing his lonely dwelling cautiously and in
wise silence, letting him pass their ambush unmolested, even when they
numbered a score or more. They knew well that if they fired at him,
and missed their mark, his vengeance would be swift and terrible.”
“ Go on, Ernest.”
“The Pequakets lived on the shore of Lake Winnepisiogee, and the
mighty Paugus was their chief, strong and tall, swift and cunning, cruel
and revengeful—the terror of the frontier. The settlers bad often tried
in vain to kill or take him prisoner, and once, when they set his wigwam
on fire, he was hidden so near that he felt the heat of the flames, and the
smoke nearly made him cough—if he had done that they would have
got him sure.”
u Tbe fight was a long and desperate one, but tbe Indians were
TROUBLES ON THE FRONTIER.
finally defeated,” interrupted Teddy, eager to tell tlie finish. “ When
it was about over Chamberlain went to a lake, now called LovewelPs
Pond, to wash his gun and quench his thirst. Paugus went to the pond
at the same time on the same errand, and each foeman recognized the
other and fully realized what must come.”
“ But they coolly made a truce to wash their guns out, and put
them in order,” Hadley exclaimed incredulously. “Then they took
thur places on the beach, facing each other. ‘Now, Paugus, I’ll have
you,’ said Chamberlain. 4 Na, na, me have you,’ was the defiant reply,
and soon two echoes broke the forest stillness. Paugus was killed while
Chamberlain lost a lock of hair! ”
“What was the result of this strange duel, Ray ?”
“ The. Indians fled as soon as they knew that their chief was dead
but only fourteen of the settlers lived to return to their friends. The
battle was a blow to the Indians, although it could hardly be called a
vkvjry for the white men.”
STORY OF THE NATCHEZ TRIBE,
“What can you tell us of the Natchez tribe, Hadley?”
“It was in 1729 that Bienville exterminated them. This tribe was
not very numerous, but they were more intelligent and civilized than
the other tribes. They worshiped the sun and their herd chief claimed
to be a descendant of that fiery body. He ^tood at the door of his cabin
every morning and waited patiently until the sun appeared above the
eastern hills, then he bowed before it three times and prostrated himself
upon the ground. Then he arose, took a pipe which he never used at
any other time, and from it puffed smoke towards the east, the west, the
north, and the south. He ate his morning meal before the others could
and, when he had finished, one of his officers would announce the fact to
the people with these words:— £ The Grand Sun has eaten, and the rest
of the world may now eat.’ ”
“ Do you know what led to the war with them, Will ?”
H The Grand Sun was a brother to Stung Serpent, and both of them
15— AI SPECIAL
TROUBLES ON THE FRONTIER.
were very friendly to the white men until the commander of the post at
Natchez wanted the Grand Sun’s home to build a village on. This resi¬
dence was a beautiful Indian village near Natchez, called White Apple.
The chief did not want to give it up because it had been in his family
for generations be/ore the white man saw the shores of America.”
“ Why didn’t the commander take another place ? ” demanded Teddy
impatiently. “ America was large enough for every one here at that
time, I’m sure.”
“Oh, he was noted for injustice towards the Indians—his name was
M. de Chopart. No place but White Apple would do for him to build
his handsome village on, and he very coolly ordered the chief to give it
up,” said Hadley.
THE CHIEF’S ANSWER.
“What did the chief reply to this selfish demand, Ray?”
“He gently reminded him that his ancestors had lived there as
many years as there were hairs in his head, and said decidedly that it
was right for their descendants to stay there always. Then he called a
council, and tried to make peace with Chopart at first, but he would not
listen to anything that he didn’t want to hear.”
“What was the next move, Will?”
“The Indians began to prepare for a massacre of the whites. They
worked secretly, sending bundles of sticks to other bands of the tribe,
telling them to break a stick every morning, and rally to the fight upon
the day that the last stick was broken. An Indian woman told the com¬
mander of the plot, but he would not believe her, and made no prepara¬
tion for defence.”
“This led to the war which resulted in the extermination of the
tribe,” continued Roy. “Fort Rosalie was attacked, and of the seven
hundred there, not one escaped. The commander who was the cause of
all the trouble, was one of the first to fall. The Indians hated him so
much that no warrior was allowed to touch him. He was killed with a
wooden tomahawk by one of the meanest men of the whole tribe.”
TROUBLES ON THE FRONTIER.
“When this news reached New Orleans, Bienville resolved to avenge
it. The Choctaws, hereditary enemies of the Natchez tribe, furnished
him with sixteen hundred of their best warriors, and the result was as
he expected and determined that it should be,” said Ernest.
“ What was that, Teddy? ”
“The Natchez tribe were utterly defeated, and the remnant were
forced to surrender. The Grand Sun, as well as those of his followers
who had been spared, all were sold as slaves, and the Natchez tribe passed
from the living to the dead history of the new nation.”
“That wasn’t all of the story. Bienville got their hereditary
enemies, the Choctaws, to help him do the job. And, after they had
conquered the Natchez Indians, they tried the same thing on the Chicka-
saws. Bienville pretended that he thought they had been helping the
Natchez. But the commander of the first expedition that was sent
against them was taken and burned at the stake, and the next attempt
was not more successful, so they decided that they would let them alone
for awhile,” said Roy.
“ But, after a treaty of peace was concluded by the whites, the
trouble with the Indians continued. So colonization progressed amid
the horrors of both red and white wars almost up to the time of the
Revolution. Next, we will have the accounts of the French and Indian
war, the most important, perhaps, of them all,” said Uncle Jack, and
the books were replaced on the shelf, while the boys went for an evening
row on the river.
“ Play and study spice each other out here in the woods,” cried
Teddy, as they pushed out from the shore.
STORY OF BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT.
** A yell the dead might wake to hear,
Swelled on the night air, far and clear-——
Then smote the Indian tomahawk,
On crashing door and shattering lock.”
^ IV J EXT we shall learn about General James Edward Oglethorpe
I \ and his treatment of the Indians. You have already heard
the story of the significant present which Tomochichi gave
him. Ernest, can yon tell us what kind of a man he was ? ”
“ History calls him a ‘ brave and humane gentleman.’ He was a
bold soldier of his time ; after he left the army he used to visit the
prisons, trying to better the condition of the unfortunate inmates. It
was then the custom in England to shut men up when they could not
pay their debts, and he did not think it was the right way to do.”
“ What has all that to do with James Oglethorpe in America, I want
to know? ” asked Teddy impatiently.
:: A great deal, as you will soon see. The man who would labor for
the poor of his own race was not very likely to oppress the poor of
another land. Oglethorpe found a number of rich men, as generous as
himself, to join him in making a refuge for these debtors. King George
II. gave them a tract of land in the New World, which he named Georgia,
after himself,” answered Ernest.
“It was in 1733 that Oglethorpe landed on a bluff on the SavannaV
river, called Yamacraw, and bought it of the Indians for the site of his
town. He had about one hundred and twenty poor Englishmen with
him. How did the Indians receive him, Hadley ? ”
“ The Muscogees, the Creeks, the Cherokees, and the Oconees sent
chiefs to him at once, to make an alliance, and all of them ‘trusted
implicitly in the promises which he made them.’ Even the distant
Choctaws sent messengers to make treaties with him, and a profitable
STORY OF BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT.
Irade was established with tribes as far west as the Mississippi
“Oglethorpe founded Savannah ; did he found any other towns on
the Savannah River, Ray ? ”
“ Yes, Frederica and Darien, and some other places which are stil?
“What lands did he buy of the Indians, Will ? ”
“ All of that lying between the Savannah and the Altainaka, and all
of the islands on that coast
except St. Catharine’s, which
the Indians reserved for hunt¬
ing and bathing purposes.”
“ Can you tell me where
the Creek Indians got that
“ Drake says that it was
because of the large member
of creeks on the land which
they occupied. It don’t take
much to name a people or a
tribe, you know.”
“In 1734, when Ogle¬
thorpe went to England, he
took Tomochichi and his
queen with him, and they
were well pleased with their
risit. The Indians all loved him so well that they gave him a name
which meant in their language the same that 1 The Beloved ’ would in
ours,” cried Ernest. “ And so his colonies increased and prospered.”
“Can you tell us anything about John Wesley, the missionary,
Hadley ? ”
“He and his brother Charles came to Georgia in 1736, and he
immediately became a missionary to the Indians, but he did not stay in
STORY OF BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT.
America very long, not more tlian two or three years, at that time, any¬
way. He was the founder of the religious sect called the Methodists,
and was followed by the preacher Whitfield, who founded the Orphan
House near Savannah. All of these men were true teachers of the
Indians while they stayed in America, and helped to make the history
“What can you tell us of the year 1739, Ray?”
“ The war between England and Spain began, and Oglethorpe was
ordered to invade Florida. He was willing to undertake it, for he was
a brave soldier and had no great love for his Spanish neighbors. The
Indians who liked him so well were his allies, and those in Florida
sided with the Spanish. But he failed to capture St. Augustine, and
returned home. Then the Spanish general thought it was his turn,
and followed him up with a great fleet, boasting that he would not leave
an Englishman south of the Potomac.”
A SHREWD TRICK.
“And did he, Will?”
“I should say that he did, but Oglethorpe’s promptness and wit
made him do so. One of his men deserted and went over to the
Spaniards, and the English soldiers were afraid that he would tell how
small their fotre really was. So Oglethorpe wrote a letter to the
deserter, telling him to be sure and make the Spaniards think that they
did not have many men, in fact telling him to tell just what they did
not want the enemy to know.”
“ What was that for ? ” cried Teddv.
“ Why, don’t you see ? He knew that they wouldn’t believe it;
that they would think that he was trying to deceive them. He knew
that they would take the deserter for a spy, and would not believe a
thing that he told them. It was rather hard on the deserter, but
“ How did he send the letter, Roy ? ”
“ He gave a Spanish prisoner his liberty, and sent him with it.
STORY OF BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT.
knowing very well that he would give it right to the Spanish general,
as he did. Then Oglethorpe posted his soldiers and Indians, and waited
for the attack which never came, for the Spaniards left as soon as they
“ And so Georgia was saved to the English ; it would not have
been done without Oglethorpe’s Indians. What happened in 1744,
Ernest ? ”
“France joined with Spain against England. Between the pos¬
sessions of France and England lay the fertile Ohio valley, and they
both claimed the region, although it was occupied by neither of
“ The Indians didn’t want either of them there !” cried Teddy.
“ They were willing to trade with the ones who gave them the most for
their furs, but they did not want them to settle on their lands. They
asked and with reason, ‘ If the French take possession of the north side
of the Ohio, and the English of the south, where is the Indian’s land ?’ ”
WASHINGTON’S INDIAN GUARD.
a What was the first move, Hadley.”
“ George Washington, then a young man, was sent to the French
to find out what they intended to do. Half-King, a Delaware chief
furnished him with a guard, telling him naively that, as the French
were the first to come there, and his tribes did not want either of them
to take their lands, he would help the English drive them out. I suppose
he hoped to make friends with the English in that way, and pursuade
them to stay away, too.”
“ The Iroquois kept the French from getting control of the Hudson
river. These Indian wars prevented the English from scattering over
the country, and made them stand by each other, thus training them
for ‘union and strength,’ ” nodded Teddy.
“That was the beginning of the French and Indian war, the most
important of all the colonial wars, which lasted nine years and gave all
territory east of the Mississippi to England, with the exception of two
STORY OF BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT.
islands near Newfoundland and New Orleans, which were retained by
France,” added Ray.
“ In the ‘ grand talk, 5 which the Indian chiefs had with Washington
they promised that he should have a guard to the nearest French post.
There the French tried hard to get Half-King to break the promise, but
they did not succeed. What was the first battle fought in this war,
Will ? 55
“ It was called the battle of Great Meadows, where the English were
DISASTROUS DEFEAT OF GENERAL BRADDOCK.
assisted by Half-King and his warriors, and the French were defeated
It took just ten minutes to beat the French there, kill their commander,
and take many prisoners. 55
“ But Washington had to give up Fort Necessity, which he built
there, to the French and Indians! 55 cried Hadley. “ He knew that they
would soon be back, and sent for re-inforcements, which, by the way, he
did not get. They fought desperately for nine hours, and were allowed
to march out with all the honors of war. 55
STORY OF BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT.
“I don’t wonder that he had to leave, there were six hundred of the
French and over a hundred Indians,” added Ray.
u Then General Braddock was sent over here by the King of Eng¬
land, and he was quite sure of a speedy victory. He had rather a mean
idea of both the American colonists and the American Indians; can you
tell us what he said to Franklin about the Indians, Will ? ”
“ Franklin was telling him of the Indian modes of warfare, and
advising him to look out for them, while he listened incredulously and
answered with a scornful laugh : 1 These savages may be a formidable
enemy to your raw American militia, but upon the King’s regular and
disciplined troops, sir, it is impossible that they should make an
BRADDOCK’S CURIOUS TACTICS.
“ Well, they did make an impression on them at the time of Brad-
dock’s defeat!” cried Roy. “ I suppose he meant well, but he didn’t
know much about the Indians. When Washington asked him to let his
men fight from behind trees, he declared that only cowards would
do that. And the result was complete victory for the French and
“ It was there that Washington was shot at so many times by the
Indians,” Ray declared. “About fifteen years after the fight an old
chief told General Washington that he was there that day, and not only
fired at him himself, but ordered all of his warriors to do so. When he
was unharmed they thought that it was the will of the Great Spirit for
him to live, and that the bullets were mysteriously turned aside so that
they could not hit him—and I guess they were about right—Washing¬
ton hadn’t then done his work for America.”
“ One Indian threw his gun down upon the ground, declaring that
the Great Spirit was protecting the English warrior, whom he was try¬
ing to kill, and it was Washington ! ” cried Ernest.
“ Braddock was badly wounded, and did not speak a word for a day
after the battle, then he turned to one of his officers with the words:
STORY OF BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT.
4 Who would have thought it ? ’ He learned something about Indian
fighting, but he died to learn it,” observed Teddy.
“ A doctor had a very narrow escape in 1755. With eight others he
was attacked by the Indians and, being the last man in the line, he
turned and fled back to the fort from which they had just marched. Two
Indians pursued him. He shot one and tried to distance the other. At
the foot of a hill a dead pine tree had fallen directly across the trail, and
A PIONEER HERO’S FIGHT WITH THE INDIANS.
sharp, broken branches were sticking up all over it, like a porcupine’s
quills. There was no time to stop or turn aside when he saw the tree,
so that the doctor made the spring in his desperation, and managed to
clear the sharp prongs. The Indian was not so lucky, but was impaled
on one of the sharp sticks. The doctor reached the fort in safety. That
is the first story of this war, and it shows what a little thing will some¬
times decide between success and failure,” laughed Will.
‘ Here is another storv—it happened the next year! ” Roy cried
STORY OF BRADDOCK’S DEFHAT.
eagerly. “ It is the account of how one Janies Smith was adopted by a
tribe of Indians, to whom the French had given him as a prisoner.
Smith was confined in an old hut while the Indians had a feast, think¬
ing every moment that he would soon be taken out and tortured. He
was led out in the morning, his hair was all pulled out by the roots
except a topknot, which was tied so as to make it stand up straight, and
then ornamented with a silver brooch. His nose and ears were bored
and ornamented with rings. He was then stripped and painted in vari¬
ous colors, after which a belt of wampum was fastened about his neck,
and silver bands were placed upon his arms.”
u Why did they do that ? ” demanded Ernest.
DELIVERED UP TO THREE GIRLS.
a Listen and you will find out. He felt sure that he was about to
6e tortured when an old chief took him by the arm, led him into the
clear space in front of the village, gave three shrill whoops, and they
were immediately surrounded by the whole tribe. The old chief made
a long speech which Smith could not understand, and then delivered
him up to three girls.”
“To kill ? ” breathed Teddy, with a shudder.
u They led him into the river and tried to push him under the water
but, although he expected to die, he had no notion of being drowned by
girls. He fought with desperation while the tribe, watching every
move, laughed uproariously. Finally some of the Indians called out
‘ No hurt, no hurt you,’ and he stopped resisting. As soon as the girls
had dipped him well they scrubbed all of the paint off, and led him back
to the chief. Then the Indians dressed him in a richly ornamented
shirt, leggings, and moccasins, gave him a buffalo robe to sit on, a pipe,
a tomahawk, a pouch, some tobacco, and flint, and steel.”
“Quite a change in the treatment? What came next?” asked
“ The chiefs seated themselves around him and smoked for some
time in silence, then the old chief said, ‘ My son, you are now one of us ?
STORY OF BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT
and will be treated like our own people. By an ancient custom, the cere*
mony whicb you have just gone tbrougb with bas placed you on an equal*
ity witb ourselves, every drop of white blood having been washed awayl
We are now your brothers and are bound by our laws to treat you as
such, to love you, to fight for you, and to avenge your injuries as much
as though you had been born with usd He was then introduced to the
members of the family which had adopted him, and received with a great
show of affection. He was educated in all the cunning of the Indian,
JAMES SMITH AND THE INDIAN GIRLS.
and remained with the tribe more than four years, when he managed to
make his escape.”
“ I can tell yon a story of something which happened about that
time—I cannot tell you the exact year,” said Ernest eagerly. “There
is a little stream which empties into the Hudson River, which bears the
name of Murderer’s Creek—I will tell you why it is called so. About
1754 a small tribe of Indians, now scattered or extinct, lived there. A
family named Stacey lived in a small log cabin near the mouth of the
STORY OF BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT.
stream, and an old Indian named Naoman often visited tliemand became
very fond of the little boy and girl, aged five and three years.”
44 He didn’t kill them ? ” exclaimed Teddy.
44 No, but one day he entered the house, lighted his pipe, and smoked
for some time in gloomy silence. When asked if he was sick he shook
his head, arose, and went away. This happened three or four times,
but at last when Mrs. Stacey asked his trouble, he said, ‘I am a red man,
the pale-faces are my enemies, why should I speak ? ’ She reminded
him that they had alwa}^s been his friends. 4 It would cost me my life,
you white-faced women cannot keep a secret,’ he next said. 4 Try me
and you will find that I can,’ she said persuasively. 4 Swear by the
Great Spirit that you will tell no one but your husband, not if my tribe
kill you for not telling,’ he commanded. 4 1 swear it,’ she answered
SEEN AND CAPTURED,
44 And he told her that the tribe was going to kill them ? ” questioned
44 Yes, and they were going to begin the massacre that night. 4 Be
quick, but cause no suspicion,’ Naoman said, as he went away. They
tried to do this, but were seen, captured and taken to the Indian village,
where Naoman sat with warriors in council.”
44 The chief declared that some one had been guilty of treason, and
ordered Stacey to tell who it was. Stacey would not name the traitor, and
his wife said that she had been warned in a dream, 4 The Great Spirit
does not talk to the pale-face in dreams l ’ said one of the old warriors
44 Did she tell ? ” breathed Ray.
44 Another of the Indians seized her little son and daughter and held
the dreadful tomahawk over their heads, saying : 4 Woman, thou hast
two tongues and two faces. Speak the truth or the children shall die.
Name the red man who betrayed his tribe. I will ask you three times
only.’ The poor mother was silent, even when her children cried to her
for help. Suddenly Naoman strode forward with the command 4 Stop \
STORY OF BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT.
White woman, you have kept your word with me. Chiefs, I am the
traitor. I have eaten the bread, warmed myself at the fire, and shared
the kindness of these Christian white people, and it was I who told
them of their danger. I am a leafless, withered trunk; cut me down if
yon will ; I am ready to fall.’ ”
“They didn’t kill him ! ” cried Will earnestly.
“What else could they do?—he was a traitor to his people. The
doom of a traitor in civilized nations is death. His white friends were
killed also, and his sacrifice was made in vain. And that is why that
place is called Murderer’s Creek.”
“What happened in September, 1756, Ernest?”
“ There was an Indian village on the Alleghany River, called Kit¬
tanning. It was the home of the noted chief, Captain Jacobs. Colonel
Armstrong determined to destroy it, because the Indians who lived there
were French allies, and also rather troublesome neighbors. So the
village was set on fire and the great chief, with nearly all of his followers,
BLOODY MASSACRE AT FORT WILLIAM HENRY,
“ The war now began in earnest, and soon came the terrible massacre
at Fort William Henry. Events followed each other rapidly, and each
battle was a repetition of the one before it, with another side victorious,
perhaps. Teddy, what about the Cherokees ? ”
“ They were the true friends of the true man, Oglethorpe of
Georgia. England would have lost her colony there many times had it
not been for them—they would come hundreds of miles and fight like
tigers for Oglethorpe. After he left them they learned that all white
men were not the same. They fought with the British during the Revolu¬
tion, an English agent living in the nation as one with them, and sway¬
ing them to his will in all things.”
“And it is asserted in history that never was such torture known as
was inflicted on their helpless prisoners, with him in their midst I These
British officers tortured Georgia women with thumb screws to make them
STORY OF BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT.
reveal the hiding places of their husbands and sons. Truly the Indian
was not the only savage in America ! ” exclaimed Ernest.
“ Who were the worst ? ” asked Hadley. u The Indians who burned
and tortured English prisoners, or the French commanders who were
within sight and hearing? Yet this was done repeatedly by French
sanction, and later the English did the same thing when the Indians, as
their allies, were fighting the Americans.”
“ An Iroquois captive, taken by the French, had his feet broiled,
his hands burned with red hot irons, his joints broken, the sinews of his
arms and legs pulled out, and was then scalped and red-hot sand turned
upon his head,” added Ray.
ONE CHEROKEE WAR.
“I think that we are off the track ! ” cried Roy. “ Uncle Jack asked
us about the Cherokee war, which began in 1759, when the Governor of
South Carolina sent a party of men into their country against the wishes
of the people and of the legislature of his State. These men did such
damage that the Cherokees resolved on a war of extermination. They
had always been very friendly with the English, and had received no
pay for their services. When they started to go home they were obliged
to take food from the settlers as they went along, as they had been given
neither food nor money to buy it with.”
“ They had a queer way of raising money for their poor. They
would hold a war-dance, and each chief who danced and bragged of his
exploits had to throw a present upon a bear skin. He could brag as
much as he liked, but a present must be given for each incident. In
this way quite a sum was sometimes received, when there were a lot of
braves present, and after paying the musicians the rest was always
given to the poor,” laughed Will.
“I found something which I think will interest all of you!”
exclaimed Ray. “We have been talking of treaties, and one of the
first treaties ever made with the Indians contained this clause : ‘ If any
citizen of the United States , or any person not being an Indian , shall
STORY OF BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT.
attempt to settle on any of the lands southward or westward of such bourn
daries which are hereby allotted to the Indians for their hunting grounds ,
or having already settled and will not remove from said land within six
months after the ratification of this treaty , such person shall forfeit the
protection of the United States , and the Indians may punish him or not as
they please? ”
u What do you think of that ? If all of the Indian treaties were so
the Indians had a right to ‘ punish ’ the white men who tried to take
their lands !” ejaculated Teddy.
“ I think we are off the track again,” declared Will. “ In all history
there never was a race civilized in so short a time as the Cherokees
were, yet they were also told to ‘ move on,’ and even had to be helped to
do so by military force, so great was their love for their homes. They
did in a century what it took the Britons five hundred years to do.
They are temperate, industrious and intelligent, living by the honest
fruits of their labor, and as ambitious to advance as any whites.”
“ In 1878, these people had a brick council house which cost $22,000,
and they lived in log, frame or brick houses, as their means allowed.
And it was not an uncommon sight to find a sewing machine or a piano
in their homes,” said Roy.
“ That was not all,” cried Ernest quickly. “They had seventy-five
day schools, two seminaries, a manual labor school, an orphan asylum,
twenty-four stores, twenty-two mills, several blacksmithshops, and all of
the work was done by their own people.”
“ And they have not gone back on their records since,” said Uncle
Jack. “ At least that is what the reports say. We will begin our next
lesson with the attack on Fort Edward, where we will make the acquaint¬
ance of more than one hero who fought in the Revolution. Our own
wars are so mixed up with the history of the Indian it is impossible to
tell one without closely following the other. The Indians were allies
on both sides in the early days of our nation, you must remember,”
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
u I shall wash from my face every cloud-colored stain.
Red—red shall alone on my visage remain !
I will dig up my hatchet and bend my oak bow ;
By night and by day I will follow the foe.”
U [ FIND that we did not finish our lesson last night,” Uncle Jack said
chidingly. “What sort of people were these Cherokees, Ray?”
“They had villages, cultivated the land, and were fast becom¬
ing civilized; but their homes were destroyed and they were driven to
the mountains, where they carried on a border warfare for years.”
“They are the Indians who had a written language of their very
own, and a newspaper printed in it, which has been established since
1830,” cried Ernest. “ Sequoyah, a full blood Cherokee, invented their
alphabet. It has eighty-six sounds ; each character standing for a sylla¬
ble. He taught his own band to read and write by its use, then went to
teach other bands, and so the Cherokee dialect became a written lan¬
guage, thanks to an uneducated Indian.”
“When Canada was surrendered to the English, the Indians
there were not very well satisfied. Can yon explain why that was
“ Why, they liked the French the best, I suppose. And another
thing—it don’t speak very well for our folks—the French would not
allow rum to be sold to the Indians, but the Eng lish soon found that
there was money to be made in that way, and used liquors freely in their
trade, to the rapid demoralization of the red man. Some of the tribes
saw this, and had sense enough to hate the English for it.”
“It was in 1761 that a Mr. Davis and his wife, of the James river
settlement, were taken as prisoners. Mr. Davis was killed, but his wife
was taken to the Indian village, where she was obliged to dress like the
Indian women. She was a wise woman, and began at once to doctor hei
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
red captors, making suck marvelous cures, in tkeir eyes, that ske was
regarded as a messenger from tke Great Spirit, treated as sacred, and
allowed all tke privileges of tke tribe, as a wonderful ‘ medicine woman.’
For some time ske wandered about tke woods in searck of roots and
kerbs, always coming back to the camp in due season. Ske made these
stays longer and longer, until at last ske ventured to strike for freedom,”
“That was in 1763, and ske had been a prisoner about two years,”
continued Ray. “When ske did not return at night, tke Indians sus¬
pected that they had lost tkeir ( medicine woman,’ and they set out to
find her. She crossed tke river three times to conceal her footsteps, but
in doing this again ske was discovered, and, to evade her pursuers, ske
crept into a hollow sycamore log.”
CONCEALED IN A HOLLOW LOG,
u And got away? ” demanded Hadley.
“Yes. As ske lay in tke hollow log tke Indians passed and
re-passed tke spot, even sitting down on tke log. They camped near
by, but went on in tke morning, and ske started off in tke opposite
direction from that taken by them. When ske reached tke river ske
crossed it on a drift log and, travelingby night, ske soon came to a place,
quite near a settlement if ske had known it, where ske laid down to die
in utter despair, but was discovered by some of tke settlers.”
“ What did ske live on all that time ? ” inquired Ray.
“ Ok, on river shell-fish, wild fruits and roots,” answered Will care¬
lessly. “That would be easy enough.”
“ If you think so you had better try it and see how easy it is ! ”
“ And just think of it! That woman actually traveled three hun¬
dred miles through forests and swamps, and over rivers and mountains,
before ske got to tke Green Brier settlement,” added Ray in genuine
“Here is a true story which I meant to have told you before,”
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
exclaimed Ernest. “Letitia Crane was the great-great grandmother ofthe
one who told it to my mother, and she told it to me, so you see it isn’t a
hook story at all. It was when the Indians attacked Kittery. They came to
her house, killed her mother and a brother, and took her prisoner. Her
father was away from home at the time. They took her to Canada where
she was adopted by an old chief who had lost his daughter.”
“And she lived with the Indians always, I suppose,” cried Teddy.
“ I didn' t say so. She lived there until she was fourteen years old,
and when the prisoners were exchanged her father went to Canada to
get her. She clung to the chief and wanted to stay with him, but he
persuaded her to go, saying that he should not live many moons and
then she would be alone. But she was never contented, although she
married and had a white family of her own. Every full moon in the
beautiful summer time she would go off in the woods alone for two or
three hours. She never seemed happy, never forgot her Indian ways,
and did not seem to like her former wb**^ life. She always told how
kindly the Indians treated her.”
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
“ Now, if your stories are told for the present, we will continue with
the history of the French and Indian war. I am not finding fault, for
I think that stories will teach you the manners and characteristics of
the times as nothing else will,” said Uncle Jack smilingly. “ I believe
we were to begin with the proposed attack on Fort Edward; what can
you say about it, Teddy ? ”
“The governor of Canada sent a party to attack the fort *, he had
two hundred French regulars and twelve hundred Indians, but when
the Indians found that it was defended by artillery, they would not do
a thing, they were afraid of the cannon. So the commander concluded
to attack Johnson’s camp instead. Meanwhile Johnson sent one thou¬
sand soldiers and two hundred Mohawks to the aid of the fort, and they
marched directly into an ambuscade laid by the French.”
“ The Mohawks were led by their famous chief, Hendricks, who fell
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
at the first fire, and they all retreated to the camp as fast as ever they
could/ ’ Hadley added.
“The French followed closely, and were greatly surprised and con¬
fused when they were met by a volley from cannon, for they thought
there were none in the camp. The French were defeated, and Dieskau,
their brave commander, was deserted by his men and allies, and taken
prisoner,” Ray concluded.
“When General Abercrombie planned the attack on the great French
fort at Ticonderoga, Isreal Putnam, bold Captain Stark, and Bradstree*
were with him,” said Will. “The fort was too strong for them to take,
and they retreated. The French sent the Indians out to pick up the
stragglers, and among those whom they took as prisoners were Israel
Putnam and a dozen comrades.”
PUTNAM ESCAPES DEATH.
“All but Putnam escaped at once,” interrupted Ray. “He was
seized, doomed to torture, and bound to a tree. Dry wood and leaves
were heaped around him, and the Indians had begun the death dance,
when a French officer happened along. It was lucky for Putnam that
he wasn’t like some of the other French officers, for he got the Indians
to spare his life instead of letting the torture go on.”
“It was General Amherst who moved against Ticonderoga in 1759,
and the French abandoned it when they saw him coming. He then took
Crown Point in the same way,” said Ernest.
“The Indians, most of them, deserted Montcalm when Wolfe went
to take Quebec. A few of them were true -to him, but the majority
remained neutral, for they had decided that his cause was rather a
doubtful one,” nodded Teddy.
“What was the last trouble of the French and Indian war called,
“ It was a war with the Ottawas, and was called Pontiac’s Conspiracy,
and it was in 1762 or 1763. Pontiac was a Catawba by birth, but was
taken prisoner and adopted by the Ottawas. He became chief by his
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
bravery and skill, and his adopted people loved him well. He made a
secret conspiracy with the Delawares, the Shawnees, the Senecas, the
Miamis and many smaller tribes. They intended to take Detroit, and
cut the barrels of their guns so that they could carry them under their
blankets. Pontiac sent Major Gladwin, the commander, word that he
was coming to talk with him at a certain time. He intended to get
within the fort in that way, and then massacre the garrison. The plot
was revealed by an Indian girl, and
did not succeed, but Gladwin let
“ Pontiac thought that the
whites were getting too numerous.
He disputed the right of way when
Major Rogers went to place an
English garrison in Detroit, and
sent the war belt of wampum and
the reddened tomahawk to the other
tribes, to call them to war,” Ernest
“ He asked Major Rogers: ‘ How
dare you come into my country
without my leave ? 1 and then he
made plans to keep them out,” said
Hadley, “and the trouble began.”
“ What did he do, Ray ? ”
“ He then gave the signal for the war and, in less than three weeks,
they had captured all the forts west of Niagara, with the exception of
Detroit and Pittsburg. The garrisons were most of them killed, more
than a hundred traders were murdered and scalped, and over five
hundred families driven from their homes.”
“ The destruction by the Indians extended over the territory between
the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and all of the settlements there were
abandoned for a time. It was Bouquet, with his Highlanders, who
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
dually beat the Indians, using their own wily tactics. The conquered
savages fled to the West, and the Ohio valley has been free from
them ever since,” nodded Will.
“ At one time two hundred Indians were besieging a block-house,’ 1
said Roy. “ It was near Detroit and it was surrounded by two hundred In¬
dians. The garrison determined to fight as long as hope remained, and it
didn’t seem that that would be long. The Indians fired blazing arrows,
which caught on the roof repeatedly, and the flames broke out again and
again. The water supply grew short, but the soldiers dug a well inside
the works, but they were obliged to surrender at last.”
“Northrop says that the plan of operations which Pontiac adopted
was the most remarkable exhibition of genuine leadership ever given by
an Indian. Did he meet with any lasting success, Hadley ?”
“No, he was finally deserted by his followers, even by his own
people, but still would not submit. He left his home and set out for the
western tribes, thinking to incite them to war upon the hated English.
Lord Amherst offered a reward for his head, and he fell by an
“ I read that his assassin, an Illinois Indian, was hired to do the deed
by an English trader, who gave him a keg of whiskey! His death
resulted in a war between the Indians, and the Illinois tribe was nearly
exterminated,” Ray added.
“Alexander Henry, an Indian trader, won the friendship of a
Chippewa chief named Wawatam, who told him that, while enduring a
long fast, he had dreamed that he must adopt a white man as a brother.
He had waited long for the right man to come but he was the one. Henry
made no objection, and the chief went away, happy in his new rela¬
tionship,” said Will.
“ It was a good < adopt’ for Henry,” laughed Roy. “When Pontiac
went on the war-path his Indian brother came again, to warn him, but
his warning was not heeded, and soon Henry was taken prisoner. One day
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
appeared at the
lodge, spoke to the
chief, smoked the
pipe with him, and
went away. Soon he
and his wife returned, both
bearing gifts which they
laid at the feet of the chief,
and Wawatam said: ‘See
FIERCE ATTACK ON A BLOCK HOUSE. - r ,
there my friend and brother
among the slaves ! You know what I feel. On the day when this war
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
began you were afraid for this very reason, that I would betray your
secret. I crossed the lake because you promised to protect my fiiend.
I now come offering you goods for bis ransom.’ ”
“ Did tbey let bim go ?” demanded Teddy.
“ Yes, tbe ransom was accepted, and Henry was free to go borne witb
bis red brother, where be adopted tbe Indian dress as a safeguard against
tbe other Indians. He was conducted to bis own home as soon as it
was safe for bim to go there. How is that for a story of tbe Pontiac
war ?” asked Will.
WAR ENDED AT LAST.
“ But tbe long, cruel war was over at last, and tbe prisoners began
to be exchanged, and gladly returned to their homes again. One woman
got her captive daughter back by singing songs which she bad sung to
her long before she was taken by tbe Indians. She went from place to
place, looking at tbe returned prisoners, and singing tbe songs over and
over. Tbe girl recognized them, although she bad forgotten to speak
her own language. What about that story of gold in California, Roy?”
“ Captain Isaac Stewart probably saw tbe rich gold mines of that
State long before tbe gold discovery of 1849. He was taken prisoner
about fifty miles west of Fort Pitt, about 1764, and was carried to tbe
Wabash. There were more prisoners, but tbey were doomed to suffer
torture. A squaw took a fancy to bim and offered a horse for bis ransom,
but be was still a prisoner. In about two years a Spanish explorei
redeemed bim, also a Welshman, and took them away witb bim.”
“Go on, what are you stopping for? We want to know about tbe
gold,” Ernest protested.
“ They went up tbe Red river several hundred miles, and there tbey
saw a tribe of Indians who were white, witb reddish hair. They spoke
a different language from all other Indians—tbe Welshman said that it
was much like bis own—and be decided to stay witb them as be could
“ White Indians ! How came tbey there? ” breathed Teddy.
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
“ They said that their ancestors came from a far-off conn try, and
landed far east of the Mississippi river, but when the Spaniards came
they fled before them towards the west. Does that mean that America
was discovered before the Spaniards came here ? ” asked Roy.
“ Well, what about the gold?” questioned Will impatiently.
u The Spaniard and Stewart went across the mountains, to where
all of the streams ran toward the west and were filled with particles of
yellow sand. The Spaniard said that he had found what he was looking
or and they need go no farther, so they went back to a post on the Mis¬
souri river and Stewart went home. And that is all there is-to that
story,” Ernest concluded.
u Drake does not think that that story is well sustained. He does
not believe in that tribe of white Indians,” Hadley declared.
THE INDIAN’S STORY.
“ And what good did his discovery of gold do Stewart, if he didn't
get any of it ? ” asked Teddy scornfully.
“ I haven’t a real historical story to tell you, but it is a pretty good
one,” said Will, looking up from an old book which he had been search¬
ing eagerly. “An Indian once went to a tavern and asked for some¬
thing to eat, but the landlady would not give him anything without
money, and was rather cross until a man in the room offered to pay for
“ I know that,” cried Ernest. M After the Indian had eaten he told
the man that he should always remember his kindness, and added:
i As for the woman, I will tell her a little story. The Bible says God
made the world, and took him, and looked on him and said “ it is very
good”; then He made light and took him and looked on him and
said “ it is very good ; ” then He made the land, the water, the sun and
moon, and stars and grass and trees, and took him and looked on him all
and said u it is very good” ; then He made beasts and birds and fishes, and
took him and looked on him and said “it is very good; ” then He made
man and took him, looked on him and said “ it is very good ;” and last of
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
all He made woman, and took him and looked on him—“ and He no dare
say any such word!’ ” Then the Indian left very suddenly.”
“That isn’t all of that story, I will finish it for you,” cried Ray.
“ Some years after that the man was taken prisoner and carried to Canada
by the Indians. He would have been put to the torture, but an old woman
took a fancy to him and adopted him in the place of a son who had been
killed in battle. The next year an unknown Indian came to him as he
was cutting trees, and told him to meet him at a certain place that
“ I wouldn’t have gone. How did he know but what he would be
hilled,” ejaculated Teddy.
LED HIM THROUGH THE FOREST MANY DAYS,
“He did go, and found the Indian waiting with arms and provisions.
He led him safely through the forest for many days. When he finally
stopped on the edge of a clearing, he said : ‘ Do you remember the poor
Indian at the tavern ? You feed him, you kind to him. I am that poor
Indian ; now, go home.’ Then he turned and strode into the forest
without another word, and the man decided that paying for that Indian’s
supper was a good investment.”
“ Let me tell you one more story!” cried Will. “ In the early times
there was a class of bold, fearless men, who were often more than a match
for the Indians, both in strength and stratagem. Among them were two
brothers, named Poe, Adam and Andrew.”
“I’ll help you with that story,” laughed Roy. “Once, with six
other men, they started out after some Indians who had been robbing
the settlers. Fearing a trap, Poe quietly left his comrades, and went
along the trail to reconnoitre. He soon saw two Indians, a big one and
a small one, who were cunningly watching for the white men to come.
His gun missed fire, and the click of the lock betrayed him to the foe.”
“What did the Indians do then, Ernest?”
“ Poe didn’t wait for them to do, he darted forward and seized one of
them in each hand, trying to choke the smaller one, while he tumbled
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
them both to the ground. The smallest one sprang np with an unwise
whoop, and raised his tomahawk, but dropped it again when he received
a well-directed kick in the stomach from Poe’s moccasined foot.’’
“Go on, Teddy.”
“Why, there isn’t much more to tell about that fight. Poe shot the
little Indian, and his comrades came np and wounded the other badly.
ANDREW POE’S FAMOUS COMBAT WITH BIG FOOT.
The Indian deliberately tumbled into the river to escape them, floun¬
dered out into deep water, and drowned. He saved his scalp 1 ”
“I am rather late, perhaps; but I want to tell you a story about the
French and Indian war,” cried Hadley. “It was when the American
army was encamped on the plains of Chippewa. There was a lonely
out-post, quite near the forest, and every night for nearly a week the
sentinel there was shot with an arrow. The commander would not order
another soldier to stand there, so no sentry was placed for a few nights.”
“ But at last a Virginia soldier volunteered to take the place—you
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR,
know those Virginia Rangers were never behind when there was danger
ahead,” continued Ray. M He firmly bade the sentry-guard 4 Good-night’
and took his post. It was a dark, cloudy night, with hardly a star to be
seen. The sentinel heard and saw nothing for some time,-then he heard
a slight rustling in the bushes at the edge of the forest, and a bear
shambled by him to the thicket on the other side.”
“ I’ll tell you about that,” shouted Will excitedly. “ That bear was
a redskin with a bear’s hide on ! Just as he was going into the bushes
again the moon happened to shine out brightly for a second, but thai
time was long enough for the light to reveal Indian moccasins under the
claws of the bear! ”
“ What did the sentinel do then ? ” demanded Roy.
ENCOUNTER WITH TWELVE INDIANS.
“ We? 4 , he didn’t know what to do for a minute, but he did know
that there might be plenty of just such bears in the neighborhood. So
he quietly took off his hat and coat, and put them under the branch of a
fallen tree, so that they looked as if a man was sitting there. Then he
crept into the thicket, grasped his rifle tightly, and waited. Soon an
arrow whizzed by his head, and the hat on the stick nearly fell to the
u Didn’t he take his turn then ? ” questioned Teddy.
* “Not just then. He waited and soon counted twelve Indians in a
little cleared spot. They had been hidden on the ground, lying at full
length among the leaves, you know. He was near enough to hear what
they said when they planned to kill the sentinel the next evening, and
then massacre the others. After this discussion they arose and marched
off in single file.”
“And the sentinel let them go! ” said Roy in a disgusted tone.
“For that time he did,” returned Will. “ What could he do with a
dozen Indians ? When he took his hat he found that the arrow had
passed through it. He went to the commander immediately and received
alieutenaut’s commission, as a reward for the information which he gave.”
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
“ Didn’t they get that bear ? ” asked Ray.
“ Oh, yes. I forgot to finish my story. The next evening they
fixed the hat and coat without any man in them, and a party of soldiers
hid in the thicket. They waited about an hour before they saw any
sign of the enemy. Then they saw the bear shamble out, retire, and
then rise suddenly upon his hind legs and fire an arrow at the mock
sentinel, that knocked the hat to the ground. Then the war-hoop
sounded. The Lieutenant gave a command and the Virginians charged.
Over half of the Indians were killed before they knew what hit them,
and the rest ran off, leaving ten chiefs dead on the field. That lieutenant
is better known in history as the brave and able General Morgan.”
“ What next ? ” asked Will.
“Why, we have come to the time of the Revolution, didn’t yon
know ? ” laughed Roy.
“And to-morrow John and I are going to cut a bee-tree—you can go
along if yon will behave yourselves,” said the guide quietly. “We shall
go in the evening, so you will not miss a lesson—and so the bees will
not be so lively.”
But the boys did not hear the last words I
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