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Brigham Young University 

Ernest L. Wilkinson Collection 
on the 

American Indian 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2019 with funding from 
Brigham Young University 


( f 7-0 ' 1 











Author of 44 Lives of Our Presidents/' "Story of Our Nation/' "A Trip around the World 

with Captain Parker," etc. 

Superbly Illustrated with Phototype and Wood Engravings 

'■ ‘ . L " , 






I N PRESENTING this History of the Indian Tribes to the American 
public we wish to say there are two classes of people whom we do 
not aim to please—those who, reading the Leatherstocking tales, 
are apt to base their ideas upon them, and regard the “noble red man” 
as but little lower than the angels; and the frontiersman who having, 
perhaps, witnessed massacres, can see no good trait in Indians, but regards 
them all as demons. If you reason until doomsday yon can never change 
the ideas of these people, who hold such widely different opinions. 

The happy medium between these two estimates of the Indian char¬ 
acter would be the true one of a race which possesses human thoughts 
and instincts; a race to whom civilization came too soon and in the 
wrong way ; a race which certainly was no worse than our own ancestors 
of the eleventh and. twelfth centuries. 

The Indian, like Topsy, simply “ growed.” He followed his own 
inclinations, without regard to right or wrong. He had no more moral sense 
of right or wrong than a little child has before its education in that 
direction begins. He could return good for good very well, but knew 
nothing about returning good for wil, although he understood how 
to give bad for bad, adding compound interest every time. He was a 
treacherous and cruel enemy, but a faithful friend. 

The lessons which he learned were all of cruelty and, later, of 
hatred to the white man, whom he was taught to regard as worse than a 
beast of prey, for he would take his native land from him. As the 
Israelitites of old thought it was no crime to “borrow” of their Egyp¬ 
tian neighbors upon the eve of their flight from that land, so the red man 
considered it no crime to borrow whatever the white man had—even his 
life. He was desperately brave against the Spaniards, who gave him 
his first lessons in deceit and crmAtv- 




Both North and South American Indians reverenced age, as a rule j 
loved their children, and had a high sense of honor and justice. They 
were naturally silent and taciturn but fond of set speech, metaphors and 
similes. Cruelty to captives was the worst thing that could be said of 

Why not read and ponder over the history of political and religions 
persecutions among the civilized nations of earth ? Why forget the 
Salem witchcraft craze, the burning of negroes in New York City, and 
some of the old plantation tales ? 

The red man certainly is not a saint, but he is a human being, and 
should not be utterly condemned without a hearing. So far the white 
man has generally told the story in his own way. The Indian practiced 
as well as preached personal independence and freedom from all restraint; 
he bitterly resented the laws of the white man. He has shown the cour¬ 
age of Leonidas, and can not be regarded as a weak character when he 
has proved himself to be a shrewd, desperate and powerful foe. Our own 
ancestors lived in rude huts, clothed themselves in the skins of wild 
beasts, and painted their bodies, nor were they less cruel to their enemies 
than were the red men of America. 

The Indian thought it a weakness to forgive an injury and noble to 
revenge it. He always went to war to redress a real or fancied wrong. 
Revenge was a sacred duty to him, yet he was an affectionate father, 
hospitable to all, and never forgot an injury or kindness. 

Nearly all of his legends told him of visitors who would come from 
distant lands, manitous or gods, fair, majestic, and vastly superior to his 
race, whom they would speedily elevate to their own plane. When he 
found that the newcomers were foes instead of friends he made a gallant 
fight for his home in his own cruel way, which, after all that has been 
said, was not more cruel than the ways of his conqueror, certainly not 
worse than those of our own Anglo-Saxon forefathers in Europe. 

He retaliated on the innocent ! So did some of the white settlers. 
A short time ago a friend told us the story oi her great-great uncle, 
who saw his wife kiUed by Indians, although, for .some unexplained 



reason, liis own life was spared. He immediately vowed “ death to all 
Indians ” and did kill three who had nothing to do with the murder of his 
wife. More than that, he scalped them, and when he was dying, he had 
the scalps placed where he could see them and remember his revenge. 
Could an Indian cherish hatred more than that ? 

The laws of the human races follow closely those of the vegetable 
kingdom, and we see the survival of the fittest every day. Nation 
follows nation, the stronger overcoming the weaker; peoples arise 
and vanish and others take their places in the onward march. It is the 
law of progress. The Indians gave way before our race as some other 
race gave way to them. 

We find that the first white men were regarded as gods from the 
distant Chebakunah, the Land of Souls, and the tidings of their coming 
ran from tribe to tribe, to'be talked of in lodge and council house. The 
Indians welcomed them with gifts of corn and fruit, giving them cordial 
help, but all too soon these trusting people discovered that their supposed 
gods were very selfish and human men. 

The first thing was to kidnap some of the unsuspecting natives to 
send across the water as a show, and the next step was easy—to make 
slaves of them ! Is it any wonder that they became u wild and unruly,” 
and tried to prevent more ships from anchoring ? 

The white man’s “ firewater ” was the most deadly agent in the 
conquest of the American Indians. Drunkenness was never known 
among them before Columbus came. The story goes that Masewapega, 
an Ojibway, visited the white spirits and carried back to his tribe some 
spirits which were not white in character. The Indians dare not taste it, 
fearing that it was poison, but finally gave a glass to a very old squaw 
who had not much longer to live. 

To the : r great surprise the old woman did not die, and presently 
begged for more. From that day the Ojibways thought nothing of 
going a hundred miles, if need be, to get “firewater.” Rum would buy 
more fine furs than cloth and beads, and was used freely by Indian 
traders. With better civilization temperance comes, and there are tern* 



perance societies on some of the reservations now, while the reports grow 
better every year. 

There are tribes which have never been hostile, no matter what the 
provocation has been. The different clans differ as much, one from 
another, as the white man differs from them all. There are the noble and 
the rough, the good and the bad, with all the grades between, among 
the native races. 

The Italian peddler is not a Roman senator ; the English swell k 
not a King Arthur ; the average United States citizen is not a Wash¬ 
ington or a Lincoln, and every Indian is not a Massasoit or a Tecnmseh. 

The white man is a savage, whitewashed by years of education and 
training. Treated as the Indian has been, placed beyond the necessity 
of work, would he have made more progress in a century than the 
Indian has done ? 

The memory of an injury is handed down through generations— 
so is the memory of a kindly deed. Once a party of Indians visited 
Philadelphia and were shown the statue of William Penn. They fell on 
their knees before it at once, so strong was the reverence for him, which 
had descended from father to son. 

The main causes of the wars with the Indians has been failures to 
fulfil treaties made by the commissioners; dishonest agents, and it was 
a notorious fact that an agent with a salary of $1500 to $2000 a year 
could retire with a fortune in a few years ; and encroachment of whiter, 
upon their reservations. Miners entered and took their best hunting 
grounds, regardless of treaties, and the government representatives 
professed to be unable to prevent them. In fact, the whites have always 
settled on Indian lands regardless of their treaty rights, and then the 
Indian has been told that he must “move on.” 




The Camp in the Woods—The Invincible Six—Their Idea of the Indians 
—A Wise Uncle Jack—The Boys Begin theStndy of Indian History— 
Probable Origin of the Indian—Different Opinions—Was There Only 
One A dam and Eve—Was America, the “ Cradle of the Human Race,” 
a Lava-Covered Village—Carthaginian Ships Which Never Returned 
to Port—Egyptian Traditions—The “Seven Cities of Cibola”—A 
Ruined Temple—Mound-Builders—Cremation Practiced in the Early 
Days—Black-Bird’s Mound Grave—Roman and Persian Coins Found 
in America—Festival Ovens—Shell Mounds—Aztec Records—Oldest 
House in the United States—Cave Dwellings—Cliff-Dwellers ... 17 


Myths and Legends. 

Scared by an Owl—Mudgekewis—Kabibonoka—Shawandasee—Wabun, 
Traditions of—The Flood—The Dove—The Shepherd and His Llamas 
—Ash and Elm, were they Adam and Eve ?—A Race of Giants— 
Mexican Tradition of a Great Tower—The Story of Three Eggs—The 
Bearded White Man—Man Descended from Monkeys—The Master 
of Life was an Indian—The Sky-Holder—The First Men were 
Cayotes—Owayneo, the Creator—Queer Mandan Tradition—Old 
Newell Bear—Book Written by an Indian—Klose-Kur-Beh—Legend 
of the Nakannies—Tradition of Hiawatha . *. 31 


The Coming of the Indian. 

What are the ?pots on the Moon—What is the Rainbow—Forty Tribes 
Extinct—‘Kamchatkans — Tartars — Eight Tribes, with Many Sub- 



Tribes — Names — Government — Five Nations — Tribes That Kept 
Flocks of Deer for Cows—Very Superstitions—Happy Hunting 
Ground—Why Indians Scalp an Enemy—Cruelty—Sun-worship- 
Medicine Men—Bath House—Picture Writing—Painting their Bodies 
—Belief in Dreams—Queer Names—Squaw Men—Legend of the White 
Hawk—Sioux War Cry. 45 


Character and Customs. 

Indian Cradles—Education of Boys and Girls—The Boy’s First Fast- 
Legend of the Robin—Ordeal Before a Boy Can Be a Warrior—Indian 
Children Seldom Punished—Their Games— u Boston Baked Beans”— 
Snares for Wild Beasts—Houses of Different Tribes—Baskets—Deeds 
of Land—The Inventor of the Cherokee Alphabet—Newspaper in the 
Indian Language—How Time is Reckoned—Organizing a War Party 
—Story of Bianswah, the Chippewa Chief—Story of Nadowaqua— 
Indian Runners—Indian Retribution—Story of Petalasharoo—Indians’ 
Best Dress—Indian Council. < 61 



Nu-mock-muck-a-nah—The “ First Man”—The Great Canoe—Dances of 
the Iroquois—Strawberry Festival—War Dance—Ghost Dance—Scalp 
Dance—Masquerade—Strong Heart Dance—Thunder Feast—Feast of 
the Dead—Calumet Dance—Buffalo Dance—Pipe Dance—Dog Feast- 
Medicine Dance—Fleeka, or Arrow Dance—How the Comanches 
“Smoke Horses”—The Lord’s Prayer in the Wampanoag and 
Mohegan Languages. 77 


Early Discoverers. 

The Norsemen—Trading with the Indians—Keel Cape—Was it Cape- 
Cod—First Fight With the -Indians—Death of Thorwald—Set 



tlement Abandoned—First White Chief—Natives that Columbus 
Found in the New Land—His Reception by Them—His Return for 
Their Kindness—Fort LaNavidad—What Became of It—The Reason* 
able Character of the Early Discoverers—Eclipse of the Sun—Indian 
Slavery—Columbus Began the Slave Trade—Story—John Verrazzani, 
His Return for the Kindness of the Natives—Kidnapping—Vasquez— 
De Ayllon—Cabot—A Cruel Deed—Captain Weymouth—Ponce de 
Leon—De Soto—How the Spaniards Used the Indians—How They 
Found Out that the Newcomers Were Mortal—What They Thought 
Gunpowder was Made From—Indians Generous to a Brave Enemy— 
How Potatoes Were First Cooked—Natchez Indians—Their Houses— 
The White Man’s Fire Water—Henry Hudson ..93 


More About the Early Days. 

Price Paid for New York—What Red Jacket Thought of the White Man 
—Maqnacomen’s Opinion—Different From that of Sitting Bull—What 
Menawa Said—Legend of the First Indian Blanket—Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert—Sir Walter Raleigh—How Amidas and Barlow Were Re¬ 
ceived by the Natives—Greenville’s Expedition—His Injustice—Fate 
of the Colony—Story of Wingina—First White Child of Virginia— 
Tradition of the Fate of the Colony—Concert—Startling Interruption 
—A Joke That was Not a Joke—A Visitor.Ill 


First Settlers and Their Dangers. 

Colonists Were Not Wise—Story of Hatuey—Natives of the West 
Indies—Brief History of the Islands—What the Caribs of Grenada 
Did—Camberlain—John Smith—Settlement of Jamestown—Powhatan— 
Pocahontas—Smith a Prisoner—Free Again—Cannon and Grindstone 
—Wars With Opechancanough—His Death—Massacres of Virginia— 
Story—Story of MacDougal.124 



Stories of Thrilling Interest. 

Cruelty of tlie Spaniards—Doegs and Susquehannahs—Planting Gun¬ 
powder—John Elliot’s Labors of Love—First Justice of Peace—His 
Warrants—Squanto, the Sokokis Chief—Will an Indian Baby Drown 
—Story of the Kennebeck Indian—The Rockaway Conference—Ogle¬ 
thorpe—Story of Tomochichi—William Penn—A White Feather— 
Sioux Generosity—The Indian and the Missionary—The Prophet of 
the Allegheny—Logan—Another “Removal”—Story of Pachgant- 
schilia—Joseph, the Nez Perces—Early Conceit—Principal Indian 
Events Since 1862 —Mission Indians of California—A War Dance 138 


Miles Standish and the Pilgrims. 

Coming of the Pilgrims—What They Found—Deer-Trap—Accident- 
First Fight with the Indians—Aspinet—Squanto—Indian Visit- 
Presents—The Great Massoit—Quadequina—Miles Standish—The 
Wampanoags—Character and Appearance of Massasoit—The Treaty- 
Trouble with Canonicus—The White Man’s Witch Charm-Colony at 
Weymouth—Massasoit’s Illness—Winslow’s Wonderful Cure—Queer 
Broth—First Thanksgiving in America—Van Twiller—Keift Account¬ 
able for the Indian Troubles at that time—Lord Baltimore . . . 153 


The Pequods and Roger Williams. 

Pequods—Roger Williams—Miantonomoh—Canonicus as a Friend— 
Founding of Providence—Anne Hutchinson—Pequod War—Narragan- 
setts Friendly—Destruction of the Pequod Fort—Extinction of the 
Tribe—Death of Sassacus—Fate of his Followers—War-cry not Heard 
Again for Forty Years—Cruel Death of Miantonomoh—Dutch War 
with the Indians—Cause—Story—Ahasistari—Bravery and Fidelity— 
St. Joseph—Father Marquette—His Peace-pipe—Indians Kept a Letter 
Fourteen Years and then Delivered it Safely^—Susquehanna War. . 167 




King Philip and the Indian Wars. 

Philip’s War—Descendants of Massasoit—Alexander—Uncas—Alex* 
ander’s Arrest and Death—Suspicion of Poison—Wetamoo—Friendly 
Mohegans—Did Philip Kill His Brother—Plymouth Warned by a 
Friendly Indian—It Cost Him His Life—Female Sachems Who Helped 
Philip—Cruel Things—Superstitions—Philip, the King—War to the 
Death—Strange Escapes from Death—Captain Church—Swanzey— 
Brookfield—Story—Deerfield—Hadley—Strange Leader—Fight at 
South Kingston—Torture of Captive Permitted and Witnessed by the 
English—Defeat of the Narragansetts—Story of Mr. Rowlandson—The 
Man with Two Heads—Capture of Philip’s Son and Wife—His Death 
—Result of the War—Trouble in Maine—Cause—Annawon—Tuspa- 
quin—Ransom of Captives—Story .... 182 


Strange Superstitions. 

Asking a Bear’s Pardon—Queer Superstitions—William Penn—Meeting 
at Shakamaxon—The Treaty of the Indians—The Chief Tammany— 
Sainted after Death—The Festival of Tammany—King William’s War 
—Great Cruelties—The Indians not always to Blame—Story of Major 
Waldron—Capture of Dover—War of Extermination—Premium for 
Scalps—Deerfield—Haverhill—Hannah Dustin—Her Capture and 
Escape—Assacambuilt and His War-club—Jesuits—“The Bars Fight” 
—Only Five Years of Peace.199 


Troubles on the Frontier. 

Queen Anne’s War—Trouble in Carolina—English Sold in Canada as 
Slaves—Attack on Deerfield—Story of Eunice Williams—The Will¬ 
iams Indians—“ Rouville, The Terrible —Attack on Haverhill— 
Strange and Narrow Escapes—Stunted by the Indians—The Tusca- 
roras—The Yam mas sees—A Brave Boy—Bobasheela—Father Rasies— 
The Story of Paugns and Chamberlain—Their Duel—Extermination 
of the Natchez Tribe.. . . 215 




Story of Braddock’s Defeat. 

Oglethorpe and the Indians of Georgia—Tomochichi and His Queen 
Visit England—John Wesley—Whitfield—War Between England and 
Spain—Oglethorpe Invades Florida—Helped by his Indians—France 
J oins Spain—W ar in the Ohio V alley—Half King—Battle of Great Mead¬ 
ows—Braddock’s Defeat—Washington—His Narrow Escapes—Story 
of the Doctor—Adopted by the Indians—Story of Murderers’ Creek— 
The Good Naoman—Destruction of Kittanning—Massacre of Fort 
Henry—Cherokee War—First Indian Treaty.228 


French and Indian War. 

More about the Cherokees—A “ Medicine Woman ”—Her Escape—Story 
of Letitia Crane—French and Indian War-—Fort Edward—Attack on 
Johnson’s Camp—Mohawk Chief Hendrick—His Death—Pontiac’s 
Conspiracy—His Generalship—Story of Alexander Henry—The First 
Discovery of Gold in California—A Singular Bear.241 




u In one grave maxim, let us all agree— 

Nature ne’er meant her secrets should be found, 

And man’s a riddle, which man can’t expound.” 

T HE mid-summer sun 
never shone upon a 
lovelier spot than that 
where stood the camp of the 
“ Invincible Six,” — Ernest 
Mason, Teddy Morse, Will 
Hall, Roy Sawyer, and Had¬ 
ley and Ray Stanton—who 
were spending their vacation 
in the grand old woods of 
Maine. At the moment, when 
my story opens, they were 
lying under a great maple- 
tree, beside the rippling river, 
watching the speckled trout 
dart through the shining waters and reading papers which the 
guide had just brought from the settlement ten miles away, while that 
useful “ Jack-at-all-trades ” was delivering packages and bundles to 
Uncle Jack, as they all called him, the originator and general manager 
of this glorious summer outing. 

“ I say, boys, there is going to be another Indian outbreak, the 

Snakes are getting unruly,” Ernest cried excitedly. 

“ I’d just like to go out and fight ’em !” Teddy exclaimed fiercely, 

“ They ought to be wiped off the face of the earth I ” 





“That’s so,” nodded Hadley. “Think of the trouble they have 
caused, and the money they have cost this nation.” 

“And all the horrible wars,” added Ray with a shudder. 

“ I hope that our soldiers will make quick work of ’em this time— 
not leave one alive ! ” said Will decidedly. 

“So do I,” Roy agreed. 

Uncle Jack had drawn near while this conversation was going 
on, and now said quietly, so very quietly that Ernest nudged Will, and 
whispered that something was wrong somewhere when Uncle Jack spoke 
to them in that tone. 

“I see, young gentlemen, that you are freely giving your opinion 
of the threatened Indian outbreak. Can you tell me what possible cause 
the Indians could have for dissatisfaction, Ernest? ” he asked. 


“Why—I didn’t look to see about that. I guess—oh; here it is. 
xLey are mad because new towns are springing up all over their nation, 
that’s all.” 

“That is strange; I should suppose that they would like company, 
wouldn’t you? Whose land is it?” There was a meaning in Uncle 
Jack’s voice which the boys could not fail to observe. 

“ I—I suppose that the land belongs to the Indians,” said Ray. 

“ That is just where the trouble lies, my boy. The white men are 
settling on their lands without leave or license. Now, I have noticed that 
you hold opinions on the Indian question which a careful study of 
Indian history would be very likely to change. I know of no better 
place to investigate the subject than right here—in the woods where the 
first red men lived and died—and I will send for histories and Indian 
tales when Mr. Brown’s team comes in with the provisions which are 
ordered. When we have learned all that we can on the subject, we will 
take a vote to see whether the Indian shall have a chance for his life 
or not. I think that you will find the study both interesting and profit¬ 



“ That’s just like you, Uncle Jack,” Teddy grumbled laughingly. 
“ But I know all that I want to about the red skins.” 

“You have no choice in the matter, young man ; you are to devote 
two hours each, day to tbe careful study of Indian history. We shall 
have books written by all classes of people, and shall have a chance to 
make an impartial decision,” said Uncle Jack, positively. And when 
Uncle Jack spoke in that way the boys knew better than to argue the 


In a day or two the box of books was brought in by Mr. Brown’s 
man, and Ray nailed the box to the side of the camp and carefully placed 
tbe books upon the shelves thus made. 

“The first thing for us to consider is how the Indians came here,” 
Uncle Jack began, when the hour which he had set for study arrived. 
“So we must begin with the first indications of human occupation, and, 
we will find what we can of the Mound Builders, whose works extend as 
far north as Lake Superior, and no one knows the southern boundary.” 

“ They made fine pottery, of various sizes and designs. They also 
varved bone and stone, and even forged the copper which they mined. 
What people were they?” questioned Ray thoughtfully. 

“I have heard that they were only the old time Sionx,” said Ernest, 

“ Pho, I read that two distinct races occupied America before the 
Indians came, and Indians believe that the white man—that we will fol¬ 
low them into oblivion, and leave the land to the savages again,” ejacu¬ 
lated Hadley scornfully. 

“Why couldn’t that be so?” questioned Ray. “When Noah was 
building the ark others might have made boats also, and so many people 
might have been saved from the flood as well as Noah and his family. 
The wind and waves would carry them to different lands—some of them 
might have reached America. The ancient Peruvians used to say that 
the rainbow was a sign that the earth would never again be overflowed— 
liow could they know that?” 



u How do you know that man did not originate in America, that dif¬ 
ferent races were not native to different lands ? Adam and Eve were the 
ancestors for that part of the world in which they lived; but I never 
found any positive proof that they were the only ones created,” declared 

“ You are not sure of that, but we do know that centuries, perhaps 
thousands of years ago, man inhabited this new world, which the Span¬ 
iards claimed by right of discovery, as I might claim your bicycle if I 
found it—and you were weaker than I,” Ray said slowly. 


“ There is no sufficient proof that America was not the cradle of the 
world, if there was but one cradle. There may have been several, as 
Will suggests,” Uncle Jack remarked. ‘ There may have been a belt of 
islands near the equator ; Alaska may have been joined to Asia ; or the 
Lost Atlantis may have connected the two hemispheres. Dr. Gustav 
Lebstein declared that he found abundant proof of a race which must 
have been here long before the Indians were. In an almost inaccessible 
mountain gorge he found the remains of an old road which must have 
been made before the gorge existed in its present form. On the top of 
the mountain he found unmistakable evidence of mining operations, and 
the methods employed were far different from those of the Spaniards.” 

“ A lava covered village has lately been discovered in California— 
just like Pompeii! I read it in a paper. They found dishes of peculiar 
shapes, and other things which are unknown to our civilization. The 
implements found were not like any that the Indians ever had. An 
investigation is going to be made and then I will tell you more about it,” 
said Roy. 

“They’ll be finding live mammoths next,” exclaimed Ernest 
shrugging his shoulders. 

“Very likely,” retorted Teddy. “The Indians call that animal the 
big buffalo, and say that it existed in the northern part of America as 
late as 1780.” 



“The Northmen visited America, and the Chinese came to California 
in 458, why couldn’t other people come?” asked Ray. 

“ We do not know but they did,” declared Will. “Many Cartha¬ 
ginian ships sailed away from home, never to return ; others did return 
with the fabulous tale of the Lost Atlantis. Was that America ?” 

u Ak, that fabulous story is no better known to us than the secrets 
of the mysterious mounds, the silent caves, or the inaccessible cliff- 
dwellings. We can only ask, ‘ was it truth or fiction? ’Sir John Lubbock 
asks if the belief may not be owing to the large patches of ‘Gulf-weed,’ 
or like the Sargasso sea which now exists near Newfoundland. This 
weed, found in large fields, is driven about by the winds. His theory 
does not seem possible to me, however, for Plato describes it as a land of 
great cities and a rich and powerful nation. The Egyptians have tradi¬ 
tions of such a land also. Others say that the flood, of which the Bible 
tells, was caused by the destruction of Atlantis by earthquakes. When 
it was engulfed the waters rushed over the other lands.” 


“Then you think there really was such a land, Uncle Jack?” 
Ernest laughed incredulously. 

“ I would like to think so and that is why I am so ready to believe 
it. And a survey of the ocean bed seems to prove it, for there is a bank 
from Africa to South America, where the water is not as deep as on 
either side. It is where tradition locates the Lost Atlantis which, per¬ 
haps, served as a bridge to bring the first settlers to America. Abbe 
Brasseur hints that the Cohuas, who lived before the Toltecs, escaped 
when that land was destroyed, and entered Mexico.” 

“Perhaps it was America after all,” suggested Will. 

“ Perhaps so. It may be that the people of those times had means 
of knowing our land. It maybe that the Egyptians built the edifices, so 
like the pyramids, the ruins of which astonish and perplex us. One 
ancient writer alludes to a magnificent city, and still another tells of 
seven rich cities—none of which have ever been found.” 



“ Where were the ‘Seven Cities of Cibola?’” asked Ray. 

“ No one knows,” returned Teddy. “ The Spaniards could not find 

“Just before the Galveston flood two layers of pre-historic bones were 
found embedded in the ocean sand there, together with ivory beads and 
many other things,” said Roy. 

“As if that had anything to do with this business,” ejaculated 
Hadley. “ Galveston is a modern city, and it may have been destrov^d a 
dozen times before.” 


“Not many years ago a ruined temple was found in the Cocopah 
desert, in California. The carvings which ornamented it were of a very 
strange kind. Some of them representing great snakes,” Ray nodded 

“Well, who do you think that the Mound-Builders were?” asked 
Uncle Jack. 

“ I found an old tradition which said that they were the ancestors 
of the Elk Indians, but if there ever was such a tribe it must be all gone 
now. I couldn’t find anything about it in the reports,” said Ray. 

“The traditions of the Cherokees state that they moved from Ohio 
and that they made some of the mounds of that valley, if not all of 
them,” cried Roy eagerly. “ Professor Cyrus Thomas has proven, 
almost beyond a doubt, that that tribe were mound-builders within a 
time of history.” 

“ Such mounds are being found all of the time. You remember those 
discovered at Millis, Massachusetts, not long ago—the ones which were 
on the old trail that King Philip had from Mendon. I think the Indians 
made all of the mounds, and that there never was a race of distinct 
mound-builders,” declared Teddy emphatically. 

“Some of the mounds proveto us that cremation was practiced long 
ago. A chief once said that the ancient Indians had traditions which 
were too sacred for the white man to know ; that cremation was prac- 



ticed by al. 1 of the tribes at one time ; that the ashes of the dead were 
put in heaps ; and great mounds were built over them. The relatives 
always gave a feast after the body was buried, and this custom was 
observed long after cremation was stopped. The Indians held national 
feasts and a mound was always made as a record of it, after the festival 
was over,” said Ernest. 

“ The mounds which are made in the shapes of animals seem 
to be characteristic of the Indian,” mused Teddy. “ And burial mounds 
were surely made. Blackbird, a celebrated chief, was buried, at his own 
request, upon a bluff which overlooked the Missouri river. He was 
dressed in full war costume, painted and armed. He was then seated 
upon his favorite horse, on the surface of the ground, and earth was 
worked around the bodies of man and beast until they were deeply cov¬ 
ered by the mound. This mound was to be seen for many, many years, 
and it may be there still if no white man has wanted the place for a build¬ 
ing spot.” 


“ Banks of earth will last for centuries after the most massive stone 
structures have crumbled and disappeared, I suppose,” added Hadley. 

“The story of the early struggle for existence is told in every land, 
but especially in America where evidence of so many races are found. 
There are nearly as many theories advanced as there are books written 
upon the subject. Traces of cave and cliff dwellings are found all over 
the world ; many caves have yielded up their hidden curiosities, which 
have increased even while they enlightened the mysteries of the past; 
and mounds, from a few inches to ninety feet in height, have been found. 
Judging from these ruins the earliest settlers may be divided into three 
distinct classes. 

“ How old do you think these ruins are ? ” asked Hadley. 

“ The ruins may be more modern than we think, or would be willing 
to believe. The Spaniards found ruins when they marched through 
New Mexico, as well as some thriving cities. Sir John Lubbock says 
1 they would not require an antiquity of more than 3000 years ’ to be as 



we see them. He further says ‘ I do not, of course, deny that the period 
may have been very much greater, but in my opinion, at least, it need 
not have been greater.’ When La Salle visited the Natchez Indians in 
1681, he was astonished at the town of Taensas, where he found large 
houses built of sun-dried bricks, covered by dome-shaped roofs of cane, 
and placed regularly around an open space or court. Two of the largest 
ones were set apart for their chief, and as a Temple of the Sun. These 
Indians are supposed by a great mauy to be the genuine descendants of 
the Mound-builders.” 

“ Then you think that the mounds were the work of Indians ? ” 
asked Ernest. “ Pidgeon does not say so. He tells of a discovery in 
Brazil, in 1827. A farmer of Monte Video discovered a flat stone in one 
of his fields, covered with strange characters. Upon examination Greek 
words were made out, which recorded it as having been placed there 
‘ during the reign of Alexander, the son of Philip, King of Macedon.’ 
T^o old swords, a shield and a helmet were under the stone.” 


“ A Roman coin was found on the bank of the Desperes, and a Per¬ 
sian coin on the bank of the Ohio. How did they come there ? ” demanded 

u Pidgeon tells about stones with Phoenician characters engraved 
upon them ; of a cave in Kentucky, entered in 1775, where a number of 
mummies were found, embalmed like those of Egypt ; and he says that 
some of the stone mounds are the burial places of kings and great men 
of a tribe, which have been saved and collected until there were enough 
to make a monumental mound over,” added Hadley. 

“Some were festival ovens, in which whole animals were roasted in 
much the same way that beans are sometimes cooked in the lumber camps ; 
some were sacrificial ovens, in which victims were burned ; some may have 
been the graves of such victims; some may have been furnaces to smelt 
metals,” continued Ray. 

“Pidgeon says more than that,” declared Will. “The ruins of the 



Tumuli in America are similar to those on the Western Continent. 
Josephus’ description of the Roman camps seems to fit some of the 
enclosures found in the Mississippi valley. These camps were four 
square, by measurement, with an entrance on each side and towers at 
equal distances. The ruins at Marietta would not require much stretch 
of imagination to furnish proof that they were once camps like these. 
Danes and Saxons made their camps in circular form. Would this fact 
account for the round ruins of the Mound-builders ? There are other 

mounds which are neither round nor square, which resemble the earth 
fortifications of African villages ; Indians never use these enclosures, and 
have no traditions of the ruins. They were made by a people before 
their time.” 

“ Perhaps not,” declared Roy. ‘‘It did not take many years for the 
coming of De Soto to be forgotten by the tribes which he visited.” 

“One thing is certain the Mound-builders built cities, wove cotton, 
worked silver and gold and copper mines, tilled the fields, and had a 
regular government,” asserted Teddy. 



“ Well, I think that they were the Zunis, and the mounds are only 
the remains of the earth foundations of their houses, the wood having 
decayed and vanished from mortal view,” said Will decidedly. 

“ The shell mounds were just heaps of refuse, left from feasts, and 
there is evidence that the people who left some of them were cannibals, 
the distinct marks of human teeth being found on human bones,” 
breathed Roy with a shudder. 

“ How terrible ! ” ejaculated Will. 

“ It may seem less terrible when we contrast it with the practices of 
some of our own ancestors, with those of some of the proud races of the 
present day,” Uncle Jack began. “In those days human life was not 
valued as it is now, and hunger will always make savages of men. 
St. Gerome said that he saw a savage Scotch tribe, the Attacotes, who 
ate human flesh in preference to pork, mutton or beef, although they 
kept great herds. Galen tells that the Roman courtiers of Emperor 
Commodns ate human flesh. Adam of Brennan, in the eleventh 
century, a preacher at the court of King Sven Ulfsen, says that the 
Danes wore skins of beasts and devoured their fellow men. Cortez saw 
the Aztecs sacrifice their prisoners before feasting, and among 
vir^ms he recognized some of his own men by their white skins.” 


“Fiske tells us that the notion that the Mound-builders were like 
the Aztecs or Zunis is not well sustained, but that it is more probable 
that they were like the Cherokees or the Shawnees, and it is not certain 
that there ever was a race of such people,” said Hadley. 

“ If the Spaniards had not destroyed the histories we should have 
known more about it,” sighed Ray. “ Both the Toltecs and the Aztecs 
had written annals of eight and a half centuries before Cortez saw 
Mexico. They were all burned in the market place at Tlateloco.” 

“ Did the Spaniards do that ? ” demanded Ernest. 

“ They surely did, or history lies,” answered Teddy. “ They were 
not contented with destroying the hieroglyphics which they found, but 



they took the histories which they found in the Aztec capital, together 
with many paintings which would be worth more than double their 
weight in gold now, and the first Archbishop of Mexico ordered all of 
this priceless collection to be burned.” 

“How could they have histories ? Did they have books?” asked Roy. 

“ It was written 
on a sort of parch¬ 
ment. Some of it 
was tied in rolls, but 
oftener it was bound 
in small volumes. 

Since then the Mexi¬ 
can, or Spanish gov¬ 
ernment have not 
allowed the rocks 
which are inscribed 
with figures and hie¬ 
roglyphics to be re¬ 
moved from that 
land, or put into 
museums or institu¬ 
tions of learning, 
although no restric¬ 

upon using them for building purposes.” 

“We know that there are three classes of ruins to be investigated, 
and that the investigations do not throw much light upon the builders 
of them. The farmers lived in lowland villages, always in fertile val¬ 
leys and near rivers. Their houses were of sun-dried bricks, or adobe, 
the walls from two to four feet thick, and the roof, made of heavy tim¬ 
bers, was covered with two or three feet of dirt. During the Mexican 
war General Scott called these houses very good forts. And, as you 
would see them to-day, so those of two or three centuries ago looked, 



except that the oldest ones were entered through a hole in the roof, 
ascending a ladder and descending within, while the more modern ones 
have doors and windows in the sides.” 

“Can you tell us how long such houses will last, Uncle Jack ? ” 
asked Will. 


“ The oldest house in the United States is said to be one which was 
built in 1540, and was standing a few years ago, and in such a state of 
preservation that it promised to last another hundred years, at the very 
least. It was one of the first houses built in Sante Fe, and at first had 
neither windows nor doors in the sides, but some have been cut. In con¬ 
trast to this is the Adobe Palace, built for the first governor of the Pueblo 
Kingdom. It has been held by the Pueblos, by the Spaniards, and by 
the Mexicans, and now by the United States. I have told you of these 
buildings to show you that adobe is a very substantial building 

“ These were not the cave dwellings ? ” said Ernest inquiringly. 

“No ; the cave dwellings were natural caverns, with the entrance 
nearly filled by cement and stone. They were divided into rooms by 
stone or wood partitions. 

“Rude carvings, fragments of pottery, and even corn and grain has 
been found in them,” interrupted Teddy. 

“ Many of these caves were used as burial places, for mummies have 
been found in them. Some people say that the cave and cliff dwellers, 
and those who lived in the pueblos, were the same people, while others 
deny it. When you grow to be independent men, you can go and search 
out the truth for yourselves. Some authors have declared that the cave 
dwellers were the ancestors of the Eskimos, and that those people forim 
erly inhabited the central part of North America.” 

“It seems to me that we can find about as many opinions as we find 
authors,” ejaculated Will impatiently. 

“ That may be, my boy, but you must remember that the truth 



may be sifted from these different theories. If people did not study 
these things and tell us their views we should never know of them.” 

“What about the cliff dwellers?” asked Roy. 


“They lived in a time when a man’s possessions were his only so 
long as he could hold them by the strength of his good right arm. Even 
his life was not safe if he did not continually guard against surprise. 
Cliff houses were built singly, in pairs, and in villages, and were often 
so high that they looked like specks upon the face of the cliff, when 
viewed from below. Sometimes towers were built upon the highest 
points. These were probably watch towers, to guard against a surprise 
by the enemy.” 

“ And I suppose the cliff dwellings were used as fortresses in time 
of great danger,” suggested Hadley. 

“Were these people all of the same race?” asked Ray. 

“ It appears that the cave and cliff dwellers and those who lived in 
the pueblos might have been, but they were not like the mound builders 
at all. It is said that the Pueblo, Zuni, and Moquis Indians are their 
descendants, and that their customs, dress and dwellings seem to 
prove this. 

“ What a lot of different descendants they did have,” said Ray very 
slowly. “ They seem to have been claimed for many tribes of the 
Indians, and no one is sure that they were Indians at all.” 

“ A scientist recently gave the opinion that the cliff dwellers came 
from Asia, and said that he found things, in their old houses in Man cos 
canon, of Asiatic as well as Japanese design. He also thinks that they 
were the Toltecs, and the legends and inscriptions in some of the cliff 
rooms there prove this to be a fact,” said Ernest. 

“We cannot go back farther than the twelfth century, even in the 
most incomplete and obscure history. Legends and fables compose all 
the accounts earlier than that; that is, of American races and peoples,” 
added Teddy. 



“ Well/’ declared Will, after a moment’s thoughtful pause, “ perhaps 
we will know more about these things some time. The Colorado Cliff 
Dwellers Association is trying to preserve the three or four hundred cliff 
dwellings of the Mesa Verde. They have leased the place from the Ute 
Indians, for it is on their reservation, and the goverment has no right to 
take and keep it as it is. The association will have a toll road built to 
them, and then we will have a fine chance to visit them. I propose that 
i The Invincible Six ’ spend a vacation somewhere in that vicinity.” 

“Second that motion—and make it soon,” laughed Hadley. 

“ I suppose we must tell about the Indian next, Uncle Jack ? ” Ray 
said inquiringly. 

u In a way, for the Indian is connected with all of the myths and 
legends of the old time America,” was the smiling answer. “ Legends 
and myths will be our next lesson, and I shall expect to hear some very 
strange ones. We will try to learn something of the character of the 
race before we begin on the general history. Now boys we want trout 
for supper, and if I am not much mistaken you will soon see the guide 
coming in with some nice venison—I heard his rifle some time ago.” 



“ Should you ask me whence these stories, 

Whence these legends and traditions, 

With the odors of the forest, 

With the dew and damp of meadows, 

With the curling smoke of wigwams, 

With the rushing of great rivers :— 

I should answer, I should tell you, 

From the forests and the prairies, 

From the great lakes of the North-land, 

From the mountains, moors and fen-lands—” 

T HE boys were awake before the first gray dawn broke in the east, 
a fact which was accounted for in a startling way. Ernest was the 
first to hear the strange sound, afar off in the silent forest, the echoes 
growing louder and louder each time that it was repeated. He nudged 
Will and it was not long before every one of “ The Invincible Six” were 
listening with bated breath. Then there was a moment of agonizing 
silence ; then that awful sound so near the camp that each boy clutched 
wildly at his neighbor. 

“What is it ?” whispered Roy nervously. 

“Did I bring ye into the woods to be scared by an owl ? ” asked the 
guide, with a chuckle, as he crawled out of his berth. 

“ ‘ That is but the owl and owlet 
Talking in their native language, 

Talking, scolding at each other. ’ ” 

quoted Uncle Jack. 

“ It is a screech owl, youngsters, that’s just what it is, and you’ll 
hear plenty of’em while you stay. Did you think the Injuns was com¬ 
ing? You never hear them chaps till you see ’em. Turn out if you 
want some good sunrise fishing—trout never bite as they do when the 




sun is waking them up.” As he spoke the guide was busily engaged in 
making the fire. 

After breakfast Uncle Jack smiled to seethe boys voluntarily take 
their books and sit under the maple. 

“ Only until the dew dries off a bit, Uncle Jack, ” laughed Ernest, 
opening Longfellow’s poems. “ Mudgekewis was the West Wind, what 
was the fierce Kabibonokka ?” he asked. 

“The North Wind, of course. ” answered Will. 

“ ‘ He it was whose hand in Autumn 
Painted all the trees with scarlet, 

Stained the leaves with red and yellow ; 

He it was who sent the snow-flakes 
Sifting, hissing through the forest; 

Froze the ponds, the lakes, the rivers—’ *' 

“ That will do, I see you know it. ” interrupted Ernest. “Hadley 
what was Shawandasee ? ” 

11 The balmy South Wind. ” was the ready answer. 

“ ‘ He it was who sent the wood-birds, 

Sent the wild-goose, Wawa, northward. 

Sent the melon and tobacco, 

And the grapes in purple clusters. ’ ’* 

“ And the East Wind was Wabum,cried Ray. 

“ ‘He it was who brought the morning, 

He it was whose silver arrows 
Chased the dark o’er hill and valley.’ ” 

“If you want to see the beaver dam I told yon about, you must be 
coming along, ” the guide called, looking in at the door, and the books 
were hastily replaced on the shelves. 

It was not until next day that Uncle Jack could collect his Indian 
history class, then he began:— 

“Now we are ready for the myths and legends of the red men, 
Roy, what can you tell us ? ” 











' ' '—-- 






ogallala tribe 













u There are many of these legends and some of them are strangely 
like our own Bible accounts. The Guaranis say that two brothers and 
their families came to Brazil during a great flood, and peopled that 
country. Many other stories tell of floods and earthquakes ; of moun¬ 
tains suddenly rising, and of lands as suddenly disappearing.” 

“ One tribe has a tradition of a flood in which all mankind perished, 
with the exception of one man and his wife,” interrupted Hadley. 

“ Another is that a man and his wife took refuge in a hollow cypress 
log, which floated as the flood arose, and when the water subsided they 
found that they were on top of a mountain. Their children were born 
dumb, but the Great Spirit sent a dove to teach them to talk, and all the 
different tribes of men are their descendants, ” added Ray. 

“I saw a legend almost like that only it was a humming bird instead 
£>f a dove, ” cried Will. 


“ California furnishes legends of a great flood in which all the people 
of the earth perished,” Teddy went on. “And Mexico has several such 
myths. Some say that the sun hid those who were to be saved on the 
sacred Island of Titicaca. But the whole country was covered with water 
before the time of the Incas, and only a few people, who were on the 
highest mountain tops escaped. ” 

“ But I can tell you one of the most curious legends, ” Ernest 
declared. “ A shepherd was watching his flock of llamas and, seeing that 
they were gazing intently at the stars, he asked, them what they saw. 
They told him that the world would soon be destroyed by water, and 
that he and his family and herds must flee to the mountains. So they 
went to the highest one they could find, where they found all kinds of 
beasts assembled, and were saved. And there was a total eclipse of the 
sun while the water covered the earth.” 

“Another story is that two brothers alone survived the flood, and 
two aras, in the form of women, brought them food. One of the men 

caught one of these and she became the mother of the human race. 




The natives of Ecuador have a great reverence for the ara on this 
account, ” said Teddy. 

“A Brazilian story is that God destroyed the earth by fire as 
well as by water, and only one man was saved. God gave him a wife 
and the peoples of the earth are their descendants. Other Indian legends 
tell of a flood and some tell of a manitou, or spirit, who came to save 
them from evil,” added Will. 

“ The New England tribes told about Ash and Elm—did they mean 
Adam and Eve ?” asked Roy. 

“ Very likely, but I think that the ancient and the modem were 
pretty well mixed up in their legends,” replied Hadley. “ The Shawnees 
claim that the very ancient inhabitants of Florida were white.” 

u The Pawnees say that once, very long ago, a race of giants lived 
in this land three or four times larger than men are now. These giants 
grew so proud that they even defied the Great Spirit, and he made it 
rain and rain until they were driven to the mountains, and finally the 
mountain tops were covered and they were all drowned. Then the 
Great Spirit decided that he would never again make men so large and 
powerful, and created the present races,” Ray told them. “ Isn’t it 
about time that you took your turn to tell stories, Uncle Jack ? ” 


“ I wouldn’t wonder, but you were doing so well that I thought I 
would wait,” he laughed as he began. u These myths all bear a striking 
resemblance to each other, and to our own accounts, as I suppose that 
you have noticed. The Mexican traditions say that when the builders 
of a great tower were scattered, seven men and their wives came to 
America and were the founders of the Aztec, Toltec and Olmec races. 
Yucatan has a tradition that the inhabitants of that country came from 
the East and that God dried up the ocean to let them pass over.” 

“ Is that all, Uncle Jack? ” inquired Will. 

“ Oh, no indeed. The Natchez say that their laws and religion 
were brought to them by a man and woman from the sun. The Perm 


vians have a tradition that a man and woman came to their country from 
far over the sea. Other South American tribes tell the story of three 


eggs which fell from the sky—one was of pure gold, one of virgin silver, 
and one of copper. The chiefs were hatched from the first, nobles from 
the second, and the common people from the third.” 

“Some of the tribes tell about white men,” suggested Roy. 



“Yes, they tell of bearded white men who taught them to cultivate 
the land and build houses. Mackenzie said that the Eskimos described 
the English as winged giants, who could kill with a look and swallow a 
beaver at one mouthful. The hill tribes of Chittagong believe that a 
chief came out of a cave, married the daughter of God, and gave her his 
gun, the report of which was thunder and the flash the lightning. 
This tradition seems very modern on account of the gun.” 

“Perhaps it was from the Chinese, who invented gunpowder long 
ago,” said Ray inquiringly. 

“Another tribe, and the only one which seems to hold Darwin’s 
theory, asserts that men are descended from monkeys, and, as proof, 
gives the fact that the chimpanzee builds a house, or resting place, as 
good as some savages have,” Uncle Jake continued. “ An Indian chief 
once said : c The Master of Life himself was an Indian. He made the 
Shawnees before any other race. They sprang from his brain. He 
gave them all the knowledge which he himself possessed. He placed 
them upon a great island (America), and all other peoples descended 
from them. Afterwards he made the French and English out of his 
breast; the Dutch from his feet, and the Long Knives (Americans) out 
of his hands. All inferior races of men he made white.” 


“What a lot of Adams and Eves there must have been ! ” exclaimed 

“The Indians laugh at the idea that there were but one Adam and 
Eve, and say that each race was created in its own land. Notwithstand¬ 
ing this, writers declare that the Mexicans, especially, must have come 
from the old world, bringing with them the history from which the book 
of Genesis was written. This opinion has some evidence to sustain it. 
Eskimos certainly resemble theTunguse ; Indians resemble the Tartars; 
the Scythians scalped their victims and the Kamtschatkans tortured 

“Here is a self conceited legend for you ! ” cried Teddy. “The 



Iroquois say that Tarhuhiawaku, the Sky Holder, resolved to make a 
race which should eclipse all others iu beauty and bravery. He made 
six perfect couples, who were the ancestors of the greatest of all people— 
the Indian races.” 

“The Choctaws say of the Crawfish band that they were once real 
crawfish and lived in a deep cave. One day the Choctaws captured some 
of them, taught them to walk on two legs, cut off their toe nails, and 
adopted them after they became men. But the rest are crawfish to this 
day,” said Hadley. 

“That’s as bad as the tradition of a California tribe which says that 
the first Indians that lived were cayotes ! ” exclaimed Ray. “ They say : 
‘After they began to burn the bodies of those who died the Indians, 
began to assume the shape of men, but very imperfectly. They walked 
on all fours, and were imperfect in their limbs and joints, but progressed 
until they were perfect men and women. They acquired the habit of 
sitting upright, and lost their tails, which the tribe greatly regret as 
they think the tail quite an ornament. In decorating themselves for a 
dance they put on artificial tails.’ ” 


“ The Iroquois tell this story: ‘Owayneo, the Creator, made all of 
his children from a handful of red seeds, then assembled them together, 
and said to them : “Ye are five nations, for ye sprang each from a differ¬ 
ent handful of the seed which I sowed ; but ye are all brethren and I am 
your father, for I made you all. Mohawks, I have made you bold and 
valiant, and see, I give you corn for your food ; Oneidas, I have made 
you patient of pain and hunger, the nuts and the fruits of the trees are 
yours; Senecas, I have made you industrious and active, beans do I give 
for your nourishment; Cayugas, I have made you strong, friendly 
and generous, ground-nuts and every generous fruit shall refresh you ; 
Onondagas, I have made you wise, just and eloquent, squashes and 
grapes have I given you to eat, and tobacco to smoke in council. The 
beasts, birds and fishes I have given you all in common. Be just to all 



men, and kind to the strangers that come among you.” That is tke best 
story yet,” declared Ernest. 

11 But I will tell you another queer one,” declared Teddy. “The 
Mandans have a tradition that they lived near an underground lake, 
away from the light of the sun, until the roots of a grapevine, in search 
of water, reached their abode and showed them a glimpse of the outer 
world. One-half of the tribe climbed this vine and reached the surface 
of the earth ; then a very large old woman broke the root in trying to 
follow them, and the other half of the tribe were left in darkness forever.’’ 

“That’s it—lay it all to the woman!” ejaculated Ray. 

“The Osages think that the first man came out of a shell. In wan¬ 
dering around the earth he met the Great Spirit, who gave him a bow and 
arrows and told him how to hunt. He shot a deer and the Great Spirit 
gave him a fire and taught him how to cook the meat and clothe himself 
with the skin of the animal. One day a beaver invited him to his house 
and he married one of the beaver’s daughters. -Their children were the 
ancestors of the Osage nation, and those people will never kill a beaver,” 
said Hadley. 


“They are not much like Newell Bear, one of the Tobique tribe 
who is over a hundred years old, and declares that he will live until he 
is one hundred and twenty. He will eat no meat but the flesh of the 
beaver, for he says that it prolongs life,” laughed Will. 

“ Now, if you have told us all of the creation legends that you know 
I will read you a little from this book, which was written by Joseph Nic~ 
olar, the historian of the Penobscot tribe at Oldtown, Maine. He says 
in the beginning : ‘ This work will give the public the full account of 

all the pure traditions which have been handed down from the beginning 
of the red men’s world to the present time.’ It took him a great many 
years to collect them, for he began when he was a young man. The 
traditions seem to locate ‘the red man’s land of promise’ in the eastern 
part of the red man’s world, which is America.” 



“Does he tell about Hiawatha?” questioned Roy. 

“His Klose-kur-beh was a being like Hiawatha, made from the dust 
of the earth, whom the Great Spirit commanded, saying: ‘ Go thy way 

towards the sun, and when the sun sets and night comes, there rest. On 
the morrow arise with the sun and go until it sets. Seventy times seven 
shalt thou arise with the sun and go towards it until it sets. Seventy 
times seven nights will I visit thee, and teach thee thy duties. At the 
end of thy journey there abide and 
thy companions will come unto 
thee.’ ” 

“What more did he say?” 
asked Hadley. 

“ He told how the Indian 
obeyed without a word, and then 
said :—‘ and because the white 
man wanted to stay in the land 
where he first opened his eyes, 
and wanted the Great Spirit to 
give him all that he beheld, the 
Great Spirit bade him go towards 
the setting sun. The Great Spirit 
saw that the man which he had 
made wanted the whole world, 
therefore he sent him to chase the 
sun. When he comes to the great type OF AMERICAN INDIAN, 

waters he shall make large vessels so that he can chase the sun across 
the great waters, because he wants the whole world ; he shall slay his 
brother because he wants all things ; he shall know no one because he 
wants the power over all the earth. * * * He will not rest until he has 
found the land which the Great Spirit has given to you. He shall not 
pass away without having first put his foot on all the lands that have 
been made ; therefore, look out for him always. ’ ” 

“ I read some in that book and I should call it a sort of Indian 



Bible,” mused Ernest. “ He said that the Great Spirit was in the sun 
moon, stars, clouds, mountains, and even in the trees of earth. He had 
the legend of the Indian corn only it was a little different from that 
of Longfellow. I would like to know—if he knew our histories he has 
woven the sum and substance in pretty well; if it is the Indian legends, 
as he says, it—well, it is a queer book. ” 


“ There are other legends than those of the creation,” Ray began. 
“ Here is one of the Falls of St. Anthony. Ampato Sapa, a Chippeway 
girl, married an Indian of the Dakota tribe, who was a great man among 
his people and she was very proud of him. At last, he decided that a 
man of his position ought to have more than one wife ; and poor, broken¬ 
hearted Ampato went back to her father’s lodge. She mourned a short 
time ; then, taking her babes, she pushed her canoe from the shore and 
let it drift with the current, as she chanted the weird death-song. Her 
friends did not see her until too late to save her ; and she sang sadly of 
her past happiness until her voice was drowned by the roar of the falls. 

‘ Yet that death-song, they say, is heard 
Above the gloomy waters roar, 

When trees are by the night-wind stirred, 

And darkness broods o’er wave and shore.’ ” 

“ That is sad, ” returned Ernest. “ This one is better. There is a 
beautiful legend among some of the tribes of a lovely, mystical bird, 
which comes in the still summer evenings, when the moon is full, and 
sings in the groves beside the wigwams. It sings of the spirit land, 
and brings messages from departed friends.” 

“The Apaches think that white birds have souls, and all the 
Indians of the plains worshiped the white buffalo,” nodded Teddy. 

u What is the morning star ? ” asked Will. 

“ Oh, I saw that!” cried Roy. “ It is an Ojibway legend that the 
morning star was once a beautiful maiden, who longed to go to the 



place of tlie breaking of the daylight, and was raised to heaven to stay 

“Some of the tribes believe the legend of the Nakannies,” said Hadley. 

“ What was that?” asked Ray. 

“ They are the tribe that the Indians of the Rockies speak of with 
hushed breath and a cautious look around them, and the other tribes 
shudder as the story is told. These Nakannies always hear when they are 
talked about, although they are never seen, and take their own good time 
to avenge slander, so, when ill luck comes, it is laid to them. White 
men declare that a tribe of that name still lives in the mountains and are 
‘ bad Indians , 5 while Indians own that there once was a tribe of that 
name. The great war chief of the band had two sons, and one of them 
listened to the ‘ pale-face medicine man ’ and forgot the traditions of his 
fathers. Then the war chief caused his son and his followers to be mur¬ 
dered and, leaving their bodies on the plains, fled to the hills, where they 
stayed many moons, or until the old war chief went to the happy hunting 
grounds. Then the band wandered back, but the spirits of their mur¬ 
dered kindred drove them away, and no man knows where they went, 
for no one has seen them from that day until this . 5 5 


“ Oh, they seem to believe almost everything , 55 exclaimed Ernest. 
“They thought that the sun had lost its heat and was in danger of going 
out when it was eclipsed. So they fastened live coals to arrows and shot 
them towards the sun to rekindle it! Then they thought that if a man 
was killed in the dark he would have to spend all eternity in darkness. 
That is why they always made all their attacks by day, or on bright 
moonlight nights, and it was a good thing for the settlers that they had 
this superstition.” 

“Why they had traditions connected with every lake, or mountain, 
or valley, as well as with nearly every beast or bird. Spirits were in 
every tree or flower, or waterfall; in the clouds, in the air, everywhere 
and in everything , 55 observed Teddy carelessly. 



“They had tlieir legends of love. I will tell you one of the last 
chief of Mattakessett, who won Katamah, the daughter of the chief of 
Wintucket, whom he had already promised in marriage to the chief of 
Ahquampacha. It brought on a war and, when the people of Mattakes¬ 
sett were beaten, the chief rushed to his tent, seized his Katamah in his 
arms, and leaped into the waters of the great bay. After swimming as 
far as he could they both sank to rise no more, and 1 there has been no 
rushing of waters since ; the bay of Katamah is always a quiet sea,” 
said Will. 

“The tribes had different names for the person who was sent to clear 
the rivers, forests and fishing grounds, and teach the arts of peace to the 
people,” said Uncle Jack. “The Iroquois, called him Hiawatha; the 
Zunis, Po-shai-an-kia; the Omahas, Hanga; the Aztecs, Motenczomas 
and other tribes had other names. Atotarho was the spirit of savagery, 
who ruined the villages and brought disease to the people. It was he 
who drove away the mound builder and the cliff dwellers, and enveloped 
even their ruined homes in mystery. Well might his name mean ‘ The 
Entangled One.’ ” 


“ Well, what about the tradition of Hiawatha ? ” asked Ray. 

“It was the Five Nations who held that legend, which Longfellow 
has written about. They called him the greatest and wisest of their 
chiefs who, after making his people united and prosperous, left them and 
sailed away into the rosy sunset in a snowy canoe, while the air thrilled 
with the sweetest music.” 

“ He wasn’t a real, true chief, was he ? ” demanded Ray incredulously. 

“ Whether he was or not it makes a beautiful story, and there are 
several versions of it, but I like this one the best. He was the founder of 
the Iroquois Confederation. He called them all to a council upon the banks 
of the Onondaga lake. He appeared in the lake in a mysterious canoe, 
and with him was a lovely maiden—-his daughter. Soon after they 
landed a great white bird came downward from the sky, making a strange 



noise as it fell through the air. All the people excepting Hiawatha 
and his daughter fled in terror, and the huge bird, an enormous heron, 


fell upon and crushed the maiden, burying its own head and bill in the 
ground. The bird and the girl both were dead. After that the warriors 
of the Five Nations decked themselves with white heron plumes when 



starting on the warpath. When the body of the bird was removed not 
a trace of the maiden could be found.” 

“ What did Hiawatha do then ? ” asked Will. 

“He guided the council ‘ clad in a wolf-skin mantle, with a tunic of 
soft furs hanging from his waist, and rich modcasins on his feet. A cap 
of soft deer-skin, ornamented with plumes of many brilliant birds, was 
upon his head, in the front of which were eagle and heron feathers.’ 
When the debate was ended he arose and said: ‘The Mohawks shall be first 
in the nation, because they are warlike and mighty ; the Oneidas shall 
be second, because they give wise counsel; the Onondagas shall be 
third, because they are gifted in speech, and the Cayugas shall be fourth, 
because they understand best how to make houses and raise corn and 
beans ; and the Senecas shall be fifth, because of their superior cunning 
in hunting. Unite, you five nations, and no foe shall be able to subdue 
you. Brothers, these are the words of Hiawatha—I have said it—I am 
done.’ His mission to the Iroquois being ended, he went down to the 
lake and entered his magic canoe. Suddenly the air was filled with 
sweetest music, and the awed people saw the canoe rise in the air, higher 
and higher, until it was lost in the misty blue above their heads. 

* Thus departed Hiawatha 
To the islands of the Blessed, 

To the land of the Hereafter.’ ” 

“ And this ends the legends, I suppose,” said Roy inquiringly. 

“ No, we might goon almost indefinitely,and keep learning something 
new every day, but we have read enough to give us quite an insight 
into the myths and legends of the American Indian, and we will now 
turn our attention to his coming here, his character and customs. What 
do you say to spending the evening in the moonlighted forest? ” 

“You are always thinking of something new for us—what a jolly 
outing we are having,” Ernest answered, and spoke the mind of them 
all as he did so. 



“ Wild roved an Indian girl, bright Alfarata, 

Where sweep the waters of the blue Juniata. 

Swift as an antelope thro’ the forest going. 

Loose were her jetty locks in wavy tresses flowing. 

* Bold is my warrior good, the love of Alfarata, 

Where sweep the waters of the blue Juniata. 

Soft and low he speaks to me, and then his war-cry sounding, 

Rings his voice in thunder loud, from height to height resounding. * 

U pvEFORE we begin our lesson to-day I want to ask you fellows 
t"j what the spots on the moon are, ” Ernest questioned mys¬ 

“You needn’t tell us that you like to read Hiawatha, ” retorted Teddy, 
with a laugh. “ But I will answer, just to show you that I know it too. 

* Once a warrior, very angry, 

Seized his grandmother, and threw her 
Up into the sky at midnight; 

Right against the moon he threw her, 

Tis her body that you see there.' ” 

“That isn’t half as good as the reason for the rainbow, ” cried Ray 
eagerly. “Listen : 

“ 4 Tis the heaven of flowers you see there; 

All the wild flowers of the forest, 

All the lilies of the prairie, 

When on earth they fade and perish. 

Blossom in that heaven above us.' ” 

“ Ridpath says that there is doubt about the origin of the Indian as 
well as that of the Mound-builders. Nearly all of the early discoverers 
thought that they were of Jewish origin, and some still think so. Their 

name was a mistaken one, given by Columbus when he thought that he 



had discovered India. What can you tell me about them ? ” asked Uncle 
Jack, when he was ready to begin the day’s lesson. 

“I read that forty tribes, or bands of them had become extinct in two 
hundred years,” cried Ernest indignantly, “and nearly all of those bands 
moved into eternity instead of ‘going West.’ ” 

“I found as many as five theories of their origin, ” answered Hadley. 
“That they came from Northern Asia, and were descendants of the Tartars; 
that they were of Welsh origin, descended from Madoc; that the Eastern 
and Western Continents were once united by land where the Atlantic 
Ocean now is ; that they are descendants of the Phoenicians who were 
wrecked on the American coast, and that their Jewish origin is proven by 
many feasts and fasts which are similar to those of that people.” 

“Well, the Kamchatkans even now cross and recross Behring 
Strait, and Tartars have peace-pipes, ” Ray said thoughtfully. “And the 
Znnis say that the race came from the northwest. ” 

“ I read that the Apaches and the Nnlatos, a tribe in the far north, 
speak the same language. Doesn’t that prove that they all came from 
Asia? ” Will inquired suddenly. 


“ Hardly, nor can we go much by the tradition of the Indians,” 
Uncle Jack declared. “ They tell far different stories of their origin. 
Some say that their ancestors came from the north or northwest; others 
from the east and west; still others from the air, the sky, and under the 
ground. All of them seem to be related in a fashion, although some are 
more advanced than others. The Indians of North and South America 
have over four hundred different languages, and no connection has been 
shown between the civilization of the two sections.” 

“They all believed in Manitous ; that is, that word meant ‘spirit’ 
to all the tribes of red men from Mexico to the Arctic regions. These 
Manitous were good and bad; great and small,” said Hadley. “Some 
of the tribes had secret societies also.” 

“ If that is all that yon say concerning their origin you may tell 



me how many tribes were in the United States when the white man came 
here, or when they first became known to history,” Uncle Jack 
told them. 

“ There were about eight distinct tribes, all more or less hostile to 
each other, and generally at war. They were the Algonquins ; the Sioux 
or Dacotahs ; the Mohawks or Iroquois ; the Catabaws ; the Cherokees; 
the Uchees; the Natchez ; and the 
Mobilians. These amounted tc 
about 200,000 by estimate, anc 
there were many more in Mexico 
Peru and the West Indies than it 
the United States,” answered Ray 

“ Ernest, what can yon tell uj 
about the Algonquins ? ” 

“ The Confederation rangec 
from Labrador to the far soutl 
and spoke forty different dialects 
They inhabited New England 
the eastern part of New York anc 
Pennsylvania; New Jersey; Dela 
ware; Maryland; Virginia; NortI 
Carolina as far as Cape Fear ; s 
large part of Kentucky and Ten 
nessee ; and nearly all of Ohio 
Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, 

and Minnesota. Their sub-tribes CHIEF with claw necklace. 
were the Knistenaux, the Ottawas, the Chippewas, the Sacs and Foxes, 
the Menomenees, the Miamis, the Piankeshaws, the Potawatomies, the 
Illinois, the Shawnees, the Powhatans, the Corees, the Nanticokes, the 
Lenni-Lenapes or Delawares, the Mohegans, the Narragansetts, the 
Pequots and the Abenakis.” 

“ What of the Iroquois, Roy ? ” 

“ They have been called the Romans of the New World. They 



were not so very great in numbers, but their pride was so great that they 
called themselves ‘ Ongwe Hongwe,’ or ‘ the men surpassing all others.’ 
And they were the dread of all the other tribes near them. Judd says 
that ‘ The Mohawks were brave, fearless and ferocious, and destroyed 
more Indians than all of the Europeans have ever done in the war.’ The 
early Dutch said that they were cannibals in 1700, but I did not find that 
anywhere else.” 

“ Where did they live, Hadley, and what sub-tribes did they have?” 

“They lived in Canada south of Ottawa; between the lakes Ontario, 
Erie and Huron ; the greater part of New York; also of Ohio and 
Pennsylvania ; and were thus almost completely surrounded by the 
Algonquins, who were their bitter enemies. Their sub-tribes were the 
Senecas, the Cayugas, the Onondagas, the Oneidas, and the Mohawks. 
These five were first called The Five Nations, and after that they 
admitted the Tnscaroras, and were called The Six Nations. They called 
themselves the Konoskioni or Cabin Builders, the Algonquins called 
them Mingoes, the French Iroquois, and the English Mohawks or 


“ Go on, Teddy, and tell us about some of the other tribes. What 
of the Catawbas and Cherokees ? ” 

“The Catawbas lived along the banks of the Yadkin and Catawba 
rivers, and were sworn enemies to the Mohawks. The Cherokees 
inhabited the elevated regions of Carolina, Georgia and Alabama.” 

“ What of the Uchees and Mobilians, Will ? ” 

“The Uchees lived southeast of the Cherokees, and had a very 
harsh, singular language. Some people think that they were the rem¬ 
nant of a powerful nation. The Mobilians lived in Florida, Georgia, 
Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana ; and their nation was divided into 
three great confederations : the Creeks, the Choctaws, and the Chicka- 
saws. These were again divided into a number of smaller bands, the 
principal of which were the Seminoles and the Yamassees, both of which 
belonged to the Creek division.” 



“ The Choctaws and Chickasaws were of one origin, and their tradi¬ 
tions seem to prove that they came from Mexico. That is what the 
Natchez traditions say of their tribe, too,” nodded Roy. 

“ I think that yon have forgotten the Sioux ! ” exclaimed Ernest. 
“Their lands were bounded on the north, by lake Winnepeg ; on the 
south, by the Arkansas river ; on the east, by the Mississippi ; and on 
the west, by the Rocky Mountains. They were divided into the Assini- 
boins, Southern Sioux, Minteries, Mandans, and Crows.” 

“The Natchez were the queerest people,” asserted Hadley. “They 
dwelt in a small territory east of the Mississippi river, and along the 
banks of the Pearl. They had a distinct language, worshiped the sun, 
and are thought to have been the most civilized of the North American 
tribes, but they are now extinct.” 

“ Yes ; ‘the steel of the white man hath swept them away,’ ” Uncle 
Jack quoted, with a quiet significance. 

“ I have heard of more tribes than those,” declared Ray. 

“There were those of the great plains, the Rockies, and the Pacific 
coast. They were the Pawnees, the Camanches, the Apaches, the Utahs, 
the Blackfeet, the Snakes, the Nez Perces, the Flatheads, and the Cali¬ 
fornians. Each tribe was divided into other classes or clans, we should 
say families, and had a distinguishing mark on their breasts,” re¬ 
plied Will. 


“ The Kiowas and Camanches were wild, roving Indians. The 
Kiowas have the name of being the most cruel of any on the plains and 
the Camanches followed wherever they led,” nodded Roy. “The Utes and 
the Cheyennes were bitter enemies; the Sioux were the most treacherous, 
and the Pawnees the most friendly and reliable of all the Indians of the 

“ Catlin says of the Cheyennes : ‘ There is no finer race of men than 
these in North America. They are the most desperate set of warriors ; 
and, also, splendid horsemen, having carried on an almost unceasing war 
with the Pawnees and Blackfeet for time out of mind !’ ” cried Teddy. 




“ I know that the Cheyennes and Sionx are the most warlike, inde¬ 
pendent, and self-reliant of all the tribes, and there is as mnch difference 
between them and inferior tribes as there is between the Eskimo of the 
frozen North, and the more intelligent men of the temperate zones,” 
declared Ray. 

“ Each class, or clan of Indians had a chief, and the head of the 
vvhole tribe was a sachem or great chief. These were generally men but 


sometimes there were women rulers. They had no written laws or his¬ 
tory but traditions were handed down from one generation to another. 
They all worshiped a Great Spirit, some tribes had more than one god, 
and some had idols. In a warrior, lying was considered one of the fine 
arts, and they were often treacherous and cruel, learning but too readily 
the ways of the white men who came to their shores. They would fight 
to the death, and neither expect nor give mercy,” Uncle Jack told them. 

“I have read that the Algonqnins were warlike and powerful, some 
of the most fearless of American Indians. Also that the Iroquois have 



furnished models for the stories of the ‘ noble red man ’ more than any 
other tribe. Still one writer said that, if the white man had not come 


for them to fight, they would have exterminated all lesser bands of 
Indians,” said Ernest. 

“Yes, the men of the Five Nations were sagacious and intelligent 



beyond the average of their race, but they held queer notions, ” laughed 
Teddy. “ A chief once asked one of the Fathers, who had just baptized 
a captive condemned to death :—‘ Why do yon do that ? He will get to 
heaven before ns, and keep us out! ’ ” 

“I should say that they had queer ideas,” ejaculated Will. “A 
missionary was once telling them about Adam and Eve, and of course he 
told the story of the apple. Then a chief answered very gravely 
‘What yon have told us is all very true. It is indeed bad to eat the 
apples, and much better to make them into cider ! ’ ” 

“They knew a thing or two though,” asserted Ray. “D’Ayllon 
found Atlantic tribes who kept flocks of deer or caribou which they 
milked like cows, and they made fine Dutch cheese, too.” 


“ I intended to begin our next lesson with their superstitions, customs 
and characteristics, but I think that we shall have time for some of them 
now. What have you to say on the subject, Roy?” asked Uncle Jack. 

“ All Indians have a childlike faith in the present, and take very 
little thought for the future. They are very superstitious and read signs 
in every blade of wind-stirred grass, in the flight of birds, and in the 
trail of the snake. All the wonders of nature are to them manifesta¬ 
tions of an unseen power, which can protect or destroy. They hear 
voices of this unknown everywhere—in the leaves, in the water, in the 
winds—and the voice of the Great Spirit speaks in anger in the roar of 
the thunder.” 

“ They thought that heaven was beyond the mountains of the setting 
sun,” added Hadley. u It was a country rich with game, where cold and 
hunger, and parting were unknown. Weapons and food were buried with 
the warrior, for his use in the land to which he was going, but no coward 
could ever go to the happy hunting ground. When an Indian was 
dying his friends, with ready weapons, would stand around his cabin 
to frighten away evil spirits.” 

“ What was the happy hunting ground, Ray ? ” 



“ It was a place where the Indian would be perfectly happy through 
an eternity of bliss, but he couldn’t tell where it was anymore than you 
can tell where our heaven is. He believed that he would go there after 
death, for he believed in a future life. All persons who were not scalped 
or hung would go there, but if a dead body was scalped that person 
could not enter this paradise, and that was the reason why they were 
so eager to take scalps. If their enemies could be kept out there would 
be more room for them. But they would always risk their lives to 
carry away their own dead untouched, and so save their souls from 

u And if an Indian is hung he cannot go to heaven, for the soul 
leaves the body through the mouth with the last breath, and it cannot 
get out while he is strangling,” continued Will. “ So they will choose 
a death by the severest torture that can be devised rather than be hung.” 


“ They don’t really think that the weapons and other articles which 
they bury with a warrior will do him any good, but that his spirit will 
have the shadow of these things to use as he used them while in the 
body. So anything which is thought necessary to his comfort and 
pleasure, and which he could never have in this life, is obtained by the 
sorrowing friends, no matter what the cost or denial to themselves,” 
Ernest explained. 

“ The worst thing about them is their cruelty to all enemies—red, 
white or black. The average Indian seems to have no mercy on a 
captive. Think of burning them alive !” Ray said with a shudder. 

“ Is it any worse for an Indian to do that than for a white man ? ” 
asked Teddy significantly. u What did Nero do with the early Chris¬ 
tians ? And that when Rome was mistress of the civilized world ! And 
you may find such things nearer home, for slaves have been burned at 
the stake in Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey and other colonies.” 

“ Many of the tribes seem to have worshiped the sun and also fire, 
which was always kindled with flint,” observed Hadley. “ Their priests 



are also physician)' and called Medicine Men. They claim that they 
can heal the sicL by magic, and give good fortune or cause disaster. 
They use herbs in sickness, but depend mostly upon the vapor baths.” 

“ What ?2 r t they ? ” inquired Will curiously. 

“Didn’t you know that Indians have a bathhouse, and a steam- 
heated one at that? Well, they have. A little hut, as nearly air-tight 
as can be made, is built beside a body of water. Rocks are heated and 
placed in this hut. The person who is going to take the bath carries a 
quantity of water with him when he enters, which he throws upon the 
hot stones after he has carefully closed the door. He stays there as 
long as he can stand it, then throws the door open, rushes out, and 
plunges into the water. This is done in winter as well a $ in summer, 
and sick peoyte sometives survive the treatment.” 


u I don’t see how they stand it, but, from childhood, the Indians were 
taught to despise pain. Little Indian boys would put live coals upon 
their flesh and watch as they burned, even pressing them in. This was 
one of their games, and the one who threw off the coal first lost it. 
When an Indian was mortally wounded he would sing his weird death 
song, and die without a murmur,” said Ray. 

“I have heard that the Indian would never steal from his own tribe; 
would not lie to his friends, and never got drunk until the white man 
taught him,” Teddy declared. 

“A warrior who had taken many scalps would go directly to the 
happy hunting ground, but demons would flog the coward to never-end¬ 
ing tasks,” added Roy. 

“They were savages, surely, but not degraded ones, and probably 
as high in the intellectual scale as European tribes of the early times,” 
Uncle Jack told them. “They lived by hunting, fishing and farming in 
a rude way. The men did the hunting, fishing and fighting; the women 
built the wigwam, tilled the ground, made the clothes, carried the bur¬ 
dens in moving, and did the hard work generally. They lived in tents, 



in wigwams, in villages and in Houses. Some lived in long houses, 
large enough for many families.” 

“Their most ingenious inventions were the snow-shoe and the hark 
canoe,” Ernest asserted. “They had queer hows and arrows, hut after 
they learned to use the white man’s gun, they threw them aside. They 
communicated with each other by picture writing, and rocks have been 
seen covered with these messages.” 


“Did you ever think of it? Why is an Indian like a white dude, 
or one of our codfish aristocracy? Conundrum,” laughed Ray. 

“I know,” flashed Teddy. “Neither of them want to work. But 
that isn’t fair to the Indian, for he will work as well as a white man. In 
California the contractors say that they would rather have them.” 

“Was painting their bodies any sign of barbarism ? ” inquired Uncle 

“Oh, maybe so; but they were not the only people who did that,” 
replied Will. “The early Britons, the Germans and the Norsemen, and 



I don’t know kow many more, did the same thing. The color for war 
is red; for mourning, black; and any variety of fantastic colors at 
other times. 

“I have read that the Norman pipes were like the Indian peace 
pipes, and that calumet is a Norman word. Is that so, Uncle Jack?” 
asked Roy. 

“I wish that I could answer that question, for I would like to know 
myself,” smiled Uncle Jack. 

“They believed in dreams as fully as the ancient Jews did, and gave 
their prophets the same honors—I mean the Indians did,” said Hadley. 

“What queer names they have,” exclaimed Ray. 

“They did not have family names, although I suppose some of them 
have now. A boy could change his name or have it changed a dozen 
times before he received the warrior name which he would bear through 
life. The names are generally gotten by chance, as Powder Face, who 
had several names before his face was badly burned by an explosion and 
he received that one. Girls were generally named by the mother.” 

“ What are squaw-men, Uncle Jack ? ” asked Will. 


“ They are white men who take Indian wives^—traders and renegades 
who are afraid to live in the 1 white man’s land.’ Men sometimes would 
appear at the reservation with horses enough to set up housekeeping 
with, and no matter how many brands there were on them, no questions 
were asked. These renegades sent their wives to the agency to draw the 
government rations for themselves and children. These men also fur¬ 
nish arms and whiskey and incite the Indians to deeds of violence. It is 
estimated that there are from one thousand to fifteen hundred of these 
squaw-men living with the United States Indians and being fed at 
government expense. There should be a law to reach them.” 

“Did the Indian believe in a God like ours, Uncle Jack?” asked 

“ Some of them believed that two brothers ruled the world—Good 



Mind and Bad Mind, or, as others said, the Beautiful and the Ugly 
Spirits. The good one aided man in every undertaking, no matter 
whether it was for good or evil; he gave him warmth, food and joy, as 
well as success in love, war and the chase ; and was always going over 
the earth with good gifts—the streams, the fertile plains, and the fruits. 
The bad one followed him, creating rapids, deserts and thorns ; he also 
sent pain, disaster, suffering, cold, defeat and death. At last the good 
one turned and crushed the other to the earth, and he still lives under¬ 
ground, an e\il being like the devil,” said Hadley. 

U I had read a different ending to that. These ruling spirits had 
no power except on this earth. They did not think it worth while to 
worship the good one, for he would be good to them anyway, but they 
would try hard to keep on good terms with the bad one, who would be 
sure to do them some injury if they didn’t. After death the Indian was 
sure of the happy hunting ground, no matter what he had done on 
earth,” laughed Will. 

“ There is a queer legend about the Celestial Sisters, which tells 
why a certain tribe likes to deck themselves out with white hawk’s 
feathers. Ernest, can’t you tell it to us ?” 


“I can try. Waupee, or the White Hawk, was a handsome young 
man who lived by himself in the forest, and he was a great hunter—no 
one in all of the tribes could bring in as much game as he did. One 
day, when he went farther than he had ever been before, he came to a 
prairie covered with long grass, and dotted with many beautiful flowers 
which he had never before beheld. Out upon this prairie was a ring, 
worn as by the treading of many feet, and it puzzled him greatly, because 
there was no trail leading to it, and the grass stood up straight all around 
it. So he hid and watched the spot to see what might come to it. Soon 
he heard sweet music, afar off, and saw a tiny speck in the sky, which 
grew larger and larger until he saw a basket, and in that basket were 
twelve sisters, the most beautiful women that he had ever seen, and one, 



the youngest, was more beautiful than any of the others. When the 
basket touched the earth they sprang out into the ring and began to 


dance. He watched them for some time, then leaped out to catch the sis¬ 
ter whom he now loved so well. They were too quick for him, reached and 
entered the magic basket, and it ascended until it was lost in the blue sky.” 



“ But lie tried it again,” breathed Will. 

“ Oh, yes,” Teddy went on. u He went back to the spot the next 
day at the same hour, and, taking the form of an opossum, he squatted 
quite near the ring and began to nibble the grass. But he could not 
fool them, and, although the car-basket came to the earth, and he heard 
the sweet music, they saw him and went back to their home in the 

“ But the next day he changed himself into a mouse, and crept into 
an old stump with a lot of other mice, thinking that surely he was safe 
this time,” continued Hadley. “The sisters came as before, saw the 
mice and killed all but one, which ran away pursued by the youngest 
sister. Just as she raised her silver wand to strike it, the mouse van¬ 
ished, and Waupee, in his right form, seized her in his arms. The 
others escaped in the basket, but he took her to his home, where he won 
her for his wife.” 


“ Didn’t she want to go back with her sisters ? ” demanded Ray. 

“Perhaps so, but they were very happy, and after a little a son 
came to them, having his father’s strength and cunning and the beauty 
of his star-mother. But the star-mother soon began to long to see her 
home in the skies, and secretly she made a willow basket, collected such 
earthly things as she thought would please her father, aud, with her 
little son, went to the charmed ring and entered the basket, singing the 
magical song softly. Low as the song was, Waupee heard it away in 
the forest, and came to see the distant speck in the blue sky before it 

“Was she satisfied then? ” asked Roy. 

“Yes, in her old home the star-mother forgot her earth-husband, 
but the son could not forget him, and at last the grandfather told her to 
go back to earth and ask him to come and live with them, and to bring 
with him one of each kind of beast or bird that he had killed in hunting. 
Poor, lonely Waupee knew his wife’s voice when he heard that magic 
song, and rushed to greet her.” 



“Was lie glad to go?” cried Will. 

“ He was "both pleased and sorrowful when he heard her errand, but 
he began to prepare to obey the summons at once. He bade farewell to 
all the sports and friends of his youth and manhood; then holding the 
hands of his wife and son, he stepped into the magic car with them and 
ascended to the star.” 

“Then what happened to him ? ” asked Teddy. 

“The star-chief had assembled all of the star-people to a feast of 
welcome, and when it was over, he told them that they could remain 
where they were or they could each choose one of the earthly things, 
which his earth-son had brought, for his own. They all took the gifts 
and were changed into beasts and birds. Waupee, his wife and son, 
choose a white hawk’s feather and were changed to white hawks. You 
may still see their kind on earth, birds with the brightness of the stars 
in their keen eyes, and all the freedom of the star-world in their wings. 
Thus was the earth stocked with birds which spend a part of their time 
amid its forests and the rest in the heaven above it.” 

“ Bedtime,” called the guide. “You can dream of Indians all you 
want to, but don’t give the warwhoop.” 

“I’ll give it now,” flashed Teddy. “This is what the Sioux yell 
when they go into battle—‘ Hi 1 Yip-yip-yip-yip-yip-hi-yah!’ ” 



“ Little Light Moccasin swings in her basket, 

Woven of willow and sinew of deer, 

Rocked by the breezes and nursed by the pine tree, 
Wonderful things are to see and to hear. 

All of the treasures of summer-time canyons, 

These are the playmates the little maid knows,— 
Berry time, blossom time, bird calls and butterflies, 
Columbine trumpets and sweet brier rose.” 

44 A NOTHER surprise, Uncle Jack?” asked Ernest, as Uncle Jack 
carefully laid aside a large box wkicb Mr. Brown’s man brought 
in on his next trip. 

“Yes,” Uncle Jack had answered in a non-committal tone, which 
prevented all further questioning. 

But when they returned from a sunset hour of fishing that night 
they found a fife, a tambourine, two drums and two cornets, the box 
serving as a stand beneath the book-shelves, with a good variety of music 
upon it, includiding Alice C. Fletcher’s little book of “ Indian Song and 
Story.” Uncle Jack smiled at their pleased surprise. 

“ I have wondered that you did not bring your instruments along and 
keep up your practice, and so I sent for them,” he said. “ I thought that 
we might need a band to serenade the screech-owls with. But lessons 
first, if you please, then you may try the music.” 

“But go slow on them Injun songs,” laughed the guide, with twink¬ 
ling eyes. “These woods may be full of Injuns, and you’d call ’em into 
camp. I guided with one all one season up to the head waters, and 
Newel Bear spends most all of his time in the Maine woods, if he is over 
a hundred years old.” 

“ Honest ? Will Indians come here ? ” Ernest asked, with wide eyes. 

“ I wouldn’t be surprised to see ’em any time and you needn’t,’’ 
responded the guide, with a solemn shake of the head. 



“ All ready—begin!” called Uncle Jack, with a rap on the box-table 
that made the tambourines dance. “We will go on with the charactei 
and customs of the Indian. Mrs. Stowe’s Topsy simply ‘ growed,’— 
so did the American Indian. There were no bedtime stories, nothing but 
war and bloodshed, feasting and famine. Indian babies are still lashed 

to a board by some of the tribes, 
until they are about two years old, 
being taken off a few moments once 
a day. When the mother is busy 
this queer cradle is hung upon a 
tree or against the side of the wig¬ 
wam- The girls learn to drudge as 
soon as they can, and when they can 
lift a five pound weight they can 
bring wood and water. A little In¬ 
dian girl’s life is about as hard as a 
squaw’s, still they play with rude 
dolls and make mud pies.” 

“ What did the boys do ? ” asked 

“They did not neglect their 
duties for play. An Indian boy 
observed his first fast when he was 
but seven years old. He went alone 
to some high point, smeared all over 
APACHE SQUAW and cradle. with white clay, and fasted while he 

called constantly upon his manitou to make him a great warrior. These 
fasts grew longer as the boy grew older until when he was sixteen years 
old, he underwent a feast of five days, when, tired and hungry, he sank to 
sleep, the bird, beast or reptile of which he dreamed was accepted as his 
4 medicine ’ or life protector.” 

“That makes me think—I will tell yon how the first robin came 
into the world! ” cried Ray eagerly. “ There was once an old, old man. 



who had one son, whom he wanted to excel all others in the world. This 
son arrived at the age to endure the long fast, and his father decided 
that it should be a long one, longer than the others were able to endure, 
so that Iadilla would surely be the greatest of them all. So he promised him 
his blessing and all the good things of earth if he would hold out until 
the evening of the twelfth day.” 

“ Why, he wanted to kill the boy ! ” ejaculated Will. 

“ Oh, no ; he wanted him to be a great warrior, and the longer he 
eould stand it, the greater he would be. The father went to the door of 
the lodge every morning to see how he was getting on and to encourage 
him to persevere. The boy wanted to give up at the end of the ninth 
day, but the old man said: ‘You have only three days longer. Shall 
not your old father live to see you a star among chieftains and the 
beloved of battle ? ’ So the boy endured the keen pangs of hunger until 
the eleventh day, when he repeated the request to be allowed to leave. 
‘What! Will you bring shame upon your father when his sun is falling 
in the west ? ’ asked the old man reproachfully. ‘ I will not shame you, 
my father,’ answered Iadilla gently ; and then he lay very still.” 

“ And was dead!” exclaimed Roy. 


“ I did not say so. His father made a feast ready and went to call 
the boy when the twelve days were ended. As he reached the lodge he 
heard him talking to himself, and peered through a crack to behold his 
son, his breast painted a bright crimson, and these were the words which 
he spake : ‘ My father has destroyed my fortune as a man. He has 
urged me beyond my tender strength. He will be the loser. I shall be 
forever happy in my new state, for I have been obedient to my parent. 
My guardian spirit is a just one. Though not propitious to me in the 
manner I desired, he has shown me pity in another way—he has given 
me another shape, and now I must go.’ ‘ Oh, my son, my son, I pra}^ 
yon not to leave me ! ’ cried the father in despair ; but the boy changed 
to a beautiful led-breasted robin, perched upon the highest pole in the 



tent, and sang: 1 My father, regret not the change which yon behold. 
I shall always be the friend of man, and keep near their dwellings. I 
shall ever be happy and contented, and although I could not gratify 
your wishes as a warrior, it will be my daily aim to make you amends for 
it as a harbinger of peace and joy. I will cheer you by my songs. This 
will be some compensation to you for the loss of the glory which you 
expected. I am now free from the pain and care of human life, and my 
pathway is in the bright, free air.’ Then, caroling one of the sweetest 
of robin songs, he flew to the woods, leaving the old father pondering 
sadly upon his words. And this was the origin of the robin red¬ 
breast ” 


“ I shall think of it whenever I see a robin, whether it is an Indian 
legend or not,” nodded Hadley. “ I suppose Indian boys learned to be 
warriors as soon as they could.” 

“ They began to be men when about twelve years old, and a band of 
them would sometimes do considerable mischief. They would go off on 
an excursion taking no food with them. They would eat when they found 
game, and when they did not find any they went hungry until they 
could. All times and places were alike to them as they learned to read 
the signs of the forest, of the sky, of the stars, and in time became expert 
trailers and hunters.” 

“Did they have to do all of this before they could be warriors ? ” 
asked Ernest. 

“ Yes, then they passed the ordeal which would make them warriors 
in truth. A general council was held to listen to the deeds done by each 
one and to decide if they had earned the chance which they coveted. 
Then they underwent torture by having incisions made in their flesh in 
which stout ropes were fastened, the other end of the rope being tied to a 
stake or tree. The quicker the boy could tear himself loose the quicker 
his torture would be over.” 

“I wouldn’t try very hard,” said Will, every nerve tingling with 
the thought. 





















UTE tribF 




a But they do. An Indian boy will whoop and yell to make himself 
and others believe that he is brave, and tug at the rope until the flesh 
gives way and he is free to return to his home. There his wounds are 
examined to see if he is freed fairly, in which case the wounds are 
tenderly dressed, and he is carefully looked after.” 

“ What is done if he cries baby ?” asked Ernest. 

“•If he flinches at all he is sent back to the lodges to be brought up 


with women, and treated with contempt by those who have become 
warriors. He can not marry or hold property. During the tortnre it 
rests entirely with him. He can be released at any time that he asks 
to be—if he is willing to accept the penalty and never become a brave. 
Yet it is said that there are not more than half a dozen of these men in 
the whole tribe of Southern Cheyennes, so great is their courage and 

“ Were Indian children ever punished cruelly? ” asked Teddy. 

“ A boy was seldom, if ever, punished, for it was not right to punish 




one who might become a great warrior. When a hoy was large enough 
he was sent out on the hunt, and had to help provide food for the family, 
hut they never hunted for sport. An Indian never hunts for the sport 
of putting poor, dumb animals to death. He takes what he needs for 
food and stops when he has enough.” 

“ Didn’t they have any games ? ” Roy inquired. 

“ Certainly, and the most popular game was ball, played with from 
ten to several hundred players. Women and girls also engaged in it. 
They would fly kites made of fish bladders; play tag, hide-and-go-seek, 
hunt the slipper, and other games that white boys never heard of. 
White boys would do well to imitate them in one particular, I think. No 
matter how badly a game went against them, they always accepted their 
defeat with a good natnred laugh.” 

“ The women did all the hard work, ” asserted Ray. “A hunter 
would carry a deer for miles and throw it down in sight of his own home 
for his squaw to fetch in. ” 


“ Still they were kind to their families and, if the women did do the 
drudgery, they did it willingly, counting it a disgrace if their husbands 
did any of it. An Indian once said to a white man :—‘Squaw love to eat 
meat—no husband, no meat. Squaw do everything to please husband ; 
he do to please squaw—all live happy. ’ ” 

“Did the Indians givens Boston baked beans ?”asked Ernest incred¬ 
ulously. “ Teddy says so. ” 

“ The Indians gave us beans, melons, pumpkins and squashes. 
Squaws taught white women to bake the beans; to make hoe-cake ; also 
pone and hominy, samp and succotash, and Indian children enjoyed 
popped corn before a white child knew of it. The red man was not negli¬ 
gent about providing for the long winters before the white man came 
here. He laid in his stores of jerked meat and harvested his maize.” 

“ But I wish you would tell us how they hunted without guns,” 
said Teddy. 



“They made snares ; drove sharp spikes into the path where the deer 
traveled ; drove the game into the water with dogs ; and killed them with 
bows and arrows. The bows were generally made of iron-wood or red 
cedar, sometimes of well seasoned hickory, and the arrows were headed 
with bone and shell before they had iron. The tomahawk seems to have 
been a white man’s weapon, for the Indians nsed war clubs before he 
came. ” 

“ They were quite ingenious that’s a fact,” Hadley admitted, 

“ They had some arts which are ahead of civilized ones. The moc¬ 
casin, the bark ropes ard canoes, the sap tub, the corn mortar, and the 
snowshoes. They had a very ingenious way of making fire without 
matches, metals or chemicals. They turned ivory, made baskets, and 
the Navajo blankets still command a high price. The Cherokees still 
make their air guns and arrows ; the Choctaws and Seminoles make 
buckskin balls and hickory rackets ; the Mokis and Zunis make beauti¬ 
ful polished stoneware. ” 


“ Tell us what wampum was. I have read that there was two kinds 
of it, one kind being clear white and the other as black as jet, ” said Ray. 

“ It was first used as ornaments, then it became a certain kind of 
money, or at least it was greatly nsed in trade and barter. Belts of 
wampum were nsed in all contracts and agreements, and in declaring 
peace or war.” 

“ What kind of houses did they live in ? asked Will. 

“ No Indian family had a house of its own, but the different tribes 
had very different houses. The California Indians had round, dome¬ 
shaped huts; the Sierra Indians had L-shaped ones ; the huts of South¬ 
ern California were shaped like wedges or cones ; the Ojibwas lived in 
tents built of light poles and covered with bark ; The Dakota huts were 
similar, but much larger, being large enough for several families ; the 
Algonqnins had long, round roofed houses, from fifty to one hundred 
feet long—a village under one roof ; the Mandans lived in timber houses; 



the village Indians in terraced adobe or stone houses, sometimes two 
hundred feet long. The single wigwam of to-day seems to be a modern 
house, and the original Indians lived in tenements. The most of the 
bands owned their stores in common, and feasted and starved together, 
having one meal a day when they had any at all. ” 

“ They make pretty baskets ; I saw some the last time I went to 
Boston,” nodded Ray. 

“You did not see the most beautiful ones,” replied Uncle Jack. 
“The California Indians are the finest basket makers, although the 
Aleuts make delicate work. The Mission Indians in Southern Cali¬ 
fornia are good basket makers, also the Monos, Shoshones and Paintis 


in the Sierra Nevadas. Dat-so-la-le, of the Washoe tribe makes baskets 
valued from five hundred to one thousand dollars. The Hopis of 
Arizo, make the sacred meal trays ; the Havasnpais make saucer-shaped 
baskets and attractive water bottles; the Apaches make differently 
colored and patterned baskets of many shapes and sizes; then come the 
Pimas and Maricopas, with their faultlessly ornamented work; the 
Chemehnevis and the Mohaves are not far behind ; the Skokomish have 
a circle of dogs as a trade mark; then there are the fine baskets of the 
Klikitats, the grass pouches of the Haidas of Alaska, and the remark¬ 
able work of the British Columbia Indians.” 

“What a lot of kinds. I thought that a basket was a basket. I 
did not think there was such a difference between them,” said Roy. 

“Every tribe makes a different quality and different patterned 



article, and each design has its own signification just as much as the 
picture writing did. The baskets of the Poma Indians are the finest—they 
run forty to sixty stitches to the inch, and in some they are so fine that 
they can hardly be counted with a magnifying glass. The basin-shaped 
sun basket was treasured the highest. It was covered with red feathers, 
which were as smooth as when on the breast of the bird. These baskets are 
now very rare and command a high price.” 

“ What a lot of things we are learning. 

Can you fellows remember it all?” asked 
Teddy slowly. 

“I guess we’ll know more about the 
Indians when we get through than we did 
when we began—thanks to Uncle Jack,” 
answered Ray with a grateful look at their 

“Tell us one thing,” cried Ernest. 

“ How did the Indians give deeds of their 
lands if they could not even write their 
names ? ” 

“I know,” answered Teddy quickly. 

“ In signing contracts they generally made 
some rude representation of an object or 
animal, as well as a mark—as a beaver, a ute pyramid cradle. 
snake, a snow shoe, or something significant of themselves.” 

“ Sequoyah, whose English name was George Guess, invented the 
Cherokee alphabet in 1826. He was a full-blood Cherokee, living at 
Vinita, where there is a monument to his memory,” said Hadley. 

“ The Cherokee Advocate is the only paper printed in the Indian 
language, and I saw that it was to be discontinued, as all of the younger 
Indians are taught in English only. The paper has been printed since 
1830 at the expense of the Cherokee Government,” added Ray, 

“ It is too bad to let that paper go! ” declared Will earnestly. “The 
Cherokee language will then soon be forgotten, and the Cherokees are the 



only Indians in the United States who have a printed language. The rest 
cannot understand the spoken languageof the other tribes sometimes.” 


u You have not told all of that story,” declared Roy. “That alpha¬ 
bet was considered such a remarkable invention that Congress gave 
Sequoyah a silver medal and a pension.” 



“It is a wonder that man told his real name,” Ernest observed 
thoughtfully. “ The Indians do not like to tell their names for fear 
harm will come to them, and even have nicknames for their friends. 
Pocahontas lives in history but the daughter of Powhatan was named 

“ How did they reckon time?” asked Teddy. 

“Years were counted by winters, months by moons, days by nights. 
May was the month of flowers, June was the month of strawberries, and 
July was the month of berries.” 


“ They had piles of queer notions—queer to us,” said Ray. “Some 
of the tribes never said a man was dead, they said—‘ Gitche ie nay gow 
ge ait che gah,’ or something like that. It meant ‘ they have put the 
sand on him.’ ” 

u But they were not so easily fooled,” nodded Will. “ Once a white 
man, to show them his power, foretold an eclipse—with the aid of an 
almanac of course! The Indians all assembled to see if he told them 
the truth—off came his scalp if he didn’t. They saw the dark spot 
creep over the sun, and trembled, as only a bright rim was left of its 
brightness. The beasts and the birds acted queerly, and, in desperation 
they seized their gnns and began a furious fusilade at the horrible black 
spot. It passed away quickly, and then they jeered at the white man 
saying that, though he could bring the awful thing upon them, they 
could drive it away easily.” 

“ I saw that the Comanches were called The Serpents, because they 
were so fierce and untamed, plundering white men, Mexicans and 
Indians alike. They have also been called the Arabs and Tartars of the 
United States. They are such expert and fearless riders that they can 
ride a horse at full gallop towards the enemy showing no part of their 
own bodies. Even the women are fearless riders, and can lasso ante¬ 
lopes and buffalo,” said Hadley. 

“ When a chief wishes to organize a war party he adorns a pole with 



feathers and a flag, and marches through the village chanting his war 
song, and the young braves do not fail to follow him. No chief ever 
orders his braves to go on the warpath, he always starts out and calls 
for volunteers,” added Ray. 

u Among some of the tribes the children belong to the mother’s 
instead of the father’s family,” said Ernest. “ But Schoolcraft tells of 
Bianshaw, a Chippewa chief, who, when his son was taken prisoner by a 
hostile tribe, went to them fearlessly and said : ‘ My son has seen but 
few winters; his feet have never trod the warpath ; but the hairs of my 
head are white ; I have hung many scalps over the graves of my relatives 
which I have taken from the heads of warriors ; kindle the fire about me 
and send my son home to my lodge.’ The offer was accepted and the 
brave old chief suffered the torture.” 


“I could tell you the story of Nadowaqua, the daughter of an old 
chief who was taken sick ten miles from their home. Of course, there 
were numerous stops, but she carried him on her back the whole dis¬ 
tance,” added Teddy. 

“They had great power of endurance,” observed Uncle Jack. “A 
swift runner would go eighty miles a day. They could hear and see 
better than a white man, and were quicker to trail a foe. As they went 
along they left their sign writing, so that those who came after could 
follow them. They possessed great courage, self-control and patience. 
They were grave and dignified, courteous to each other, often kind and 
forgiving, but thought sternness was a virtue that must not be over¬ 

“I can tell you a story to prove that,” Roy asserted. “The Iroquois 
took a Seneca boy and put him to the torture to see if it would pay to 
adopt him and make a warrior of him. First they held him, barefooted, 
upon the coals of the council fire until his feet were blistered, then they 
cut the blisters, filled them with sand, and made him run a gauntlet of 
twenty yards between two rows of lads armed with thorn brier branches.” 



“Did lie do it ? ” demanded Teddy and Will in a breath. 

“He did not fall nor falter, he dashed through the line and into the 
long house, where he fell upon the wild skin rug which served as a seat 
for the chief. That was a decided omen of greatness—perhaps the 
plucky little fellow knew it. Then they tied him to a stake and tor¬ 
tured him by fire and, last of all, they douched him into the cold spring 
until he was nearly strangled. When these tests were ended he was 
treated tenderly and adopted into the tribe, where he became a great 
chief. That boy was but carrying out the teachings which he had had 
from his earliest childhood.” 

“I wouldn’t want to be adopted—I’d rather die,” breathed Ray. 


“As a rule, the Indian has no fear of death, and they avenge their 
wrongs in their own way and time,” continued Hadley. “One Indiau 
killed another, and, by the red man’s law, the next of kin, a brother, 
called on him to demand his life in payment. The man received his 
visitor quietly, only asking a delay until the next morning. The brother 
consented and went away, leaving him perfectly free. Probably a white 
man would have run away and escaped, for the time. The Indian slept as 
usual that night, helped to dig his own grave, and gave the signal to fire.” 

“What a fool he was!” exclaimed Will. 

“ I don’t know—he would have been branded as a coward if he hadn’t 
done just so,” answered Ernest wisely. 

“The Indian is very hospitable now, as well as he was in the olden 
time, when Canassatego, a chief of the Six Nations, said: ‘ If a white 
man enters one of our cabins, we will treat him as I do you; we dry him 
if he is wet; we warm him if he is cold ; we give him meat and drink 
that he may allay his hunger and thirst, and we spread soft furs for him 
to rest and lie on. We demand nothing in return. But if I go into a 
white man’s house and ask for victuals and drink, they say, “Where is 
your money?” and if I have none, they cry out: ‘ Get out, you Indian 
dog! ’ ” Ray asserted laughingly. 



“ Yes,” continued Will. “When Captain Willard Glazier went on 
the tonr of exploration which established Lake Glazier as the true 
source of the Mississippi River, White Cloud, a Chippewa chief, after 
expressing sorrow that the white man did not know geography better 
said:—‘ Chenowagesic is a good hunter and a faithful guide ; he will 
accompany you The Chippewas are your friends and will give you 
shelter in their wigwams.’ Then Chenowagesic said:—‘ My brother? 
the country which you are going to is my hunting ground. I have 
hunted there many years and have planted corn on the shores of Lake 
Itasca. My father, now an old man, remembers the first white chief who 
came to look for the source of the Father of Waters. I will furnish the 
maps which yon have called for and will guide yon onward.”’ 


“ Before we finish our lesson I want to tell you the story of a Pawnee, 
brave, called Petalasharoo,” cried Teddy. “He was the son of a chief 
and before he was twenty-one he had earned the title of the ( Bravest of 
the Brave.’ A female captive, belonging to another tribe, was being 
burned at the stake when he rushed to her, cut the cords which bound 
her, and bore her to a place where two horses were in waiting. Placing 
her on one he mounted the other and conducted her to a spot where she 
could easily reach her friends and people. An ordinary warrior could 
not have done this and return to his tribe, but his influence was so great 
that no one ever questioned his right to do the deed of kindness, and the 
Pawnees have not tortured their prisoners since. The young brave was 
presented with a silver medal in 1821, by the young ladies of Miss 
White’s boarding school in Washington.” 

“ I would like to know how an Indian looked with his best dress on,” 
said Ernest slowly. 

u I can tell you that, or I will read what Mrs. Custer says in ‘ Boots 
and Saddles,’ ” replied Hadley. “ They were gorgeous in full dress. Iron 
Horse wore an elaborately beaded and painted buckskin shirt, with masses 
of solid embroidery of porcupine quills. The sleeves and shoulders 



were ornamented with a fringe of scalp locks * * * on his shoulders 

was a sort of cape, trimmed with a fringe of snow}^ ermine. His leggings 
and moccasins were a mass of bead-work. He wore a cap of otter without 
a crown, for it is their custom to leave the top of the head uncovered 
His hair was wound round and round with strips of otter that hung 
down his back ; the scalp lock was also tightly wound.” 


“Where were his feathers?” interrupted Will. 

%l Three eagle feathers, denoting the number of warriors which he 
had killed, were so fastened to the lock that they stood upright. There 
were several perforations in each ear, from which depended ear-rings. 
He had armlets of burnished brass, and thrown around him was a beaded 
blanket. The red clay pipe had a wooden stem inlaid with silver, and 
was embellished with the breast feathers of brilliantly colored birds. 



The tobacco bag, about two feet long, had not an inch which was not 
decorated. The costume was simply superb. The next in rank was 
dressed nearly as well.” 

“ What were they going to do, to be decked out so ? ” asked Roy. 

“ They took their places, by rank, around General Custer, and ‘The 
pipe was filled and a match lighted by one of their number of inferior 
grade, and handed to Iron Horse, who took a few leisurely whiffs. After 
they had all smoked a little, the general included, the pipe was passed 
back to the chief. It was then relighted, and he began again. It 
seemed to me that it went back and forth an endless number of times- 
No matter how pressing the emergency, every council begins in this 
manner.’ ” 

“Now we will have a little music and wait until another time to 
begin about their feasts and festivals,” said Uncle Jack, with a motion of 

“ And be easy,” called the guide, in a tone of mock entreaty. “ If 
you can’t be easy, be as easy as you can.” 

“ We make no promises and have none to break,” flashed Teddy. 



“ Ye who love a nation’s legends, 

Love the ballads of a people, 

That, like voices from afar off, 

Call on us to pause and listen— 

Listen to this Indian legend.” 

i EVERAL nations sometimes banded together to observe feasts 
and festivals,” Uncle Jack began. 

“Just like a World’s Fair!” exclaimed Teddy. 

“Well—on a somewhat smaller scale. I think we will begin the 
lesson with a singular annual religions ceremony which some of the 
tribes had. I will tell it to you. A man was seen approaching upon the 
appointed morning, whom they all hailed as Nu-mock-muck-a-nah, or 
the first and only man. He slowly and gravely entered the village and 
saluted them, telling them that he had just arrived from the west.” 

“ How did he look,” asked Ernest? 

“ He was dressed in white wolf skins, and his body was painted a 
bright red color. His head dress was composed of the glistening, jetty 
feathers of the raven, and he carried a great pipe in his hand. He 
demanded a tribute at every house—a knife, an ax, or bows and arrows— 
‘for,’ he said, ‘with these the great canoe was built.’ ” 

“Noah’s ark!” breathed Hadley, in surprise. 

“ These articles were placed in the medicine lodge, and after the 

ceremonies were over they were thrown into the water, never to be used 

again. At sunrise the next morning a number of young men followed 

Nu-mock-muck-a-nah into the medicine lodge, where they underwent 

such cruel tortures that some of them died under them, but the ones who 

survived were braves forever after. Then the conductor of ceremonies 

entered the lodge, painted a bright yellow, with a buffalo skin cap on 

his head. The first man gave him the great pipe, and left for the west 




again, becoming invisible until tbe next annual ceremony called for bis 

“ And that was all ? ” inquired Ray. 

“ No, indeed ; it was tbe beginning. During tbe next three days 
fantastically dressed and painted forms went tbrougb numerous dances 
in front of tbe medicine lodge. Curious songs were sung, and strange 
ceremonies performed around an elevated mound of eartb, on top of 
wbicb was a model of tbe great canoe. Tbe principal actors were eight 
persons, variously painted and nearly naked.” 

“Eight people went into tbe ark !” exclaimed Roy. 

“ These eight people held wreaths of willow in their bands, for 1 the 
twig wbicb tbe dove brought to tbe great canoe bad leaves upon it.’ 
On tbe third day tbe village was again thrown into great confusion 
by a man, naked and painted black, except bis face, wbicb was red and 
white, who ran from lodge to lodge, treating every one rudely, but con¬ 
stantly balked by tbe master of ceremonies, who thrust tbe sacred pipe 
between him and bis victim continuallly. At last be was driven 
out, and peace was restored. Tbe name of this man was 1 Tbe Evil 
One.’ ” 


“ Do tbe women dance, too ? ” asked Will. 

“ In some of tbe tribes, they are not allowed to, as in tbe general 
tribe dancing; but they sometimes borrow tbe finery of tbe warriors and 
have a dance of their own. Tbe Iroquois alone bad thirty-two distinct 
dances and seven yearly feasts. These were : tbe maple, when tbe sap 
began to run ; another, when tbe corn was planted ; plant-fruit festival, 
when tbe strawberries were ripe ; the bush-fruit feast, when tbe whortle¬ 
berries ripened; tbe green-corn, when tbe corn was gathered ; Thanksgiv¬ 
ing, when tbe crops of tbe year were all stored away; and tbe New Year, 
on tbe first of February. Mrs. Harriet Maxwell Converse was adopted 
into tbe Seneca band of tbe Six Nations, nearly twenty years ago, under 
the name of Ya-ie-wa-nob. Ernest, will you read us what she says of 
tbe Strawberry Festival ? ” 



u She was there and—soon after the people had all entered the Long 
House—the priest began the ceremony with a prayer. ‘ In this prayer. 


thanks were given for the first fruits of the plant—the strawberry—foi 
the earth which had nurtured its root, for the air that nourished its 
buds, for the rain and dews that refreshed its blossoms and for the sun 
that ripened its fruit. Thanks were also given, for the privilege of this 



festival, that the people could come together to praise the Great Spiiit * 
also, to take part in social recreations and the feast.’ ” 

“That wasn’t all of it!” cried Teddy. 

“ Oh, no. There were many speeches after the prayer, and then the 
Great Feather-Dance was called. Mrs. Converse says :—‘ This dance, 
one of the most imposing dances of the Iroquois, is performed by a 
selected band of costumed dancers, each member being distinguished for 
powers of endurance, suppleness, and gracefulness of carriage. In all 
its features, the Feather-Dance is wholly unlike the war-dance. All 
the movements are of a gentle character, expressive of pleasure and 
gladness.’ ” 

“ What next ? ” questioned Roy impatiently. 


“Then, the ‘Shuffling,’ ‘Shaking of the Rattle,’ and ‘Snake’ dances 
were given, all different from each other in step and song, as they 
were different from the first. Then came the feast; and after the feast, 
various games were played until the ‘ feast sign,’ the round new moon, 
arose in the sky.” 

“A feast was given, when a boy was first successful in the chase; 
and he was urged to go on the warpath, so that he might win the 
coveted war-eagle feather for his hair, and get the chance to boast of his 
deeds in the great war-dance,” said Ernest. 

“ What was a war-dance ? ” asked Ray. 

“ When two tribes were about to go to war, a leading chief would 
paint his body jet black, from the crown of his head to the sole of his 
foot, then hide in some cave or in the thick woods. There he fasted and 
prayed to the Great Spirit. If he dreamed of a war-eagle, hovering near 
him, he was happy, for that was a sign of triumph. Then, he would 
joyfully return to his people, tell them that the Great Spirit was on 
their side and incite them to war.” 

“ What if a warrior of the other tribe had the same dream ? ” ques¬ 
tioned Ernest. 



u Probably they often did, and so each side was sure of tbe victory. 
The chief would then invite all of the braves to a feast, he was no longer 
painted black, but sat with them in the most fantastic war-paint. After 
the feast the war-dance began. It was a weird scene, the blackness of 
night lighted by the blazing pine torches and roaring fires. The crowd 
sat in a circle around a painted post. One chief after another would 
leap into the circle, sing of his own 
and of his father’s brave deeds, 
striking at the post as if it was an 
enemy. At last all of the warriors 
would be shouting, brandishing 
their weapons, stabbing the air, 
and making a scene worse than 
Dante's Inferno. The whole night 
would pass in this way and, when 
daylight dawned, the braves would 
file into the woods, where each one 
took off his finery and gave it to the 
women who followed them to bring 
it back, and then, silently and 
stealthily, they went to the attack.” 

“ Before they set out on the 
warpath they sometimes held 
‘ Ghost Dances ’ for days, can you 
tell us anything about those, 

Hadley ? ” chief with head-dress. 

“ The selected warriors must fast twenty-four hours, then, at sun¬ 
rise, they performed the rite of ‘ purification.’ That was done by enter¬ 
ing i a sweat lodge,’ such as a vapor bath was taken in. They had to 
remain in the lodge an hour. Then they painted their faces dark blue 
with a red cross on each cheek ; and the medicine man painted two light 
blue crescents on the forehead, and gave them holy, bullet-proof shirts 

of white muslin ! At noon the warriors formed a circle, joining hands, 



and this was almost the only dance in which they joined hands. At a 
signal every brave looked steadily to the ground and began to circle 
around, singing, in a weird, mournful way, the words which would mean 
‘Father, Father, we want to see you. Father, Father, we want buffalo. 
Father, Father, we want our lands.’ After they continued this for an 
hour or more the medicine men came out of the tepee. This was the 
signal for them to break their circle, throw their heads back, look at the 
sun and whirl around singly and madly. Soon they got dizzy and fell, 
then they were considered fit to receive the Holy Spirit. It is really 
the ‘ Holy Ghost Dance.’ ” 

“ And after they returned with the spoils of war they had another, 
called the Scalp Dance. What was that like, Ray ? ” 


“ The dance generally lasted fifteen nights, if the expedition was a 
successful one. A number of the young women stood in the middle of 
a circle, holding the scalps up in view, while the warriors danced around 
them, brandishing their weapons and yelling in the most fearful man¬ 
ner. Each warrior tried to out-do his comrades in making horrible 
faces, as if they were really in the midst of the battles of which they 
sang between the yells. This dance was always in the night, with fires 
blazing all around the circle.” 

“The Stick Indians have queer, masked dances. The dancers 
must be the most noted of their tribe, and wear curious wooden masks, 
representing eagles, birds, which they claim as ancestors. The eyes 
are made of red glass, and the great jaws can be opened and shut by 
cunningly contrived strings. Now, Will, can yon tell ns of the Strong 
Heart Dance of the Arickarees ? ” 

“ The dancers wore no clothing except the cloth about the loins. 
They wore bead and metal ornaments in their belts, and some of them 
had the tail feathers of the wild turkey stuck in their girdles. They 
were grotesquely painted, one leg and one arm being in a brilliant ver¬ 
milion or blue, while the other was the brightest green, and their faces 



painted with all the colors of the rainbow—and a few more! Some of 
them wore bear’s claws as necklaces. The drummers sat in a charmed 
circle near the fire, in the center of the lodge, droning a low monotone as 
they beat their drums. ” 


“What are you stopping for? Why don’t you tell all at once ? ” 
demanded Teddy impatiently. 

“Sometimes boys, aided by their mothers, would kill a wounded 
enemy, and thus earn the right to engage in this dance with the warriors 
wearing eagle feathers in their tiny scalp-locks. The dancers whirled 
around for awhile, howling as they spun. When one wanted to speak 
he made a sign and the dance music stopped, the rest all squatting around 
him while he told of his courage and bravery. Sometimes a warrior from 



another tribe would bound into the circle and tauntingly tell how many 
of their people he had made to ‘bite the dust/ and he would be allowed 
to go away in peace, as he could not be touched by the law of the dance.” 

“ I should think that they would get him before he got back to his 
own people,” said Roy. 

“They did sometimes. Such events were not very common, for the 
daring brave took his life in his hand and might be tracked and over¬ 
taken after he left the sacred spot. It was a strong heart, indeed, who 
would attempt to taunt his enemies in that way. The unearthly music, 
the weird gloom, and the barbaric sights lasted throughout the night, 
the excitement increasing until a pandemonium reigned.” 


“The Blackfeet. have a feast as soon as the first thunder is heard in 
vhe spring, and prayers are offered for a large berry crop, for they say 
thunder brings rain, and rain makes the berries grow large. Two great 
kettles of cooked berries are prepared and each guest is given a large 
bowlful. Before eating each one rubs a few of the berries into the ground, 
saying: ‘ Take pity on us all Above People, and give us good.’ ” 

“What else?” asked Hadley. 

“ When they have finished eating the pipe is brought in for a smoke. 
The medicine man takes it and, holding it high, says: ‘Listen, sun. 
‘Listen, thunder. Listen, Old Man. All Above Animals, all Above 
People, listen. Pity us. We fill the sacred pipe. Let us not starve. 
Give us rain during the summer. Make the berries large and sweet. 
Cover the bushes with them. Let us reach old age. Let our lives be 
complete. Let us destroy our enemies. Help our young men in battle. 
Man, woman, child, we all pray to you ; pity us and give ns good.’ Then 
he danced and the warriors smoked, and the ashes were all put into a 
hole and carefully covered with earth. If it thundered during the cere¬ 
mony it was a very good sign, for their prayers were heard and granted/’ 
said Ray. 



il The Feast of the Dead is stranger than that, ” declared Roy. 
“The fire was put out and skins hung over the door to keep out every ray 
of light. The ashes were removed from the fireplace, which was sprinkled 
with clean sand. A fire was built outside of the lodge. All things 
were performed in strict silence because the spirits of the dead delighted 
in silence. As soon as it was completely dark all were invited to come 
inside of the tent of the man who was about to give a feast to his departed 
friends. Each guest was given a spoon and a dish containing two ears 
oi corn as soon as he entered the door, and told to be seated. The owner 
of the lodge then made a speech, begging the spirits to come and eat 
with them, and also to be kind and assist him in the chase. When the 
speech was finished they ate their corn in silence, being very careful not 
to break the cobs, a thing which would displease the spirits very much ! 
Then a fire was kindled on the hearth, the cobs were carefully buried 
near it, and a dance began which lasted until daylight. This was gen¬ 
erally on the night of November first. 


“ What about the Calumet Dance, Ernest ? The Peace Calumet 
was ornamented with the feathers of the white eagle, and the bearer of it 
was safe anywhere, in war as well as in peace, for it was considered sacred 
by all of the tribes. It was made of red stone, polished like marble with 
a stem two feet long. ” 

“That dance was performed only on important occasions. In winter 
in a cabin, in summer out of doors. A large mat of rushes was spread in 
the centre, upon which was placed the manitou of the one who gave the 
dance. Nearby was the calumet, surrounded by the warrior’s weapons. 
The best musicians sat in an outside circle; the participants, one at a 
time, advanced, took a whiff from the pipe and blew the smoke into the 
face of the manitou, then each one danced with the calumet, chanting a 
song. When the song was ended the dancer challenged a brave to a 
mock fight, the drums beating all the while. After this miniature duel 
ended, always without bloodshed, the dancer told of his battles, the cap- 



tives wliicli he Lad taken, and his brave deeds generally, and received a 
present from the presiding chief. ” 

“ And this was their song, ” laughed Teddy, springing to his feet 
and whirling around to the time of his own voice, as he sang ;—‘ Nina- 
hari, ninahari, ninahari—naniongo ! ’ 


“ Better practice that before you try that again,” said Ernest, with a 
touch of quiet sarcasm. 

“ And there was the Buffalo Dance,” cried Hadley. “ Each dancer 
wore a mask, consisting of the head and horns of a buffalo, while a strip 
of the hide, including the tail, was allowed to hang down his back. The 
dancers, armed for the chase, formed a circle, while the medicine men 
beat the sacred drums vigorously. The circle revolved continually, each 
one stamping and trying to imitate the sounds made by buffalo. This 



dance must be continued day and nigbt until the scouts return and tell 
of the discovery of a berd; sometimes weeks are spent in waiting, and, 
when a dancer could stand it no longer, he was shot with a blunt arrow, 
feigned death, and then withdrew from the circle. This was to give the 
appearance of death as a reason for retiring and giving up his place. ” 

“ There is about as much sense to that as there is to the Pipe Dance 
of the Assinneboins ! ” exclaimed Will. “ A fire was built in front of the 
village, around which the dancers collected, each seating himself upon a 
robe. Then the medicine man, with a long pipe in his hand, seated 
himself by the fire and smoked for a great while, muttering words, which 
he alone knew the meaning of, at intervals, while the drums beat and 
songs echoed through the forests from the outside circles. Soon one of 
the dancers leaped up, whirled around alone for a time, shaking his 
clenched fist before each one in turn, and at last jerking one of them to 
his feet. Both danced and sang awhile then jerked up two more, and so 
on until all of them were dancing and howling around the fire where 
the medicine man coolly and serenely puffed at his pipe. The dance 
generally lasted about an hour, then closed with the most horrible yells, 
and barking in imitation of dogs.” 


“ Indians valued dogs more than other people did and it was the 
highest mark of friendship to use them at a feast, the greatest compli¬ 
ment that could be paid a guest. The Ojibways used them at their 
medicine feasts, but they used deer, moose or bear at their war-dances. 
The Dog Feast of the Sioux was different, can you tell ns what it was 
like, Roy ? ” 

“ About a hundred warriors seated themselves in a circle around a 
large pole, and smoked a few moments in silence. They wore thebieech- 
cloth and carried a long knife. A wild whoop was the signal for them to 
spring up and begin a weird dance to the monotonous beating of a drum. 
There was a howl and a yelp outside of the circle, then a squaw threw 
the carcass of a dog into the circle. The animal was seized with a loud 


yell, Ills liver taken out and hung on the pole, and the dance went on. 
Each dancer, in turn, stepped up and cut off a bit of the liver. When 
that liver was gone there was another yelp, and the body of another dog 
was thrown in, and so on until ten or a dozen dogs had died, that the 
hearts of the chosen warriors might be made strong. None but the 
bravest and most distinguished were allowed to take part in this dance.” 
“ Yon haven’t told us about the Medicine Dance, so I will tell you 

now,” laughed Teddy. “ When 
the Medicine Lodge is completed 
a rudely carved image is sus¬ 
pended from the center, and 
near the top of the lodge. Then 
a large round space is roped off 
for the dancers, and the selection 
is announced by the Medicine 
Man. One warrior is generally 
selected from every hundred 
persons, and there is an equal 
number of guards. Each dancer 
is clad in the breech-cloth, and 
holds a small whistle in his 
mouth, to the lower end of 
which a tail feather of the 

1 medicine bird ’ is fastened. 
MEDICINE MAN IN FANTASTIC COSTUME. The dancers f orm a circle fao 

ing the center, fix their gaze on the suspended image, blow continually 
on the whistles, and begin the monotonous Indian dance, the whole line 
moving slowly in a circle. Some of the younger ones leap into the air 
at intervals, but the older ones reserve theiv strength, for it is a dance of 

“ How is that ? ” asked Ernest. 

“ Because it is. The will of th<& gods is to be known by the effect of 
the ceremony on the dancers. Until the Master of Ceremonies is satis- 



fled, they must continue the round without sleep, food or drink. The 
friends watch every movement and endeavor to keep up the spirits of the 
flagging. When a dancer reels and falls the women rush about and 
shriek, the body is dragged out of the circle, laid upon its back, and the 
high priest paints various symbols on the face and person, then buckets 
of water are thrown over it.” 

“ I suppose that brings the warrior to his senses again !” cried Will. 

“ Generally, and then the women set up a howl of delight. The 
dancer may then be excused or told to enter the ring again, just as the 
high priest feels about it. If the dancer can promise enough ponies he 
is excused. The dance continues until the 
dancers have all fallen, once at least. If 
there has been no death, good 1 medicine’ 
is announced, the dance stops and the lodge 
is taken down. A council is called and the 
program for the year is usually war. But 
sometimes one or more dancers do not 
revive. Then tjie camp becomes a perfect 
pandemonium with the howls of men and 
the wailing of women. The dance is 
broken up, horses are killed for the use of 


the dead in the happy hunting ground, their widows inflict ghastlj 
wounds on themselves, and the whole camp is in mourning.” 

“ And they make the warriors go all over it again, I suppose !” 
exclaimed Hadley. 

u No warrior is ever required to take the Medicine Dance more than 
once. Some of them have been known to dance for three days and nights 
without intermission or nourishment.” 

u The Fleeka, or Arrow Dance of the Pueblos, is the best,” declared 
Ernest. “ One of the braves is led up in front of his friends, who are 
drawn up in two ranks. He is placed upon one knee, his bow and 
arrow in hand, while the Malinchi, a richly dressed young girl, begins 
the dance. A skin of the silvery gray fox hangs from her right wrist 



and the ends of lier embroidered scarf are fringed with bells which jingle 
at every movement. At first she dances along the line in front, her 
steady movements showing that she is describing the warpath. Slowly 
and steadily she pursues ; suddenly her step quickens ; she sights the 
enemy! The brave follows her with his eye and by a motion of his head 
implies that she is right. She dances faster and faster; suddenly she 
snatches an arrow from the brave, and then shows by her frantic gestures 
that the fight has begun in earnest. She points with the arrow, shows 
how it wings its course, how the scalps are taken, and how victory comes 
to her tribe. She returns the arrow and the dance is ended. Firearms 
are discharged and others come forward, and thus the dance is kept up 
until dark. 


“ Pho, the way that the Comanches get horses when they need them 
is better than that !’ 7 Hadley exclaimed. “When they are about to take 
the warpath, and find that they are in need of horses, they send a runner 
to a friendly tribe saying that, on a certain day, a certain number of 
their braves will visit them to 1 smoke ’ horses. At the appointed time 
they appear, clad in a full coat of war paint. They enter the village in 
silence and seat themselves in a circle, the people forming another larger 
circle around them.” 

“ Then what ? ” demanded Teddy. 

“Gravely taking their pipes, they begin to smoke, looking neither 
to the right nor to the left. Soon an equal number of mounted warriors 
come in single file, and, as they gallop around the circle of visitors, 
armed with long, stinging whips, each one stoops a little from his horse’s 
back and, with all his strength, strikes the one whom he selects. This 
is continued until the men’s shoulders are covered with blood, when the 
leader springs from his horse, places the bridle in the hand of the man 
that he whipped, and says : ‘You are a beggar, I present you with a horse, 
but you will always carry my mark upon your back.’ The rest follow 
his example, and the Comanches have won their steeds. The test is to 
smoke in unconscious silence, and endure every blow without flinching.” 



‘‘Ernest and I have got something that is the strangest, but yon will 
have to read it for yourselves. Here is the Lord’s prayer in the Warn* 


panoag language,” cried Will. “Read mine first.” And this is what 
Uncle Jack managed to read to them : 11 Noo-shnn Kes-uk-qut, qut-tian- 
at-am-unch koo-we-su-onk, kuk-ket-as-soo-tam-oonk pey-an-moo-ntch kut- 
te-nan-tam-oo-onk ne nai, ne-ya-ne ka-suk-qut kah oh-ke-it. As-sa-ma-b 



in-ne-an ko-ko-ke-suk-o-da-e nut-as-e-suk-ok-ke pe-tuk-qun-neg. Kak ah« 
quo-an-tam-a-i-in-ne an num-match-e-se-ong-an-on-ash, ne-wutch-e ne-na- 
wun wonk nut-ak-quo-an-tam-au-o-un-non-og nish-noh, pasuk noo-na- 
mon-tuk-quoh-who-nan, kak akque sag-kom-pa-gin-ne-an en qutch-e-het- 
tu-ong-a-nit, qut, pok-qua-wus-sin-ne-an wutck match-i-tut.” 

“That was from Elliot’s Indian Bible,” nodded Will in a satisfied 
tone. “The other is in the Mohegan language. Read that too, Uncle 
Jack.” And Uncle Jack took a long breath, and began: “Nogh-nuh, 
ne spummuck oi-e-on, tangk mau-wek wnek wtu-ko-ae-auk ne-an-ne an- 
nu-woi-e-on. Taugk ne aun-chu-wut-am-mun wa-wek-tn-seek ma-wek 
nok pnin-mek. Ne ae-noi-kit-teeh mau-wek aw-an-neek nok kkey oie- 
ckeek, ne aun-cku-wut-am-mun, ne an-noi-hit-teet neek spum-muk oie- 
ckeek. Men-e-nau-nnk noo-nook wnh-kam-auk tqnogk nnk uh-hug-u- 
tam-auk ngum-mau-wek. Ohq-u-ut-a-mou-we-nau-nuh au-nek mu-ma- 
ckoi-e-an-kek he annek ohq-u-ut-a-mon-woi-e-auk num-pek neek mu-ma- 
cken-an-nek-o-quau-keet. Ckeen kqu-nk-quan-ckek-si-u-kek an-nek-e- 
kenan-nuk. Pan-nee-wek kton-we-nau-nnh, neen maum-tek-keh ke-ak 
ng-wek-chek kwi-ou-wau-weh mau-wek nok pnm-mek; kt-an-woi; es- 
tak aw-aun w-tin-noi-yn-wnn ne au-noi-e-you ; kan-wee-wek ne kt-in- 

“ Are you not glad to get it done, Uncle Jack ? ” asked Ernest, with 
a breath of relief. “Will and I thought that yon would like to see 
those things, but—how can they be correct if the Ckerokees are the only 
ones who have a written language ? ” 

“The one who wrote them gave the words the sounds as near as he 
could, of course,” replied Ray. “But see our guide is fast asleep on the 
bench out there,” and he pointed through the open door. 

“I’ll wake him—beat the drum, somebody !” and Teddy sprang out 
into the moonlight with a war-whoop, and began a frantic dance around 
the guide who was asleep no longer. 

“I’ll—yon young Injun—yon need killing!” the bewildered man 
cried, with a vain clutch at Teddy’s whirling figure. “ I’ll die if I have 
to listen to all of these yarns, and have ’em acted out to boot!” 



u O’er the water, floating, flying, 
Something in the hazy distance, 
Something in the mists of morning, 
Loomed and lifted from the water, 

Now seemed floating, now seemed flying, 
Coming nearer, nearer, nearer. 

--a birch canoe with paddles, 

Rising, sinking in the water ; 

And within it came a people 
From the farthest realms of morning.” 

I 7E are going to give you a concert 
V V to-night,” Ernest announced, as 
they seated themselves for the 
next study hour. 

“I have no objection to that after your 
study hour is over,” smiled Uncle Jack. “ I 
think that we shall all enjoy a little music.” 

“ I shall be obliged to leave you on pressing 
business,” said the guide grimly. 

“It is too bad you do not like music 
better,” Teddy observed in a sarcastic tone. 

u I do, youngster,” was the calm reply. “ 3 
do like music, but ——” 

:t If you don’t like ours you can better it,” flashed Will, but the 
guide had disappeared in the forest. 

“ Attention, young men. Can you tell me how the Norsemen used 
the natives, and how they were used by them? ” asked Uncle Jack. 

“ They used the Indians well enough at the first, and they often via> 

tted them to exchange furs for articles which they had brought from ice 




land, tilings which they had never seen before,’ * answered Hadley 


“But that did not last long!” cried Ray. “It was in the spring of 
1002 that Thorwald sailed around the point of land which he called Keel 
Cape. The Danish Society thought that the place was what is now Cape 
Cod, the general outline of which resembles the keel to a ship. The 
vessel was shipwrecked there but, after repairing it, he sailed into a beau¬ 
tiful bay and was so well pleased with the land which he saw that 
he decided to stay there for awhile.” 

“ What has all that to do with the Indians ? ” asked Will impatiently. 

“A great deal, as you will soon see. The Norsemen soon came 
upon three canoes filled with Indians, upon whom they fired and killed 
all but one. This one got away and told his friends what the white 
strangers had done to his comrades.” 


“And of course they all rallied to avenge the deed,” nodded Roy. 

M I should say that they would and did, and who can blame them ? 
Thorwald was the only one who was wounded. He called his men 
around him, asked if any of them were harmed, and said : 1 1 have 
received a wound which I feel will be mortal. I advise you to prepare 
immediately for your return; but ye shall first carry my body to the 
promontory which I have thought so beautiful, and where I had thought 
to reside. There bury me.’ He did die, and they buried him there, and 
that was the first battle with the Indians in America so far as I could 
find out,” ejaculated Ernest. 

“What can you tell us about his wife, the good and wis^ Gudrida, 

“ She came back wdth Thorfinn, her second husband, and t he Indians 
were very friendly at first, often visiting them to trade, and bringing 
them supplies of all kinds which they had. But after that thay became 
so hostile that the settlement was abandoned, and no attempt was mad^ 
by the Norsemen to establish another,” continued Ernest. 



11 What more can you tell us of the Indians in the time of the adven¬ 
turous Northmen, Hadley?” 

u It was in the year 1026 that Gudleif started for Dublin, in Ireland, 
but his vessel was caught in a storm and driven to the American coast, 
where the crew were taken by the natives and carried into the interior. 
They were greatly surprised to find there an old chief who addressed 
them in their own language. He would not tell his name, nor how he 
came to be there, but they thought that they knew who he was. That 
is the first mention that I saw of a white man becoming chief among the 

“ It was quite a common thing later,” returned Roy. “But who was 
he ? Do you know, Teddy ? ” 

“ He sent a gold ring to Thurida, the sister of Snorre Gode, and a 
sword to her son, and the men were sure that he was Biorne the Bard, 
who had been her lover, and had left Iceland in 998,” replied Teddy„ 
“Of course they didn’t know that this was so, but they thought it.” 


“ A great many years passed before explorers saw the shores of 
America again, or if any did, no record was kept of the voyage. More¬ 
over there has always been various opinions as to who should rightfully 
have the honor of discovering America the next time. So we will begin 
with Columbus. How did he use the owners of the land which he found?” 
asked Uncle Jack. 

“ He found the island inhabited by a humane and hospitable people, 
and he took some of them away with him to show what kind of a race 
lived in the land which he had discovered—I don’t know whether they 
wanted to go with him or not. The simple Indians thought that the 
white men who came in the 1 canoes with wings ’ were gods from Cheba- 
kunah, the land of souls. They were frightened when they fired their 
guns, and prostrated themselves before them at eve^ movement,” Ray 

“ He saw many of these natives running along the shore and watch 





Ing the white strangers in utter astonishment and wonder,” continued 
Will. “ He took some of the fruits and flowers of the new world, as well 
as seven of the natives^ and sailed for home. But first he made a small 
fort in Hayti, or^ Hispaniola, as they called that island, because of its 
fancied resemblance to the Spain which they had left. ” 

“ This fort was called La Navidad, and Columbus left men to garrison 
it, with commands to use the Indians fairU. Can you tell me what 
happened to that fort, Roy ? ” inquired Uncle Jack. 

u Although the men whom he left promised him that they would be 
good to the natives, they were not. Almost before the Nina was out of 
sight they broke every promise thus made. They stole the gold orna¬ 
ments which the women wore, and each man took two or three of them 
as his wives. Then they searched the island over for the treasures— 
which they did not find. They made the Indians do all of their work, 
and they did not pay them anything for it either.” 

“ What was the result of this treachery, Ernest ? ” 
u Why, the colony was destroyed, of course; didn’t it serve them 
right? The natives did it in revenge, just as the Indians of America 
have kept doing ever since. But Columbus planted another settle¬ 
ment when he came again, and so the colonization of that island 

“ What sort of men were these early discoverers, Teddy?” 


“ They were rude, fearless, and ambitious—adventurers in search of 
gold and treasure, who considered that might made right in all things. 
They regarded the natives as beasts almost, instead of thinking of them 
as human beings like themselves, and did not hesitate to take from them 
whatever they pleased, even their homes, their liberty and their lives.” 

“ Yes, they almost always went at them with swords and guns, even 
when there was no need for it,” declared Hadley. “ When they spared 
their lives it was to take them away from their homes and sell them as 

slaves in a distant land.” 

7— AI 



54 But all of them were not like tkat ; there were some good o aes 
among the early discoverers of this new land,” protested Teddy. 

u We are speaking of the majority, my boy, and that was the begin¬ 
ning of the white man’s reign in America, when men, calling themselves 
Christians, made a desolate land of misery and woe, for many, many 
cruel years, of the beautiful country which was a pagan Eden when they 
found it,” said Uncle Jack sadly. 44 How did the Indians take the com¬ 
ing of these strangers ? Can you tell us what was done when they first 
came, Ray ? ” 


44 There was astonishment and confusion. Runners carried the 
incredible news along the narrow Indian trails which led from the coast 
to the interior. The strange tale was whispered from lodge to lodge, and 
gravely commented on in the councils. Alas, the simple red men little 
dreamed that the coming of the more powerful white man marked the 
twilight of their own supremacy in the broad land of America.” 

44 1 question that; it isn’t original ! ” cried Teddy. 44 We must teb 
everything in our own words, mustn’t we, Uncle Jack ?” 

44 We will make that a rule if we haven’t before,” answered Uncle 
Jack. 44 You will remember it better if you tell it in your own words, as 
you have understood it. You may go on Teddy.” 

44 When Columbus made his last voyage his men were more cruel 
and unjust to the natives than ever before, and the Indians refused to 
give them any supplies. They would have starved if Columbus hadn’t 
remembered how very superstitious the Indians were. He knew that an 
eclipse of the sun was nearly due, and threatened that he would cause 
the great and glorious sun to lose its light. When the black shadow 
began to creep over its bright surface the poor Indians were so fright¬ 
ened that they were willing to do whatever he wanted.” 

44 Hadn’t they ever seen an eclipse ? ” demanded Will. 

41 You must ask some one else, history does not say a word about 
that! Perhaps it would spoil a good story to study into it too closely. 
Now tell us how the Indians met the new comers, Roy ?” 



“ They met them cordially, and offered 
them the best that they had to offer, but they 
soon learned the lesson of treachery and dis¬ 
trust. The red men of this continent have 
been largely what their white brothers have 
made them, and many of the cruelties which 
they have shown have been learned from 

¥ them. You cannot for- 

M get that the Spaniards 
| burned Hatuey and the 
p Inca, and were the 
f means of Montezuma’s 




“No, we cannot forget that,” answered Hadley earnestly. 

“ Now we will hear about the Indian slavery which existed in this 
free land of ours before Negro slavery did. Ernest, you may begin with 
some historical instance of kidnapping Indians to sell as slaves ” said 
Uncle Jack. 

“ The different tribes were widely scattered and often at war with 
each other, but they soon learned the lesson of ‘ an eye for an eye ’ too 
well for the white man’s comfort. All of the earliest voyagers carried 
away natives as curiosities, or to sell for slaves. Caspar Cortereal, in 
1501, enticed fifty-seven of them aboard his ship and sailed away with 
them. He was killed while trying to take more at another place, and I 
don’t care if he was. This was at Labrador, and the name of that coun¬ 
try is to commemorate the cruel deed, for it is called Terra de Labrador, 
or the Land of Laborers.” 


“ Go on, Teddy.” 

u Columbus began the slave trade. The most truthful natives 
became treacherous and suspicious. The story was much the same 
everywhere in the New World, where the white man made a settlement. 
In 1494 Columbus, while cruising in the West Indies, sent twelve ship¬ 
loads of Indian captives to Spain as slaves. Even De Soto wrote about 
the ‘ sport of killing Indians,’ and I think much less of this greatly 
admired adventurer than I do of Hirihigua, the hated Seminole, who 
fought so valiantly for the homes of his people.” 

“ Drake tells a pretty good story of a white man who, meeting an 
Indian saluted him as 1 brother.’ ‘ Ugh, how we be brothers ? ’ asked 
the Indian. 1 Oh, by way of old Adam, I suppose,’ was the laughing 
answer. The red man did not answer for some minutes, and then he 
said very gravely : ‘Ugh, me tank Him Great Spirit we be no nearer 
brothers.’ I call that pretty good for an answer,” laughed Ernest. 

“I don’t wonder that he wanted no nearer relationship, and I would 
not have admitted that much,” said Teddy thoughtfully. 



“What can you say of John Verrazzani, an Italian explorer, Ray?” 

“ He reached America and was the first white man to land on the 
shore of North Carolina. The astonished natives received him with 
fearless hospitality. These Indians were dressed in the skins of animals, 
and wore necklaces of coral with feather ornaments.” 

“ One of his crew was sent on shore with presents, hut he was so 
frightened when he saw the Indians waiting for him that he turned 
about and tried to swim back to the ship. He was nearly drowned when 
the natives rescued him, but they dried his clothes, warmed him, and 
then retired to a distance until a boat from the ship came to take him 
away,” added Hadley. 

“Yes, and to pay for this kindness to one of their number the 
visitors took a child away from its mother, and tried to capture a young 
woman 1 of tall stature and very beautiful/ I guess the Indians wished 
that they had let him drown ! ” exclaimed Teddy indignantly. 


“ Did they land at any other point in America, Will?” 

“ Oh, yes. They entered the harbors of New York and Newport, 
then skirted New England to Nova Scotia, and perhaps they went 
farther north. There they found that the natives were not friendly, 
because, as yon remember, Cortereal had been kidnapping along that 
coast, and they thought that all white men were alike, and would not 
trust any of them.” 

“ And they were about right! ” Ray declared indignantly. “ Others 
had been kidnapping there. Sebastian Cabot made Henry VII a present 
of three natives from Newfoundland before that. And if you hunt yon; 
histories you will find more accounts of this business.” 

“Have you anything further to tell us, Ernest?” 

“Vasquez de Ay lion sent two ships from San Domingo to the 
Bahamas for Indians to be sold as slaves. The native population of the 
West Indies had died out so rapidly under the cruel rule of their con¬ 
querors that it was necessary to find laborers elsewhere to work the 



plantations and mines. So Vasquez formed a company, fitted out two 
snips, and started on a kidnapping expedition.” 

u They went to the Bahamas first, and then to South Carolina,” 
continued Roy. “ And they named the country where they landed 
Chicora. The Indians had not learned to be afraid of their white 
brothers, and, although they were rather timid at first, they soon gained 
confidence in the visitors who gave them such wonderful presents.” 

“ What did Vasquez do then, Ernest ? ” 

w He invited them to visit the ship and a great many of them came. 
When he thought that he had all that his vessels would carry, he 
hoisted the sails and carried them away from their homes and native 
land to slave for cruel strangers. But he did not gain as much by the 
deed as he hoped to do. One of his ships went down in a violent storm 
with all on board of her, and the most of the remaining captives died o / 
a pestilence.” 


s< Did he ever return, Teddy ? ” 

“Yes. Charles V appointed him governor of Chicora, and he 
returned to conquer the country. He spent all of his fortune in the 
enterprise, and failed. He found that the natives were not likely to 
forget his former treachery, and nearly all of his men were killed. He 
died of grief and mortification almost as soon as he reached home.” 

“ Will, what have you to tell us ? ” asked Uncle Jack, in the pause 
which followed. 

u Captain Weymouth kidnapped five natives, taking also their boat 
bows and arrows, and similar outrages were perpetrated all along the 
coast. Instead of making heroes of these early adventurers, I would 
tell the stories of Tuscaloosa, the Chickasaw chief; of Hirihigua, the 
Seminole; of Capafi, the Creek, and of the young chieftainess of Cofita- 
chiqui. They suffered in defence of their homes, which the newcomers 
were trying to take from them.” 

“ Go on, Roy.” 

When Ponce de Leon went in search of the fabulous Fountain oi 



Youth, in 1513, he was wounded by the Indians of Florida, and returned 
to Cuba to die, finding a grave instead of perpetual youth. By this 
time the Indians of the coast had learned to try and keep the strangers 
from landing—that is, those of them who had had any experience with 
the white men.” 

“ It was in April, 1528, that Pamphilo de Narvaez cast anchor in 
Tampa Bay, and a week later he took possession of all Florida in the 
name of Spain. He was very wealthy, but put his whole fortune into 

the enterprise of conquering the 
country between the Atlantic and the 
River of Palms. Many younger 
sons of noble families were with 
him. He found the natives very 
hostile, but he would not turn back. 
He stole corn from the Indians and 
killed the horses for food. Only a 
handful of his men were ever heard 
from again after they started for the 
interior in search of gold, and four 
of them, at least, were captives among 
the Indians for more than six years/' 7 
Teddy added. 

“Who visited Florida in 1539, 

Ferdinand de soto. <c It was De Soto, and one of the 

bloodiest battles ever fought in America between the red and white 
men was the one fought by De Soto and the Cherokee Confederation, at 
the Indian village of Mavilla, on the Alabama river.” 

“How was this expedition received by the Indians, Ray? ” 

“Well, I guess they were not very welcome. The Indian guides 
continually led the Spaniards out of the way, and then the Spaniards 
had them torn to pieces by the blood-hounds. Yet this dreadful punish' 
rnent did not keep the next guide from doing the same thing and brav« 



mg the same fate. In 1540 De Soto had one of these guides burned 

“ I don’t blame the Indians one bit for being treacherous with him, 
for they couldn’t get even by fair means,” declared Will emphatically. 
“ The Spaniards cut off their hands for every little fault, burned them 
alive, gave them to the hounds, chained them in pairs by the neck, and 
forced them to carry their baggage.” 

“What can you tell us about the town of Mavilla, Rcy?” 

u I read that the town consisted of eighty houses, each one large 
enough to hold a thousand men, but I don’t know whether to believe it 
or not. These houses were surrounded by a high wall made of 
great tree trunks set very close together and interwoven with stont 

“ What next, Ernest ? ” 

“ Why, the Spaniards attacked the town, and there was a desperate 
battle, in which they won the victory, but the place was burned and the 
white men lost the most of their baggage.” 


u I suppose they gave up the enterprise, then, Hadley ? ” 

“ Oh, no. They spent the winter in a deserted Chickasaw village, 
living on the corn which had been left standing in the fields. We must 
give those early explorers credit for courage and perseverance, if they 
were cruel.” 

“ What happened to them in the spring of 1541, Teddy ? ” 

u De Soto ordered a Chickasaw chief to furnish him with two 
hundred men to carry his baggage, and the chief refused. That night 
the Indians attacked them, the village was burned, and they lost all thaC 
had been saved before. Still they pushed on until they reached the 
Mississippi, where the natives treated them kindly. But De Soto died 
in June, 1542, and was buried in the river at midnight, in order to 
conceal his death from the Indians, who thought that he was im¬ 



“ What became of bis followers, Hadley ? ” 

“ They set out across the country to Mexico, although he had 
advised them to continue down the river ; but they aroused the whole 
country by their barbarous treatment of the natives, and at last they 
were driven back, and were obliged to make boats and go down the river 


after all. Their progress was very slow, for they were harassed by the 
Indians on the shores, and they had a continual fight every mile of the 

“ It was no wonder that the Indians had suspicions of the godliness 
of the Spaniards,” declared Ray. u When Cortez went to Mexico it had 
been foretold that an invincible people would come to avenge the angry 
gods in a terrible way, as the gods were irritated at the many crimes oi 
the inhabitants of the land. So when the Spaniards came the natives 
accepted and reverenced them at first. They saw them on horseback 



and thought that man and horse were one wonderful creature. They had 
very vivid imaginations.” 

“ But some of them decided to prove whether they were really gods or 
not,” Teddy interrupted. “They were sent to bring a young Spaniard 
to a cacique’s house on a visit, and they pushed him overboard while 
they were rowing him across the river, and resolutely held him under 
the water until he was dead. Then they carried him to the shore very 
gently, and watched the body three days and nights to see if life 
would return to it. When they discovered signs of death instead of 
returning life, they knew that the Spaniards were human like themselves, 
and ceased to fear them so much.” 


“ I can tell a story, too,” cried Will eagerly. “The Americans of 
South America, when they saw Negroes with the Spaniards, thought 
that gunpowder was made from their bodies—they were so very black. 
So they caught one of them as quickly as they could and burned him, 
hoping to discover thereby the secret of the 4 white man’s thunder that 
killed.’ They were very much surprised as well as bewildered by the 

“ Indians could generous to a brave enemy, and they often were !” 
Teddy exclaimed. * I found this story of Major Elliot, who died fight¬ 
ing them desperately. You know Indians believe that if a man is 
scalped he cannot go to the happy hunting grounds, and so they scalp 
all the enemies they can to keep them out. But they did not scalp him. 
They said that so brave a man ought to go to heaven, still they cut off 
his right hand and foot so that he could do them no harm there, when 
they all got to paradise l Wasn’t they generous ? ” 

“ The Indians gave the white men lots of things that they never 
heard of,” Ernest asserted. “We know that the squaws baked beans 
in earthen pots, as we do now, but they had more than beans—vegetables 
and fruits, wild geese and ducks, turkeys and pigeons. Then they had 
corn, tobacco, potatoes, artichokes, tapioca, arrowroot, cocoa, vanilla, 



pimento, pepper, pineapples, guava—all of these, and more, were hers 
when America was discovered by the white man.” 

“ Guess how they cooked potatoes at first! ” cried Roy. “ They 
thought that the balls were the part to eat and they did not like 
them any too well. When they learned enough to eat the potatoes they 
cooked them in a funny way sometimes. I asked mamma to try it but 
she said she didn’t want to waste the potatoes ! ” 

“ Why don’t you tell us how it was ?” said Ro}^ 

“ Why, they boiled and mashed the potatoes, seasoned them with 
cinnamon, nutmeg, and pepper ; then treated them with sugar, butter, 
and grape j uice ; and frosted them with rosewater and sugar. I would 
rather have plain boiled potatoes, wouldn’t you ? ” 


“ Did you find anything about their villages, Teddy ? ” 

“ Natchez Indians were first visited by La Salle in 1682, and he lound 

* large, square dwellings, built of sun-baked mud, mixed with straw. 

These were covered with dome-shaped roofs of cane, and were placed in 
regular order around an open space, or court. Two of them were larger 
and better than the rest. One was the lodge of the chief, the other was 
the temple of the Sun * * * and before it burned the perpetual fire 

* * * a strong mud wall surrounding it, planted with stakes, upon 

which were the skulls of the enemy who had been sacrificed there to the 
Sun. ’ ” 

“ What was the greatest cause of the Indian’s trouble with the white 
man, Will ? ” 

“ Worse than the white man’s deceit, or swords, or guns, was the 
‘white man’s firewater.’ The downfall of the poor Indian in that respect 
is the most eloquent sermon on temperance that ever was spoken or 
written in the history of a people. Drunkenness was unknown until the 
white man brought it to them—a fatal gift—for it has destroyed more 
than all the disease and wars, which, by the way, have come to them 
from the same source.’* 



* Who first gave it to them ? ” 

“ Henry Hudson was the first to give strong drink to the Indian,” 
answered Roy positively. “The simple red men thought that he, with 
his brilliant red coat trimmed with golden lace, must be the Great Spirit 
Himself—so fine did he appear.” 

“ Yes,” added Ernest; “ It was an evil day for the red men of Amer¬ 
ica when the ‘ Half Moon,’ manned by her picked crew, entered New 
York harbor. Even Hudson’s 
sad fate does not excuse his 
conduct, or make people for¬ 
get it.” 

“ What was that ?” asked 
Teddy. “Oh, I know. He, 
with his son and four sick men, 
were placed in a frail shallop 
and set adrift. That was in 
Hudson’s Bay, and the gloomy 
waters became his tomb and 
his monument, for the bay 
bears his name to this day.” 

“Well, I want to know 
more about his treatment of 
the Indians,” demanded Had- HENDRIK HUDSON, 

ley. “I know that he thought the Hudson river was just a passage to 

“ He was very cruel and unjust to them, and such treatment brought 
its usual result,” answered Ray. “ When he offered them the strong 
drink they would only smell of it at first. Then one of the chiefs, think¬ 
ing that they would offend the Great Spirit if they didn’t drink what he 
offered them, and being, perhaps, a little braver than his fellows, bade 
his comrades a last, solemn farewell, and drained the glass.” 

“And got drunk !” ejaculated Teddy. 

“Well, he soon began to stagger, then fell, and his friends thought 



that lie had gone to the happy hunting ground surely. They were very 
much astonished when he came to life after a little while. He told them 
that it was the strongest water that he had ever seen, and that he was 
never so happy in his life before.” 

“And that settled it! ” cried Ernest. “ Then every Indian took some, 
and it has destroyed more of them than war has done. Strong drink has 
been the curse of the red man as well as of his white brother.” 

“ To-morrow we will continue our talk, but I think we have had 
enough for this time. Do you see the moonlight on the water ? I take 
its glimmer as an invitation to take a sail in its path of light,” said Uncle 
Jack, as he went to the door of the camp. 

“You mean that the invitation comes from you, and we are all 
ready to accept it,” laughed Hadley, following him. 



“ Oh ! the gallant knights of old, for their valor so renowned ! 

With sword and lance, and armor strong, they scoured the country round; 

And whatever aught to tempt them they met by wood or wold, 

By right of sword they seized the prize—those gallant knights of old ! ” 

1,4 T 1 7E will begin where our last lesson left off,” said Uncle Jack 

V V “I think you told me that some of the white men who came 
here purchased their lands of the original owners. Who can 
tell us about this ? ” 

“ When the white men did buy their lands they did not pay much 
for them,” declared Hadley. “New York was purchased for twenty- 
four dollars’ worth of scarlet cloth, brass buttons and other trinkets, the 
real cost being about one-sixth of a cent per acre.” 

“And the pay was not always of such harmless stuff as cloth and 
trinkets,” said Ray significantly. 

“No. Mr. Turner says: 1 From the hour when Henry Hudson 
first lured the Indians on board his vessel, on the river which bears his 
name, and gave them their first taste of spirituous liquors, the whole 
history of British intercourse with the Indians is marked by the use of 
this accursed agent as a principal means of success. What do you say 
to that?” questioned Ernest. 

“ What was the Indian opinion of these things? Can you tell us. 
Roy ? ” 

“ Red Jacket said once : 4 The red man knew nothing of trouble 

until it came from the white man. As soon as they crossed the Great 
Water they wanted to take our country from us, and in return they have 
always been ready to teach us to quarrel about their religion. The 
things they teach us we do not understand, and the light they give us 

makes the straight and plain path trod by our fathers dark and dreary.’ ” 




“ But all of tlie early discoverers did not treat the Indians badly, I 
know that,” protested Will. 

“No; some of them, like Penn, purchased the lands instead of 
taking v/hat they wanted by force. In 1634 Maquacomen, a Pawtuxet 
chief of some influence, said : i I love the English so well that, if they 
should go about to kill me, if I had so much breath as to speak, I would 
command my people not to revenge my death, for I know they would do 
no such thing except it was through my own fault,’ ” answered Uncle 
Jack. “But two hundred and forty-two years later, in 1876, Sitting 
Bull, an Ogallalla Sioux, said bitterly, ‘ There is not one white man who 
loves an Indian, and not one true Indian but what hates a white man.’ 
Quite a marked difference of opinion, wasn’t it ? Ninigret, a famous 
chief and warrior, when asked to allow Christianity to be taught to his 
people said : 4 It would be better to preach it to the English until they 

are good.’ He was very fierce and proud, but perhaps he had reason 
to be.” 

“Some of their sayings are very sad, and they show the distrust 
with which they had learned to regard the white man,” said Roy. “Let 
me tell you about Menawa, who, as he left his home when his people 
were 4 Going West,’ said sadly : 1 Last evening I saw the sun set for the 
last time, and its light shone upon the tree tops and the land, and the water 
that I am never to look upon again. No other evening will come, bring¬ 
ing to Menawa’s eyes the rays of the setting sun upon the home that he 
has left forever.’ ” 


“That was not all that he said,” declared Will. “Before he went he 
took his portrait to a white man whom he called his friend, saying to 
him: 1 I am going away. I have brought you this picture; I have 
always found you true to me, but, great as my regard for you is, I never 
wish to see you in that new country to which I am going ; for, when I 
cross the great river, my desire is that I niav never again see the face oi 
a white man,’ ” 



“ Gracious, how he must have hated the race! ” ejaculated Teddy. 

“I want you to tell me why the Indians always wore blankets, and 
many of them wear them yet,” said Ernest. 

44 Oh, you want me to tell you the story of the first Indian blanket, 
do you?” laughed Teddy. “Well, I suppose I can do it. When this 
world was all new there was a man who went forth to hunt, so that he 
might help his people, but he had naught wherewith to clothe himself, 
save only a bunch of grass tied about his loins.” 

“Wasn’t he cold? ” asked Roy soberly; but Teddy went on without 
noticing the interruption. 


H4 There arose a storm, and he was cold, very cold; and he was sore 
distressed and like to die. Lo ! then of a sudden, came forth from the 
East Land what seemed to be a mighty deer, but it was really one of the 
Masters of Life in the form and person of a deer only.’ I am telling 
you this in the same words that I found, for it sounds better than I can 
tell it in my own.” 

“Nevermind that, goon,” cried Ernest impatiently. 

44 4 As he approached, he lifted his foot and moved it to and fro, as if 
in sign of peace. His antlers were wide spreading, his back was covered 
with long, thick hair, like a mantle of fur, giving him warmth, so that 
far better clothed was he than the Indian standing before him. And he 
said to the man who stood there, startled and trembling : 4 Look now, oh 
son, give heed to what I say, for I live not here only, and in this form 
which thou dost see, but lo! I live in all the six regions round about 
the world. I breathe in the wind’s breaths of all directions, and what 
though thou kill me, yet will I not be slain.’ ” 

44 Did he kill him ? ” demanded Hadley. 

44 He said: 4 Smite me, therefore, with thine arrow here,’ and he 

motioned to a spot over his heart, behind his shoulder, 4 and when I fall 

cut so, and so, and so,’ said he, pointing out in all the directions that 

ever since that day Indians have followed in taking off the skin from the 



deer. 1 When thou hast done all these things, thou shalt take the skin 
which thou hast thus lifted from off my form and stretch it over the 
ground until it becomes larger and straightened.’ ” 

“ What other direction did he give him?” asked Ray. 
u He continued :—‘Then thou shalt soften it by rubbing it between 
the hands and drawing it over the knees and feet, and when this is done 
thou shalt cut off the longer pieces which now cover my hinder legs, 
and with them make a girdle, whilst with the part that covers my back 
cover thou thy back, folding the strips that are now upon my fore legs 
over thy shoulders, and girding the broader part that hangs below thy 
waist. Thus shalt thou have a mantle wherewith to cover thee, even as 
it covers me now, from the cold and rain, and thy arms will be free for 
use, and thy legs for running as free as mine.’ ” 

“And that Indian killed him, I suppose,” ejaculated Ray. “1 
would have run, yes sir, I would, if a deer talked to me like that!” 


“ ‘ The Indian folded his arms across his breast, and bowed his head 
and breathed deeply from his hands, that he might remember and do 
these things ; but he liked not to smite the deer, and though he lifted 
his bow, he dropped it again and again, until commanded anew. Then 
quickly he drew an arrow to the head and aimed it and loosed it, and it 
sank deep in the side of the deer and he fell to the ground. Behold! 
The mists of his dying breath assumed, ere they vanished, the form of 
an ancient man-’ ” 

“ Gee whiz ! ” cried Will wildly. “ If that Indian stayed there after 
that he was pretty plucky.” 

“This man of mist said to him: ‘The rest of this form of mine 
thou shalt see freely use for thy needs and for the needs of thy people 
and children ; and thou shalt tell them everything which I have told and 
shown to thee, without omission. Thus through all ages of the world, 
as it waxeth old, there will be great numbers of my kind for, remember¬ 
ing these things, f h 0 u nor thy many children will kill us wantonly. 



Only that ye may have mantles to wear and meat to eat, will ye kill us.” 
The Indian did as he was bidden and lo ! even unto this day the deer 
endure, what though generations of men have slain them ; and the 
Indians love the mantle warm with the life of the first father of the deer 
kind, who gave it to their father when the world was new.’ ” 

“That is the best legend yet—except that of the first robin*” nod* 
ded Ray. 

“I am afraid that we are drifting 
back to legends and, while they 
may be very interesting and we might 
spend days in searching them out^ 
there are other things which are much 
more important to us now. It is the 
history of the American Indian that 
we are after, you remember,” Uncle 
Jack reminded them. “Can you tell 
me what happened in 1578, Will ? ” 

“ Sir Humphrey Gilbert sailed 
for America, but it was an ill-fated 
expedition and he lost his life. Then 
his half brother, Sir Walter Raleigh, 
a nobleman in more than name, de¬ 
termined to plant a colony in Carolina. 

He fitted out two vessels under the 
command of Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow, and sent them to explore 
the country.” 

“ How did they find the natives there, Roy ? ” 

“ Sir Walter said that‘the natives are as kindly as their climate 
and soil.’ It was these vessels sent out by him that were so kindly wel¬ 
comed at Roanoke Island by the wife of Granganimo.” 

“ Can you give the account of how she did receive them, Ernest ? 
Give it in the words of the historian.” 

“ Hakyluyt gives this letter as written by Amidas or Barlow to Sit 




Walter: ‘ The soile is most plentifull, sweete, fruitfull, and wholesome 
of all the world . . . the wife of Granganimo, the king’s brother, came 
running out to meete us very cheerfully and friendly, her husband not 
being in the village. Some of her people shee commanded to drawe our 
boate on shore for the beating of the billoe, others shee appointed to cary 
us on their backes to the dry ground, and the others to bring our oares 
into the house for feare of stealing . . ” 

“ Was that all of the story, Teddy ? ” 

“ Oh, no. He said: ‘ Shee caused us to sit downe by a greate fire, 
and after tooke off our clothes and washed them and dried them againe. 
Some of the women plucked off our stockings and washed onr feete in 
warm water, and shee herself tooke greate pains to see all things ordered 
in the best manner shee could, making greate haste to dresse some meate 
for us to eate.’ ” 

“ I would like to know what she gave them to eat,” laughed Ray. 


“ That is easy enough to find out, for the same writer goes on to 
say : ‘ After we had thus dried ourselves, shee brought us into the inner 
roome, where shee sat on the board standing along the house, some wheate 
like furmentie; sodden venison and roasted; fish, sodden, boyled, and 
roasted ; melons raw and sodden ; roots of divers kinds ; and divers fruits. 
Their drinke is commonly water, but while the grape lasteth they drink 
wine, but it is sodden with ginger in it, and black sinamon, and some¬ 
times sassaphras, and divers other wholesome and medicinable hearbes 
and trees,’ ” answered Hadley. 

“And he asserted further: ‘We were entertained with alle love and 
kindnesse, and with as much bountie, after their manner, as they could 
possibly devise. We found the people mo c t gentle, loving, and faithfull; 
voide of alle guile and treason, and such as live after the manner of the 
golden age,’ ” continued Will. 

“Amidas and Barlow were greatly pleased with the country as well 
as the inhabitants, and published glowing accounts of it when they 



reached England, so that many people wanted to go to America. The} 
took two Indians away with them—perhaps they wanted to go —they 
were Wanchese and Manteo, the latter of which was afterwards of great 
service as an interpreter. But a grave mistake was made in this busi¬ 
ness ; can you tell us what it was, Roy ? ” 

“Sir Walter Raleigh made the mistake. When Amidas and Barlow 


told what a fine country it was he resolved to send out another expedi¬ 
tion immediately, but he was not careful in selecting the men whom he 
permitted to go, any more than our emigration officers are now. The 
expedition was composed for the most part of adventurers whose heads 
were turned by the prospect of great gain, and who had little respect for 
the rights of others, especially the Indian.” 

“Sir Richard Grenville commanded the expedition,” Will con¬ 
tinued. “ They landed and went to the same place where the former ex- 



pedition had been. On the march a silver cnp was lost or stolen b} 
some of the Indians and Grenville did a very wrong thing. He ordered 
the village where the supposed thief lived to be burned and all of the 
standing corn destroyed.” 

“ And he didn’t even know that the cnp was stolen !” exclaimed 
Ray indignantly. “ What did the Indians do about it ? I guess they 
were mad.” 

“ Their first thought was for revenge, and Grenville soon returned 
to England, leaving a colony to hold the place. Those old commanders 
often had a way of leaving colonies and getting to a safer place them¬ 

“ Was that the last attempt that Raleigh made to found a settle¬ 
ment in the New World ? ” 


“No indeed, and the simple Indians who thought that, as these men 
had no women with them, they must be immortal, soon found out theix 
mistake. They grew alarmed at the growing power of the white men 
and began to plan their destruction. Governor Lane grew suspicious of 
them, too, and laid a plan which was even more treacherous than any 
plan of the savages.” 

“ What, was that ? ” asked Hadley quickly. “Those old fellows seemed 
to lay a great many such plans and carry them out, too.” 

“Why, he visited Wingina, one of the most active chiefs. The 
Indians received him kiudly, because he said that he and his men came 
to them as friends, to pay them a friendly visit. While they were talking 
he gave the signal which had been agreed on, and the white men put all 
that they could to death immediately, and Wingina was among them.” 

“Did the colony prosper after that treacherous act ?” demanded 
Teddy. “ Do you know, Hadley? ” 

“ No, they got tired of waiting for supplies, and when Sir Francis 
Drake called at the island they went off with him. Two weeks latex 
Grenville came with the expected supplies, found the place 


11 j 


deserted, and left fifteen men to hold it wliile lie went to England again, 
These men met the fate which Governor Lane gave to Wingina and his 
braves, which was only to be expected,’* 



44 Didn’t Grenville know they would?” cried Teddy. “He must 
have had an awful grudge towards those fifteen men to leave them alone 
surrounded by the Indians of Wingina’s tribe.” 

44 But Raleigh tried again to make a settlement by sending out 
women and children with the colony, under the command of Governor 
White. By this time the Indians were bitterly hostile, and White was 
soon obliged to return to England for reinforcements and supplies. His 
granddaughter, Virginia Dare, was the first English child born in the 
United States, she was born just before he left,” Ray added. 


44 What became of that colony? Did the Indians kill them, too?” 
asked Roy. 

44 When White returned, in 1590, he found no trace of them, nor has 
any certainty of their fate ever been discovered. No one knows to this 
day whether they were killed or adopted by the Indians, or whether they 
died of disease.” 

44 But there is a tradition that they were adopted into the tribe of 
Hatteras Indians and intermarried with them. People have even said 
that the looks and character of these Indians plainly prove their white 
blood,” declared Will. 

14 That would be better than to think that they were all murdered,” 
mused Roy. 

44 Well, the Indians were cruel as well as the discoverers. I don’t 
chink either party could complain much of the other,” nodded Ernest 

44 Yes, but could they excel our own ancestors in that line?” asked 
Uncle Jack pointedly. 44 1 think not. William Wallace, the Scotch 
patriot, was first hanged, cut down before he was dead, revived and tor¬ 
tured. portions of his body being cut off and burned before his eyes. 
After suffering the greatest torture, he was beheaded and his head stuck 
upon a pole on London Bridge.” 

44 1 know the rest of that!” cried Teddy. “Then his body was 



quartered, his left arm being sent to Berwick, his right to Newcastle, 
one leg to Perth, and one to Aberdeen. This was done to frighten the 
Scotch people out of trying for their liberty, but it strikes me as being 
nearly as barbarous as anything that the American Indian has ever 
done. The Indian is not much worse than other people. 


u I think this finishes our lesson for to-night, and you are excused,” 
smiled Uncle Jack. 

“Then now for our concert,” shouted Ernest. “ We’ll tune up with 
the Warrior’s song. How lucky that Uncle Jack got Alice Fletcher’s 
Indian Song and Story ! Here we go with a ‘Hi a ha ha a he a we aho 
he-e-e-e hu he a he ahe va a ho e dho he-e-e-e hu e a-a-he ya a ha e dho 
he-e-e he,’ he concluded, whirling around with the tamborine. 

“Or the prayer song before smoking the pipe,” added Teddy, softly 


singing, Wa-kon-da dka-ni ga cThe ke. Wa-kon-da dka-ni ga dhe ke, 
Wa-kon-da dka-ni ga dhe ke. E-ka dka-ni kin ga we dko ke dho.’ ” 

“I like tke laugking song best,” Hadley interrupted, springing to 
kis feet witk ‘Ha-ha-ha ka-ka ka-ka ki-ki ka-ka ki !’ as ke danced out of 
doors into tke moonligkt, followed by tke otkers witk tkeir instruments. 

“ Tke dance song isn’t bad,” asserted Roy. “‘Ni-ka wi-ta wa-gun- 
dka ti-be-no. Ni-ka wi-ta wa-gun-dka ti-be-no dko-e. Nu-da hunga. 
Ick-i-buz-zki dka-da-e dkinke de.’ ” 

“ Here’s tke song of tke Bird’s Nest,” laugked Will. ‘ Ho-o-o 
Ha-re ka-re re ka-re. Re wka-ka ka-re re ka-re wka-ka ka-re re ka-re.’ ” 
“And we will end tke concert witk tke * Higk-yi-yi High-yi’ol 
tke Ckippeway scalp dance song,” Ray was telling tkem, wken Teddy 
leaped up witk a Comancke yell and started for tke camp. Tke otkers, 
astonisked and startled, followed to see wkat tke trouble was. Tkey 
met Teddy in tke door. 

“ Now you needn’t laugk, you fellows,” ke said in a skamed way, 
before anyone could speak. “ Any of you would kave run if yon kad 
seen wkat I did, just as Ray was screecking 4 Higk-yi-yi/ too.” 

“ Wkat was it ? ” 

“ We didn’t see a thing.” 

“ Wkat did it look like? ” 

“ Wky don’t }mu tell us?” 


They exclaimed in ckorus. 

“ I did ; I saw an Indian, featkers and all, and it did take a rise out 
of me and tkat’s tke truth, but now I’m going back to see wkat it was,” 
answered Teddy boldly. 

“ Perkaps it was tke ghost of that deer,” suggested Ernest. “ I 
don’t know whether I like to hear these Indian yarns out here in tke 
woods or not, but I guess we will remember tkem better.” 

“ It does make things seem pretty real, don’t it ? ” mused Ray* 

“Where is Uncle Jack?” asked Hadley suddenly. 



“ He didn’t come in, but—-there he is now, and two men are with 
him- and one is the guide,” gasped Teddy. “And he had the feathers 
of some bird fixed on his head, and they are all laughing as if it was a 
good joke ! I’ll get even with that guide.” 

“ Tut, tut, youngster, he was only getting even with yon for your 
war dance the other night. Howsomever, it was all a happen-so except 
the feathers, and I will own up that they were stuck there on purpose 
to take a good rise out of you.” 

“ Is he an Indian ? ” whispered Ray nervously, as he pulled at the 
guide’s sleeve. 

“ That’s what he is, and you youngsters have not given me a chance 
to introduce him,” was the laughing reply. “This is old John Hunter; 
I found him at the lake doing a little trapping, and I just brought him 
along to show you fellows what a white-hearted red man is like. We 
two have guided together more times than you are years old, and I guess 
we can go another bout. He’ll stay with us awhile anyway, and I 
know that you will like him.” 

The Indian made them a short, quick bow in reply to their 
greeting, and took his place at the farther side of the camp in silence. 

“ He don’t look much like the pictures of Indians in McKenney’s 
and Hall’s history,” muttered Teddy, who could not yet forget or forgive 
his fright. 

Then the boys quietly laid away their musical instruments and 
tumbled into their berths, where they could watch a real live Indian 
without seeming to. 



“ Quiet and calm, without a fear 
Of danger darkly lurking near, 

The weary laborer left his plough— 
The milk-maid carolled by her cow —” 

“ a ^though we liave been learning something of the usage of 
L\ the Indians by the white men, we will continue our lesson 
to-night by looking further on that subject,” Uncle Jack began. 
“Wendell Philips once said that neither Greece nor Germany nor France 
nor Scotland could show a prouder record than the North American 
Indian. The Spaniards were not the only people who abused the natives 
of the new land which they coveted. French, English, Dutch, Swede—- 
all of them—regarded them as wild beasts and heathen, fit only to be 
driven about and deceived. It is no wonder that the Indians said that 
‘ the white skins have forked tongues and hawk’s fingers.’ It is a 
significant fact that Quakers had no wars with their red brethren. 
Ernest, you may begin and tell us what you know of the matter.” 

“I don’t think that the colonists were very wise, for while they were 
cheating and deceiving the Indians, they sold them the arms which 
would make them deadly foes. Sir Francis Drake treated the Indians 
of the Pacifie coast kindly and they crowned him king. Captain George 
Weymouth, who kidnapped some Indians, tells that they had great 
difficulty in getting them into the boats, and adds coolly that their best 
hold was their long hair ! ” 

“ I can tell you the story of Hatuey of Cuba,” cried Teddy eagerly. 
“When Diego de Velasquez invaded Cuba it is said that a native cacique 
named Hatuey, told his people to throw all of their gold into the sea, be¬ 
cause gold was the god of the Spaniards, and ‘ there was no place but the 
bottom of the sea which would elude their search for it.’ So they collected 

all the treasure they could and threw it into the ocean.” 



“ Afterwards Hatuey was taken and condemned to death, by burning/* 
continued Ernest. “As he stood bound to the stake, dry wood smeared, 
with pitch piled high around him, a priest came forward to baptize him 
ere he was murdered, so that he might be sure of the joys of paradise. 
‘ Do Spaniards go to that heaven ? * demanded the cacique, drawing back. 
*' Certainly, all good men do/ was the smiling reply. ‘ Then leave me, I 
will not go where there is any danger of meeting one of them/ was 
Hatuey’s startling answer, as the black smoke closed around him.” 


“ Can you tell us what was done to the other natives of the West 
Indies, Hadley?” 

u I can tell about some of them, and I suppose that the story was 
much the same in all of the islands. These Indians were nearly all 
Caribs, the same race that had so many killed on St. Vincent in 1902. 
The French settled Martinique in 1635, and drove the natives from the 
island ; they also settled St. Lucia in 1650, under a man named Rous- 
selan, who married a native woman and was greatly beloved by them, 
but they killed three of his successors.” 

“You have forgotten to tell us about the Caribs of Grenada,” Ray 
interrupted. “The French took possession of that island and were so 
cruel that, at last, the natives were despairing and desperate. Then 
they collected, what were left of them, at the top of a high rock and 
jumped off.” 

“ What did they—why they committed a wholesale suicide ! ” cried 
Will in dismay. 

“ They did it to escape the power of the terrible French—they 
thought it was the only way,” was the sad reply. 

“These few instances tell the story of the natives of the West 
Indies. They disappeared first because they were first discovered,” said 
Uncle Jack. “Now we will go on. What occurred in 1603, Roy ?” 

“ A company of merchants of Rouen sent Samuel Chamberlain to 
explore Canada. He traded with the Indians very successfully, and 



the Jesuit priests who followed him had a great influence in the 
French and English wars, in which the Indians were allies on both 

“You may tell us something about Captain John Smith, Ernest.” 

“He visited America more than once, trading with the natives and 
exploring. He made a map of the coast from the Penobscot River to 
Cape Cod, and named that country New England. It was before this 

that Captain Weymouth kid¬ 
napped the five Indians to be 
educated in England as in¬ 

“And it was shortly after 
that that Captain Hunt kid¬ 
napped a lot to be sold as 
slaves in Spain. Squanto 
was among them,” inter¬ 
rupted Teddy. 

“Smith was a great 
boaster, but he was square in 
his dealings with the Indians, 
and they liked him almost 
as much as they feared him,” 
declared Hadley. 

“ I don’t know abou# 
CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH. that,” said Ray decidedly. 

44 When the others were so homesick that they couldn’t or wouldn’t work, 
he was always at it, always generous, always cheerful, always hopeful, 
I think he had something to boast of. He helped to build the huts, 
tended the sick, and visited the Indians. The colony was saved from 
destruction by his firmness and energy, for he managed to buy corn of 
the natives, and he made the men hunt for game, saying that those who 
would not work could not eat ” 

44 When was the settlement at Jamestown made, Will? We must 



be particular in these details for it was one of the events of the Indian 
history of America.” 

“ The settlement was begun May 13, 1607, and John Smith was one 
of the leading spirits in the enterprise. He was the ‘Father of Virginia, 
and he ought to have been the first Governor of the colony, but Wing¬ 
field was chosen instead.” 

“ What was the name of the principal chief who held the country 
where they concluded to settle, Roy ? ” 

“It was Powhatan, and he lived 
near where Richmond is, on the 
bank of the river, a few miles below 
the falls. He was a very large man, 
past middle age, and had many war¬ 
riors. When his people did not want 
the whites to stay there he said: 

* They hurt you not; they only want 
a little land.’ But Governor Wing¬ 
field did not understand his business, 
the settlement was soon attacked by 
the Indians and was only saved by 
the fire from the ship.” 

“ When are you coming to Poca¬ 
hontas?” asked Ernest impatiently. 

“ It was in December, after the houses were all completed and 
a supply of corn was stored for use that Smith set out to explore 
the country. His little party went up the Chickahominy as far as they 
could in boats, then continued the journey on foot. Soon they were 
attacked by the Indians, all the men were killed and Smith was taken 
prisoner,” said Teddy. 

“The Indians suffered before they took him, though,” cried Hadley. 
“He caught one Indian with his left hand and held him as a shield 
before him, while he killed three others. They wouldn’t have got him, 
I think, but he stepped in a miry place and fell.” 



‘‘Even then his coolness saved his life, for when they were about 
to beat his brains out, he calmly took out his pocket compass and held it 
up before them. They had never seen the like of that before, and they 
thought he was a much greater man than he really was,” laughed 

“ But they condemned him to death and he was saved by Poca¬ 
hontas ! ” exclaimed Teddy. 

“So he was,” returned Hadley. “But he came very near never 
getting to Powhatan to get his death sentence—he would have been 
killed without it if it hadn’t been for that useful compass. Yes, they 
took him to the great chief, visiting all of the villages from the Chicka- 
hominy to the Potomac. For a while he was a prisoner at the home ot 
Opechancanough, where the wise men of the tribe held a three days’ coun¬ 
cil concerning his fate, medicine men performing all sorts of incantations 
over him, but he was so calm and fearless they didn’t hardly dare to put 
him to death unless the head chief said so. They treated him kindly 
enough, but gave him no chance to escape.” 


“ Yes, he amused them several days after he got to Powhatan’s home 
with that wonderful compass, and taught them many things which they 
had never known before. After they got tired of this they made a great 
fire, painted themselves in their gayest colors, all decked out in bright 
feathers, to put him to death,” said Will. 

“ Well, I want to know first what Powhatan said to him when he got 
there,” demanded Ray. 

“Oh, he received him in great state, and the braves set up a shout 
when they saw him,” answered Roy. “ A pretty young squaw brought 
him water to wash in, and another gave him feathers to dry his hands 
on. Then they brought him the best food that they had, and while he 
ate it, they began to debate on his fate.” 

“Did he know that,” questioned Will. 

“ Although he was cool and appeared to take no notice of them he 




read his doom from their gestures. As soon as they decided that he was 
to die a great log was brought in and laid before Powhatan. Smith 
was seized, dragged to the spot, and his head laid upon the log, while 
two savages stood by, armed with the terrible war clubs.” 

“ And Pocahontas saved him,” interrupted Will. 

“Yes,” smiled Ernest. “We all know that story, so there is no 
need of repeating it. The little maid was only ten or twelve years old, 
and she was the great chief’s ‘dearly beloved daughter.’ The Indians 
were astonished at such behavior in one of their children, and thought 
that it must be the will of the Great Spirit to have him live.” 

“What did they do then?” asked Boy as eagerly as if he had not 
heard the story a hundred times. 


“They let him go about the camp as the servant of the little girl 
who had saved him, and the mighty Powhatan begged him to come and 
live with them. He even tried to get him to help them attack the colony, 
but before Smith left he had agreed to be friends with the whites ‘foi 
his sake’ ” answered Teddy. 

“Did he stay long with the Indians ?” asked Uncle Jack. 

“No ; they soon allowed him to go, making him promise that he 
would send Powhatan a grindstone and two cannons,” replied Hadley. 
“ But while he was a prisoner he learned their language and customs 
and taught them many things.” 

“ Did he give them cannon ?” 

“ No, but some Indians went with him to bring them back. When 
they reached Jamestown he told them to lift one of the largest ones and 
they could nol do it, neither could they lift the grindstone. Then Smith 
had the cannons fired, and they were so frightened that they declared 
they wouldn’t take them home—which was just what Smith wanted. 
But he gave them other gifts for Powhatan and sent them back to the 
tribe,” Roy replied. 

“ Did they keep the promise to be friends, Teddy ?” 


“Yes, Smiths adventure was a blessing, for if the colonists had 
been at war through the winter they must have died of starvation, brl 
now Pocahontas came with corn every little while. Smith was able to 
purchase supplies from the natives and to explore the country in safety. 5 ' 

“ What became of Pocahontas, or Matoaka ?—that was her real name. 5 ' 

“She saved Smith’s life more than once and was a true friend to the 
colony. As long as Smith was with them the Indians were friendly, but 
after he left the colony they would no longer furnish food, and became 
hostile in many ways. Once they planned to attack the town and kill 
all of the inhabitants, but Pocahontas warned them in the night at the 
risk of her own life. To repay her for this Captain Argali took hei 
prisoner and demanded a ransom of her father,” answered Hadley. 

“ What happened then ?” 


“ Powhatan prepared for war and would not pay a ransom for his 
child. Three months passed, and in that short time the Indian girl was 
baptized, joined the church, and was shortly married to John Rolfe, 
with whom she went to England and was known at Court as the Lady 
Rebecca. She died, leaving one son, who came to Virginia, settled at 
Henrico, and was quite influential. He had a daughter who married 
Colonel Robert Bolling. She had a son, Major John Bolling, who left 
many children, from whom descended some of the best families in Vir¬ 
ginia, proud of their relationship to the Indian girl of history,” 
added Ray. 

“ That Captain Argali was a wild, daring adventurer, we should 
call him a pirate now. He would sail along the coast, stopping now and 
then to attack an Indian village, and seize the women and children to sell 
as slaves. When he took Pocahontas, Powhatan was furious, although 
he did not offer to ransom her. There would have been another Indian 
war in history if she had not married John Rolfe, just as she did,” 
said Will. 

“ But all is well that ends well—he made peace with the settlers on 



account of that marriage* 
and he tried to keep that 
peace as long as he lived. 
But the white men did 
hot know how to use the 
red men, and Indians 
surely had no great love 
for them, so he did not 
always succeed. Still the 

' :pd 

^ ^ ' 1 

colony prospered and little villages sprang up along the James River, 
extending far into the wilderness,” Roy concluded. 



“ Powhatan had a brother, Opechancanough, who became head 
chief after his death. He was the one that Smith seized by the scalp- 
lock and threatened to shoot if any of his men were harmed,” laughed 

“ That was one time when Smith discovered a plot to kill the whites, 
and they were completely surrounded by the Indians,” nodded Teddy. 


“ Well, anyway the Indians were scared into peace for a while 
longer. Smith took many ways to gain power over them, and sometimes 
accidents helped him queerly,” said Hadley. “ Let me tell you about 
the pistol and the charcoal. An Indian stole a pistol and Smith seized 
his two brothers as pledges ; he sent one of them after the pistol telling 
him that his brother would be hanged in twelve hours if he didn’t fetch 
it back.” 

“That was pretty hard lines, I call it,” exclaimed Ray. “Did he 
bring it ? ” 

“Wait and see. They put the Indian prisoner in a dungeon, and 
Smith pitied him enough to send him something to eat and some char¬ 
coal for a fire. The brother returned with the pistol in time, but they 
found the poor fellow in the dungeon nearly stupefied by the fumes of 
the coal, besides being badly burned. 

“ What did Smith do then ? ” asked Will. 

“He very coolly told the brother that, if he would promise never to 
steal again, he would bring him to life ! This was easy enough, and 
Smith got more credit than he deserved. The news spread like wildfire, 
and all of the Indians thought that the white chief could bring the dead 
to life ! So they were glad to keep the peace.” 

“ I think that we will have the accounts of the wars with Opechan¬ 
canough now, although his first massacre was in 1622. It seems to 
come in connection with what we have been talking about. Smith had 
returned to England and Powhatan was dead. Opechancanough thought 
that he had reason to hate the white men, as he did, because they had 



taken possession of tke best lands that the Indians had, without a 
thought of their rights. Can you tell me about that time, Roy ?” 

“The Indians pretended to be friendly and even declared that the 
sky would fall before they would molest their white neighbors and 
brothers ! They brought the settlers presents of game, and some of the 
savages were in the homes of those whom they were to kill when the 
fatal hour arrived.” 

“ Opechancanough thought that something must be done, and so he 
decided on a war of extermination. He collected about fifteen hundred 
warriors, and the whites numbered about four thousand. The Indians 
made up their lack of numbers with deceit, for while making the settlers 
believe that they were friends, they set a date when all of the settle¬ 
ments were to be attacked at one time,” continued Ray. 


M In an hour’s time 347 men, women, and children were slain, the 
distant plantations being entirely destroyed, and out of eighty little 
clusters of happy homes only eight remained,” said Hadley. 

“ I can tell you a story about that time !” cried Will. “Some years 
before that a hungry Indian lad was fed, clothed, and kept in the family 
of a settler for some time. Their home was burned while the fathei 
was away, and the wife and children were taken prisoners. The Indian 
boy, now a warrior, claimed them for his slaves, treated them kindly, 
and sent them home as soon as he could safely do so.” 

“ It was a great blow for Virginia,” Ernest went on. “ What white 
men there were left began to hunt the Indians like wild beasts, shooting 
them at sight, whether innocent or guilty, destroying their towns and 
fields of corn, and their fishing nets as well. At last they hunted them 
with bloodhounds, which had been trained to tear them in pieces when 
they caught them. This was a terrible war, and lasted many years, the 
[ndians being as cruel and treacherous as it was possible for savage 
men to be.” 

u That wasn’t the last of Opechancanough,” declared Teddy, “ In 




1644 lie planned another outbreak, and three hundred more people were 
killed. He was now an old, old man, who had to be carried upon a littei 
borne upon the shoulders of his young men. He was taken prisoner 
and served as a show in Jamestown for a time, before he was assassinated 
by one of his guards. He said to Governor Berkerley : ‘ Had it been 

my fortune to have taken you prisoner, I would not meanly have ex¬ 
posed you as a show to my people.’ ” 

“ Poor old Opechancanough! He did not remember that the 
Indians had grown weaker in twenty years while the English had been 
growing stronger. He was feared by his enemies and loved by his 
people to the last,” added Hadley. 


“ Then, for more than ten years, the warfare continued, for the 
whites resolved to ‘ destroy the Indians entirely or drive them into the 
interior,’ and the Indians declined to be destroyed or driven. It was a 
merciless war on both sides, and the defenceless settlers were the 
sufferers. Many a family were aroused from peaceful slumber to be 
hurled into eternity and burned with their blazing homes, and this was 
the kindest treatment which they could receive at the hands of theii 
relentless enemies,” continued Ray. 

“ Here is a good story of that time, which shows that some Indians 
were friendly while others were on the warpath,” Teddy began. 
“ McDougal was a Scotchman who settled on the frontier. One day, 
while he was from home, his wife went to look for the cows and was lost 
in the woods. An Indian hunter found her and knew her. He could 
not talk English much, so made signs for her to follow him, and she did 
not dare to refuse. He led her to his wigwam, and his wife divided the 
wigwam with deer skins and made her a bed to rest on. The next 
morning the hunter found the cows and led her to the edge of the clear¬ 
ing where her home was.” 

“ That wasn’t all of that story,” declared Will. “ A little while 
after that he came and tried to get the Scotchman and his wife to follow 



him. When he saw that they would not do so he seized their baby and 
ran into the woods with it. Of course they followed and he led them to 
the edge of a beautiful valley where he gave them the child and said in 
broken English : ‘ Yon think Indian steal child ; no, no, him have child 
his own. You kind to Indian ; give him meat, and drink and clothes. 
Indian want you come here ; no come ; Indian sorry ; take child, for 
know then you come quick ; here good ground, few trees ; make road in 
half a moon. Indians friends, help you, come here.’ McDougal saw 
that the Indian was right and took his advice gladly. The Indian kept 
his word to the letter. He brought a party of his comrades, helped to 
build a new cabin, to move the family to it, and was always friendly 
with them.” 

“ Oh, there are Indians and Indians, and there are white men and 
white men—good and bad of both races,” observed Teddy very wisely, 
u The trouble is to pick them out.” 

“ I see that you like the stories better than the wars, and I think 
that we will have a story lesson to-morrow night. After that you must 
take the Indian history by the historical dates and look it up faithfully/* 
smiled Uncle Jack, with a signal of dismissal, 



" You plough the Indian’s grave; you till his land— 

Is there no blood, white man, upon your hand? ” 

66 A /OU have already told us ho\» 
the early discoverers treated 
the Indians, bnt yon may 
repeat it, Hadley,” Uncle Jack said 
when they were all ready for the 
lesson to begin. 

“ The Spaniards tortured and 
killed their Indian guides for not 
leading them to great treasures, for 
they thought that these surely ex¬ 
isted in the land which they had 
found. They took provisions from 
them whenever they wanted to, 
whether they had any left for them¬ 
selves or not.” 

u And that wasn’t the worst that 
they did,” interrupted Ray. “They 
cut off their hands, burned them at 
the stake, and set the bloodhounds 
after them if they tried to get away. They chained them in pairs and 
made them carry their baggage.” 

41 Can you tell us why they were so cruel, Will ?” 
u It was not so much that they delighted in such things, but they 
were very selfish and regarded the Indians as beasts rather than as 

human beings, neither did they count on such retaliation as they made.” 




44 But the Indians did not believe all that they told them,” Ray 
declared. “ For, when De Soto tried to make the Natchez Indians 
think that he was a child of the sun, a chief made this answer :— 1 Dry 
up the river and we will believe yon. If you wish to see me come to 
the town where I dwell. If yon come in peace I will receive you with 
special good will; if in war I will not shrink one foot back.’ ” 

“De Soto was not the only one who used the Indians badly,” Ray 
protested. “In 1660 Governor Berkerley was making money in the fur 
trade in Virginia and was afraid to punish some dissatisfied Indians 
who were causing considerable trouble, because they were bringing so 
many skins to him. A settler who was fatally wounded said that the 
Doeg Indians did it. So the other settlers immediately started in pursuit 
and came to a Doeg wigwam, where they killed eleven persons,” Will 

“And what do you think?” cried Teddy. “They said:— 4 It is 

more than likely that they were the murderers’—they were not sure of it.” 


“ Then another party of settlers came to a wigwam and opened fire af 
once. After they had killed fourteen they found out that the Indians 
were friendly Susquehannahs instead of hostile Doegs. And, strange to 
relate, the Susquehannah tribe resented this act and called it a murder 
by white men ! ” Ray continued. 

“That was very strange ! Were they rash enough to do anything 
about it ? ” asked Uncle Jack. 

u Six chiefs were called to council. A fresh outrage was discovered 
and five of them were put to death for it, although they were not at the 
place where it happened! The result was an uprising of many tribes,” 
answered Will. 

“ And the white men fooled them in every way that they could 
Yon see the Indians believed what they told them at the first,” said Ray. 
“ Once a white man sold an Indian a quantity of gunpowder, telling him 
to plant it like corn, and he would raise plenty without buying. It did 



not come up. Then the Indian cunningly contrived to get into debt to the 
white man, and did not hasten to pay. When the white man ashed him 
for the money he coolly answered—‘ Me pay you when my powder 
grows.’ ” 

“ In bright contrast to these accounts are the labors of love which 
Fere carried on among the Indians, by which many learned the Chris¬ 
tian religion. John Eliot was one of the foremost missionaries, and 
won the name of ‘ the Apostle Eliot.’ He translated the Bible into the 
Indian language, he taught them to read and write, he taught the 
women to spin and weave, and the men the art of agriculture. He gave 
them a code of laws and appointed a justice to administer them.” 

“ I know, and the first justice was named Waban,” interrupted 
Teddy. “He was said to be speedy and impartial, but he gave rather 
queer summons. His warrants were all verbal and were something like 
this: ‘ You big constable, quick you catch um Jeremiah Offscow, strong 
you hold um, safe you bring um afore me, Waban Justice Peace.’ ” 


“ It was not in war alone that cruelties were practiced,” added Ray. 
“Squando, chief of the Sokokis tribe, lived near Saco. His wife and child 
were in a canoe, which the woman was paddling along. Some English 
sailors saw her, seized the canoe, and told her that they had heard that 
Indian babies would not sink and wanted to see if it was true. They 
overturned the canoe and the child sank. The mother rescued it but it 
died, and it was queer, but the father tried to arouse the Indians to a war 
of extermination. Still one instance is on record where he rescued a 
captive white girl and sent her home.” 

“Just listen to this ! ” cried Hadley. u A Kennebec Indian, friendly 
and industrious, lost his child, and a little while afterwards he said 
to a white neighbor : When white man’s child die, Indian man he be sorry, 
he help bury him. When my child die, no one speak to me—I make his 
grave alone. I can no live here.’ And he took the child up, and carried 
it with him, over two hundred miles through the woods, to Canada 19 





“ In tlie Rockaway conference between the Indian chiefs and the 
envoys of the colonies, one of the head chiefs arose, holding a bundle of 
sticks in his hand, and said to them : ‘ When yon first came to our 
shores yon were destitute of food. We gave yon our beans and corn, we 
fed you with oysters and fish, now yon murder our people;’ he laid down 
one of the sticks and continued : ‘ The traders whom your first ships 
left on our shores were cherished by ns as the apple of our eye. We gave 
them our daughters for their wives, and among those whom yon have 
murdered were those of your own blood;’ another stick was laid beside 
the first, and so he continued until all of the sticks had been placed to 
bear witness to a wrong. But the war went on for two more relentless 
and bloody years,” Ray continued. 


“ You know how Oglethorpe used the Indians of Georgia, and how 
fully they returned his kindness and trust. Not only the Yamacraws, 
but the Muskogees, the Creeks, the Cherokees, the Oconees, and the 
Choctaws ‘ were well pleased with his frank and kind manner of dealing 
with them, and trusted implicitly in the promises which he made them.’ 
What was that story about the Yamacraw chief, Ernest ? ” 

u His name was Tomochichi, and he brought Oglethorpe a fine 
buffalo skin, on the inside of which the feathers and head of an eagle 
were painted. He gave it to him with these significant words :—‘ Here 
is a little present for you. The feathers of the eagle are soft and signify 
love ; the buffalo skin is warm and is the emblem of protection ; therefore 
love and protect our little families.’ ” 

“ William Penn purchased his lands of the king and also of the In¬ 
dians who lived on it, and it is an historical fact that not a drop of Quaker 
blood was ever knowingly shed by the Indians—in all of the Indian wars ! 
I read how a Quaker family was spared once when all around them were 
murdered, and when they dared to venture out of doors they found a 
white feather over their door,” added Will. 

u That shows what a very little thing will save a body sometimes. 



What if the feather had blown away ? I found an instance where a prisoner 
called out in the Quaker dialect and was spared, although the wood was 
all ready to burn him at the stake. And he wasn’t a Quaker either— 
he fooled them ! ” cried Ray. 

“ The Indians could be good to each other as well as to the whites,” 
said Teddy. “Once a Sioux chief found a member of a hostile tribe 
stealing his traps. The thief expected to be killed at a second’s warning, 
but the Sioux said :—‘ Be not alarmed, I come to present you with the 
trap of which I see that you stand in need. You are welcome to it. Take 
my rifle also, for I see that you are poor and have none of your own. 
Depart with it to the land of your countrymen, and linger not here, lest 
some of my young men, who are panting for the blood of their enemies, 
should discover your footsteps in our hunting grounds and should fall 
upon you and kill you.’ He handed him his rifle and returned to the 
village, of which he was the chief, alone and unarmed.” 


(l Did you read about the missionary who met the Indian in the 
forest ? ” asked Hadley. “The Indian wanted to know why he was there 
and he replied confidently: ‘ I am traveling to the homes of your brothers, 
to teach them the knowledge of the only true God, and to lead them to 
happiness and peace.’ ‘Happiness and peace!’the Indian cried, his 
eyes flashing fire. ‘ Behold the blessings which follow in the footsteps 
of the white man ! Wherever he comes the red men of the forest fade 
away like the mists of the morning ! Our people once roamed in free¬ 
dom through the woods, and hunted the beaver, the elk, and the bear 
unmolested. From the further side of the Great Water came the white 
man, armed with thunder and lightning. In war he hunted us like 
wild beasts; in peace he destroyed us by deadly liquors. Depart, 
dangerous man, and may the Great Spirit protect you on your journey 
homeward ; but I warn you to depart.’ ” 

“ I think that the prophet of the Alleghany knew what he was 
talking about when he said : ‘ Hear me, oh my people, for the last time 1 



What will be the fate of our tribes ? In a little while they will go the 
way that their brethren have gone. They will vanish like a vapor from 
'he face of the earth. Their very history will be lost, and the places 
vhich know them now will know them no more forever. We are driven 
Jack until we can retreat no further ; our hatchets are broken ; our bows 
are snapped ; our fires are extinguished. A little longer the white mat] 
will cease to prosecute us, for we shall have ceased to exist!’ ” said Ray. 

“ Who can read the story of Logan and blame him for fighting the 
whites ? ” questioned Will. “ Madokowondo was a chief of the Penobscot 

tribe who was friendly 
to the whites until 
they destroyed his 
corn, and did him 
other injuries which 
he went to war to re¬ 
venge. Magus was 
a squaw sachem of 
the Narragansetts, 
who was captured 
and put to death by 
the English during 
King Philip’s war.” 
“Step by step the 
Indian has been driven from the land of his fathers, move by move 
has he been obliged to make towards the setting sun. In nearly all of 
the frontier wars the settler has been the one who gave cause for the war 
by taking the Indian’s lands, legally if he could, but any way to get it I 
They took their lands for just what they chose to give, and the simple 
red men thought that they were selling the right to use the lands in 
common with themselves. They had no idea of selling the land out* 
right and debarring themselves from it forever, and they could not 
understand how it could be so,” Ray added quickly. 

“Som^ commissioners once went to treat with a certain tribe cob- 




cernin g another ‘ removal,’ as their lands were wanted in the onward rush 
of settlement. The chief heard their arguments in silence. Then 
one of them seated himself upon a log which was already occupied 
by one of the commissioners. The log was quite a long one, and 
the farther end overhung a steep rock, with jagged stones at the 
bottom of the descent. The Indian began to quietly crowd the com¬ 
missioner along the log, the others looking on in grave silence, with faces 
that completely concealed their thoughts and purpose. Finally the end 
of the log was reached and the puzzled commissioner started to get up. 
The chief laid his hand on his arm and said significantly:—‘ No, brother. 
Move on ! ’ ‘ I cannot, I have arrived at the end,’ answered the com¬ 

missioner, very unwisely. 1 That is it,’ was the stern reply of the old 
chief. ‘We cannot move further,—we have reached the end!’ There 
is a whole lesson in that, isn’t there, Uncle Jack?” asked Teddy 


u Pachgantschilias, a Delaware chief, once said wisely :— 4 1 admit 
that there are good white men, but they bear no proportion to the bad; 
the bad must be the strongest, for they rule. * * * They enslave 

those who are not of their own color * * * they would make slaves 

of us if they could, but as they cannot do that, they will kill us ! There 
is no faith to be placed in their words. They are not like the Indians, 
who are enemies only while in war, and are friends in peace. * * * 

Remember that this day I have warned you to beware of such friends as 
these. I know the Longknives, they are not to be trusted ! ’ Quite com* 
plimentary, wasn’t it? ” laughed Ray. 

“To my mind, Joseph, the Nez Perces chief, was wisest and best of 
all that I have read about,” Ernest declared. He said :—‘ The Great 
Spirit Chief who rules above seems to be looking the other way, and does 
not see what is being done to my people. I know that my race must 
change. We cannot hold our own with the white man as we are. We 
only ask an even chance to live as other men live. We ask to be recog- 



nized as men. If the Indian breaks the law, punish him with the law ; 
if the white man breaks the law punish him also. We ask that the same 
law shall be alike to all mend ” 

“ That was when the white folks were trying to make them i move 
on/ and there was some sense in the talk—don’t you think so?” asked 
Will. “ Was that all of his speech ? ” 

“ Oh no. He continued :— £ Let me be a free man, free to think, act 


and talk for myself, and I will obey every law or submit to the penalty. 
When white men treat the Indians as they treat each other, then we shall 
have no more wars. Then the Great Spirit Chief, who rules above, will 
smile upon this land, and will send rain to wash from the face of the 
earth the bloody stains made by brothers’ hands. For this the Indian 
race is waiting and praying.’ ” 

“ Still one of the reverend fathers of early times wrote : £ The Lord 



God of our fathers hath given to us the land of the heathen people, 
amongst whom we live, for a rightful inheritance.’ I wonder what he 
would have said if he would have been one of the ‘ heathen people ! f 
That was one trouble, they called all of their cruel deeds the Lord’s will* 
and tried to see how bad they could be. I wouldn’t wonder if the angels 
wept at what they laid to the Lord sometimes ! ” protested Teddy. 

“Why Teddy Morse!” exclaimed Roy. 

“I meant just what I said,” he nodded firmly. “I wouldn’t wondet 
if they did.” 

“We will look over the principal Indian events since 1862 and see 
where the blame lies. We can easily find out about them. It was in 
1862 that the Sioux massacred over six hundred men, women and chil¬ 
dren, besides killing nearly a hundred soldiers. Why ? ” asked 
Uncle Jack. 

“ Because the money due them was not paid when it was due,” 
answered Ernest promptly. 


“ In 1864, there was the Sand Creek massacre of nearly one hundred 
and fifty Indians, mostly women and children, and they were, in a way, 
under the protection of the United States Government at the time they 
were murdered by men under Colonel Chivington and Major Anthony. 
Why ? ” 

“That isn’t an easy question to answer, as they were at the place 
where they were told to go as non-combatants. And the United States 
flag was flying over Black Kettle’s tent, with a white flag under it at the 
time,” replied Will. 

“ Well, perhaps we shall see something more about that. Then 
there was the Fetterman massacre, when the Sioux got over eighty 
soldiers in an ambuscade and none escaped, in 1866. In 1868, the Chey¬ 
ennes, Arrapahoes, Kiowas, Camanches and some Brule and Ogal 
lalla Sioux were on the warpath. In 1873, Colonel Baker’s men 
massacred one hundred and seventy-three Pieg^ns, and fifty-three 0/ 



them were women and children. This was followed by the treacherous 
murder of the Peace Commissioners the same year. And it was in 187c 


chat General Custer and all of his command were hilled at the Big Horn.” 

“ I have always wanted to know how they could tell so much about 
that fight if every one was killed,” observed Roy. 



“ An old trapper named Ridgely was a prisoner in Sitting Bull’s 
camp at the time that General Custer attacked it. He was probably the 
only man who witnessed the fight and lived to tell of it,” answered 
Uncle Jack. “ In 1874, the Hulapais were sent to a new home which was 
so unhealthy that they ran away from it to prevent utter extermination* 
and we all know about the disgraceful ‘ removal ’ of the Poncas. What 
happened in 1877 ?” 

“The Nez Perces war. It was caused by trying to force a portion 
of that nation, the lower Nez Perces, who had been guilty of no depre¬ 
dations against the whites, to go to the Lapwai reservation instead of 
letting them return to their own homes which had never been purchased 
from them,” answered Hadley. 


“The wars with the Chiricahua Apaches have been caused by try¬ 
ing to compel them to go to the San Carlos agency, an unhealthy place 
for these free Indians of the mountains, and already occupied by bands 
hostile to them. That was also the cause of the wars with the Mimbre- 
nos Apaches. What about the Nothern Cheyennes ? ” 

“They did not want to stay in the Indian Territory, as it was not 
healthy for them there, and a war was the result. And the White 
Mountain Coyoteros were always friendly to the whites, but that didn’t 
save them from being removed from their farms to the unhealthy valley 
of the Gila. In despair they gave up farming and became almost 
demoralized, where they had been making great progress in their old 
homes,” answered Ray. 

“What about the Modoc war and the Sioux war of 1876?” 

“The Modoc war was caused by trying to keep them on a reserva¬ 
tion with the Klamaths, with whom they could not live peacefully, noi 
would they be able to raise any food for themselves. The Sioux war was 
caused by trying to drive them from the Powder River country, which 
had been guaranteed to them for a hunting ground, and there was but 
very little game on their regular reservation,” Rruest replied. 



* c These few instances speak the tale of our numerous Indian wars, 
for they all have much the same cause. We shall hear more about 


them under their proper date, but nothing different from what I have 
stated. How many Indians are in the United States ? ” 



“There were about two hundred and seventy thousand in 1886. 
That was partly by estimation, for some of them do not like to be 
counted and make a bother about it if they can,” responded Teddy. 

“Who can tell me how many were here when America was dis¬ 
covered ? ” 

“ There are many opinions about that, and I reckon no one knows 
how to answer that question. Dodge says that there were possibly a 
million, but probably not half of that number, and I guess he knows as 
much about it as any one,” answered Hadley. 

“ Did the Pueblos ever rebel, Ray ? ” 

“Yes, when their territory became a part of the United States they 
committed their one offence against the government, and in that they 
were led on by the Mexicans. But only the Taosan band was concerned 
in the uprising.” 


“Will, what of the Mission Indians of California?” 

“ Under the priests they were happy and contented, and were 
advancing in the ways of civilization, but they have been used badly, and 
are a miserable people now. They were skilled workmen in almost every 
branch, and their labor created the buildings and fertile fields of the 
Missions, which have become government property without recompense 
to the founders. For some time they were sold with the land they occu¬ 
pied and considered themselves slaves like the negroes in the South. 

“I don’t know exactly where this story belongs,” said Hadley 
“ But it is a good one and I thought I would tell it to you. The first 
settler of Whitesborough was one Mr. White, and there were Indians in 
the vicinity with whom he had smoked the pipe of peace, but who did 
not exactly trust his professions of friendship. So Shenandoah, one of 
the tribe, went to the house and said:—I am come to ask for your little 
daughter to take home with me to-night.’ The mother was frightened 
and was about to refuse the request, but the father smiled and granted it 



“ Why did he do so ?” demanded Roy. “ Wasn’t he afraid to ?” 

“ He was afraid not to. It would not have saved the child to refuse, 
if the Indians were going to kill them, and he saw that it might do 
much good to grant the request,—just as it did. The chief took the 
little girl by the hand, saying:—‘To-morrow, when the sun is high in 
he heaven, I will bring her back.’ ” 

“ Did that make them feel any better about it?” asked Ray. 

“ Not very much. The poor mother did not sleep that night, think¬ 
ing of the possible fate of her child. And she watched, almost without 
hope, until the sun reached the noon mark, then she saw them coming 
•from the woods, the little girl all decked out in feathers, beaded 
moccasins and shells. From that time the Indians were their friends 
and fully repaid the trust which the father had put in them. Shenandoah 
lived to be over a hundred years old, and fought with the Americans in 
the Revolution, when his influence brought many of his tribe with him. 
He was called 4 The White Man’s Friend’ and saved more than one 
lonely settlement by timely warnings.” 

“ I shouldn’t think you did know where that story belongs!” 
ejaculated Ray. “It belongs to the Revolution times.” 

“Well, it is told now, so what difference does it make?” was the 
laughing retort. 

“Another concert to-night?” inquired Uncle Jack, with twink¬ 
ling eyes. 

“Yes, we will finish what we began last night,” cried Teddy, with 
a defiant look at the guide who was talking with the Indian in the moon¬ 
light by the river. He arose and came to the camp at these words. 

“ Hold on there, youngsters, put up your drums and tooters. John 
is going to give us a war-dance, the real thing as he used to see it when 
he was a kid, and he don’t want any of your music to dance to, either. 
Take a seat and keep quiet,”he said. 

And that dance was something which they dreamed of, but they 
never asked to have it repeated. 



Our fortress is the good green wood. 

Our tent the cypress tree ; 

We know the forest round us 
, As seamen know the sea.” 

ELL, what is the subject of our lesson 
to-night?” asked Uncle Jack, with an 
inquiring look around the circle of eager, 
boyish faces. “I think yon begin to like history for 
its own sake, young men.” 

“Indeed we do—with yon to help ns understand 
it,” returned Will gratefully. 

“The coining of the Pilgrims is next,” cried 
Ernest. “It was a superstitions fact that the Puritans 
thought that every victory was a direct blessing from God, and a defeat 
was a punishment for some sin or omission. At one time, when nine 
settlers were killed, the Reverend Increase Mather said : 1 This Provi¬ 

dence is observable that the nine men who were killed at that time 
belonged to nine different towns. It is as if the Lord saith that He 
hath a controversy with each plantation, and therefore that all have 
need to repent and reform their ways.’ So I suppose they thought that 
their wars with the Indians were something which they could not avoid.” 

“ It seems to me that they did not have as many wars with them as 
some of the other colonies did anyhow,” said Teddy thoughtfully. 
“Perhaps they used them better, more like human beings.” 

“Hadley, you may begin with the time when the Mayflower lay at 
anchor in Plymouth harbor, while a party of the Puritans explored the 
coast for a suitable place to begin their settlement. You can tell us 
what they found.” 

“ They found a little corn and an Indian graveyard. When they 




had followed the shore about a mile they saw several natives watching 
them curiously, and advanced towards them, but they ran away into the 
forest as soon as they found that they were discovered. The Puritans 
followed but could not overtake them, so they went into camp there for the 


“ It was this time that Mr. Bradford was caught in a deer trap,” 
laughed Ray. 

“ I never heard of such a thing,” exclaimed Will in surprise. 
“What was it ? Tell us about it if you know.” 

u Oh, it wasn’t a steel one you needn’t think. It was made by 



Dending the top of a sapling to the earth, and fastening it in such a way 
' it would he released when a person or animal, passing by, stepped 
in to a noose, which was cunningly concealed by dry leaves and rubbish. 
I knew a man down in Maine that got caught in one once, and would 
have been hung up all night if some one hadn’t happened to come that 
way and help him out. Yon see, when the tree was released they found 
themselves between the earth and sky the first thing they knew, and 
that’s the way that the Indians used to catch large game sometimes.” 

“ Did they stay in that place long ? ” 

“ No, they took the corn which they found in a pit, and carried it to 
the ship to save for seed, but they did not steal it, for afterwards they 
found out what Indians it belonged to and paid them for it,” answered Roy. 


“ Did they go out again to explore the coast before they landed, and 
what adventure did they have, Ernest ? ” 

“They made a shallop before they went, then skirted the coast foi 
some distance. They went as far as the bottom of Cape Cod bay and 
landed there, a part of them going along the shore by land, while the 
others followed with the boat. They found Indian graves and deserted 
wigwams, but saw no natives.” 

“They saw some the next morning though,” cried Teddy. “ They 
encamped near Nantasket that night and just as they had finished 
their prayers in the morning, they were startled by an Indian war- 
whoop, and the arrows began to fall around them in an uncomfortable 

“ These Indians were under a chief called Aspinet,” continued 
Hadley, “and they ran away as soon as the Puritans fired their muskets. 
Some of the histories say that Captain Miles Standish shattered the arm 
of a big warrior, who gave such a yell that they all followed him as he 
fled, but I don’t know how they knew it.” 

“They found it out after they got acquainted with the Indians— 
that’s easy enough,” said Ernest, shrugging his shoulders. 



“Can you tell us of any possible reason why tbe Indians should 
attack them, Ray ? ” 

“Why, some of their people had been kidnapped a few years before 
that, and taken away to be sold as slaves, and they thought that the 
Puritans were after more of them. Was it any wonder that they wanted 
to drive them away from their land ? ” 

“Yes, they were mad because Weymouth and Hunt had been kid¬ 
napping all along that coast,” nodded Roy. “It was about 1616 when 
Captain Hunt took over twenty natives, with their chief, Squanto, to 
Spain and sold them as slaves.” 

“Not Squanto, the Indian that aided the Pilgrims ?” ejaculated 


il Yes, that very one, and all things considered it was a lucky thing 
for the white men, for he learned to be an interpreter, and he wouldn’t 
have been if he had never been kidnapped,” Roy went on. “He was 
bought by some kind monks who educated him, and he escaped to Eng¬ 
land, where he learned the English language before returning to his 
native home.” 

“Some of the histories say that Tisquantum was Squanto, and that 
he was carried off by Weymouth in 1605. Perhaps there were two of 
the same name and one was taken by Hunt,” suggested Will. 

“ What aid the Puritans say about this man? ” asked Uncle Jack. 

“They thought that he ‘ was a special instrument sent of God fol 
their good beyond their expectation.’ He taught them how to raise 
corn, putting a fish or two in each hill to fertilize it, and how to hunt 
and fish. He was their interpreter and always a true friend. Hobbomak 
was another friend to the white men. He became a servant to Miles 
Standish, and served him faithfully for over twenty years,” answered 

“ Wait, you are getting ahead of the times, young men. Did they 
see any more of the Indians before they landed at Plymouth and built 
their houses, Ernest ?” 

milks standish and the pilgrims. 


“ I think not. The next Indian visit that I read of was in March, 
1621, when the colony was much surprised and startled to see an Indian 
walk boldly into the village, but they were more amazed when he 
greeted them in English, saying: ‘Welcome, Englishmen.’ He belonged 
to the Wampanoag tribe, his name was Samoset, and he had learned a 
few English words of the fishermen at Penobscot.” 

“ Is that all about him, Hadley ? ” 

u Oh no. He told them that some time before that time a pesti¬ 
lence, something like our yellow fever, had swept among the tribes from 
the Penobscot River to the Narragansett Bay, and that nearly all of the 
natives had perished of it. That they could possess the land in peace, 
as the red men who had owned it had gone to the happy hunting 
ground. He remained that night and went away to his people in the 
morning, taking the presents which they gave him.” 


“ What sort of presents were they ? ” asked Ray curiously. 

“ Oh, they gave him a ring, a bracelet, and a knife, and he went 
back to his people, saying that he would soon return and bring others to 
trade with them. That was the beginning of the barter trade with the 
Indians in New England,” answered Will. 

“ Was that his last visit, Roy ? ” 

“No indeed. He was afterwards of great service to the Puritans. 
In a few days he came back with the Indian called Squanto. They told 
the settlers that the great and powerful chief, Massasoit, with his brother, 
Quadequina, and sixty warriors of the tribe, were coming to visit them. 
And, in fact, they were right at their heels.” 

“ Weren’t the Puritans afraid then ? ” asked Ernest. 

“No. Captain Standish knew what he was about. He would not 
let many of the Indians come into the village at one time, but Edward 
Winslow had to go and stay with the warriors as a hostage while the 
chief stayed in the settlement,” replied Teddy. 

“ What can you tell ns about this tribe of Indians, Hadley ? ” 



“They were not a very numerous tribe, and they had their head¬ 
quarters where Bristol, R. I., is now. I guess that they roamed all 
through Massachusetts and Rhode Island—they did anyway in the 
time of King Philip’s war.” 


“What sort of a man was this great Indian chief? What was his 
character, and how did he appear? ” 

“John S. C. Abbott says of him;—‘ He was a remarkable man, 
majestic in statue, in the prime of life, of grave and stately demeanor, 
reserved in speech, and ever proving faithful to his obligations,’ ” 
answered Roy. 

“ I say, fellows,, but that was a pretty good recommend,” laughed 
Ernest. “ Any white man might be proud to have John S. C. Abbott say 
that of him.” 

“ That wasn’t all of it,” said Teddy. “ Mr Abbott goes on to say 
* He wore a chain of white bone beads about his neck, and a little bag 
of tobacco, from which he smoked and presented to his white friends tc 
smoke with him. His face was painted of a deep red color, and that and 



his hair were oiled until they were glossy.’ It is supposed that he had 
a very large family but only two sons, Alexander and Philip, are com¬ 
monly mentioned in history.” 

“ Did he make any agreement to be friendly with the whites, 

“ Yes, and he kept that treaty to his death—for almost fifty 3'ears. 
He pledged himself that his people should not harm the settlers. If any 
of the lawless ones did so they should be given up for punishment, and 
he would immediately send word to his confederate tribes, advising them 
to observe the treaty which he had made. He and the governor agreed 
that stolen property, on either side, should be restored, and that when 
either party visited the other they should go unharmed.” 


“ Did any more of them visit the settlement at that time, Teddy ? ” 

“ After Massasoit went back to his braves, Qnadequina made them 
a call, Winslow was released, and all of the Indians withdrew to the 
forest, except Samoset and Squanto, who remained in the settlement. 
Both the red men and the white men watched all through the night, 
for in spite of the treaty neither party seemed to have much faith in the 
other. Then Massasoit came and camped close by, and visits between 
the Indians and the settlers were frequent and pleasant, each party 
strictly observing the conditions of the treaty and going unharmed.” 

“Did they have trouble with any other Indians about this time, 
Hadley ? ” 

u Canonicus, chief of the Narragansetts, was an enemy to Massasoit, 
and was not disposed to make friends with his friends and allies. These 
Narragansetts were a warlike and powerful tribe, and so conceited that 
they thought they could conquer any other people in the world.” 

“ They found that there were others in the world as big as they 
were,” interrupted Teddy. 

“ What did this great chief do, Ernest? ” 

“ He didn’t do so much as he threatened to do. He sent a challenge 



of defiance to the Puritans—a bundle of arrows wrapped about with a 
rattlesnake’s skin. Governor Bradford snatched the arrows from the skin 
and filled it to the jaws with powder and balls, and then sent it back.” 

“ What did the Indians say to that, Roy ?” 

“They thought that it was a witch charm and wouldn’t touch it if 
they could help it. It was sent from one place to another, none of them 
daring to keep or to destroy it! Finally it came back to Plymouth as 
full as when it started out, in answer to the haughty chief.” 


“What effect did the sending of it have, Ray?” 

u Canonicus was frightened by the governor’s stern answer and by 
t fie strange witch charm which he sent to destroy them, and soon wanted 
to make a treaty of peace also. You may believe that the Puritans were 
very glad to do it.” 

“Can you tell us about the colony at Weymouth, and how they 
nearly made trouble for the Puritans, Will ? 

“ It was a settlement of about sixty men, who led an idle life, 
ill treating the Indians and stealing their corn instead of planting for 
themselves. They were not Puritans but they were white men, so Miles 
Standish went to help them when they got into trouble with their red 
neighbors. He killed the leader and his men killed two others, before 
the Indians were scared and ran away. Standish took the head of the 
dead chief back to Plymouth, where he stuck it on a pole after a 
fashion of those days.” 

“This was about the time of tbe first massacre in Virginia by 
Opechancanough’s tribe; that was why they were so frightened,” 
nodded Roy. 

“You haven’t told us how they came to know that there was a plan 
to attack Weymouth, and possibly of exterminating the white men in 
Massachusetts. Do you know anything about it, Ernest?” 

“ Massasoit told them of the plot because he was so grateful when 
Winslow cured him of his sickness.” 



“ That is something els~ ’.hat we have not heard of, I believe,” said 
v Jncle Jack quietly. 

“Why, didn’t I tell you? I meant to,” cried Teddy. “ Massasoit 
was taken very ill and Winslow and Hampden, with Hobbomak as guide, 
went to see him. They found his house filled with medicine men, all 
holding a regular pow-wow, and making the most hideous noises to drive 
away the evil spirit of death.” 

H What did Winslow do then ?” 


(s He drove them all out and gave the sick chief relief by giving 
him some simple medicine and perfect quiet. Soon he was able 
to sit up and eat, and the Indians were as puzzled and awed as they were 
pleased at his unlooked-for recovery,” said Roy. 

“Yes, I read that Winslow even made him a broth of pounded corn 
strawberry leaves and sassafrass root, well boiled, and that he strained 
it through his handkerchief! Massasoit’s recovery was so remarkable 
that Indians came a hundred miles to prove the truth of it, and the great 




thief said gratefully;—‘Now I see that the English are my friends and 
love me. And while I live I will never forget this kindness which they 
have shown me,’ ” said Ray. 

“ He never did forget it, and this incident had a very great influence 
as .showing the power of the white men, for Winslow got rather more 
credit than he deserved,” laughed Teddy. “ It was fortunate that the 
chief was not dangerously sick ! If he had died the story would have 
v ad another ending.” 


r: Then Massasoit told Winslow that there was a plot to massacre 
every white man in the country, because those at Weymouth were bad, 
and they thought that all might be. But Captain Miles Standish soon 
stopped that,” Hadley concluded, 

“ Well, Massasoit helped the colonists all that he could, even if 
they did pay him back as much, or more than he gave. One day a boy 
belonging to the settlement was lost in the woods, and after he wandered 
about for five long days, he was found by some of the same tribe of 
Indians that Captain Hunt kidnapped the twenty men from, Massasoit 
found where he was and he was delivered to those who went for him, 
safe and unharmed, although considerably frightened,” said Ray, 

“Then the Puritans did not have any serious trouble with the 
Indians as long as Massasoit lived, was that so, Teddy ?” 

“Yes; Captain Miles Standish had a brush or two with them—you 
have read about it in Longfellow’s poems—but while Massasoit lived, 
they had a peaceful time compared to what followed.” 

“Say, you know the Puritans gathered an abundant harvest in the 
fall of 1623 > who can tell us about the first Thanksgiving Day in New 
England ?” asked Ernest, breathlessly. 

“ Pho, I could tell you all about that, but I think that Edward Wins¬ 
low’s letter to a friend in England will describe it better than I can,” 
said Teddy. “ He said:—‘ Our harvest being in, Governor Bradford sent 
four men out fowling, so that we might, after a special manner, rejoice 



together after w@ had gathered the fruits of our labors. They four, iu 
one day, killed as many fowls as, with a little help outside, served the 
company at least a week. At which time, among other recreations, we 
exercised our arms, and among the rest was their greatest king, Massa- 
soit, with ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted, 
and they went out and killed four deer, which they brought to the plan¬ 
tation, and bestowed upon our governor, the captain and others.’ ” 


“And that was the beginning of our Thanksgivings,’’said Will, 
musingly. “ Does it strike any of you as a little significant that the 
Indians and the white men should celebrate the first American 
Thanksgiving Day together? ” 

“Why—I never thought of it, but it surely was a little queer,” 
answered Roy. “ And how many times both parties have put an end to 
the thanksgiving of the other!” 

“ I want to tell you a story, it will show what some of the men of 
those days were like,” cried Ernest. “ One of the Weymouth men stole 
some corn from an Indian storehouse. The owner followed his trail and 
demanded satisfaction. The settlers were afraid to try to shield him for 
fear of what the Indians would do, so the commander of the company 
called them all together, and they finally decided that they would put the 
man’s clothes upon an old person who was too infirm to work, and hang 
him in the other’s stead.” 

“There’s justice and common sense for you!” exclaimed Teddy, 
aghast at the thought. “Did they do it?” 

“ No, they had a long discussion, and as they did not exactly agree, 
they decided to hang the real thief. Then there was another difficulty, 
for the man was almost a second Samson, and they were afraid to try to 
hang him. No one could be found to arrest him and carry out the 

“ I saw that, and I will tell you what they did do. They got the 
man to let them bind him hand and foot in fun—I don’t know just how 



it was done, and I guess lie didn’t either—and then they hung him tu 
earnest !” interrupted Will. 

“ I don’t believe that story.” said Hadley decidedly. “No man 
would have been fool enough foi that in those times.” 

“ I don’t know,” said Uncle Jack slowly. “If our histories tell the 
truth fools were not very scarce then. Now we will go on. It was in 


1626 that Peter Minuits bought the island of Manhattan from the coun¬ 
cil of Indian chiefs, and won their friendship by purchasing that which 
others had taken without a question of ownership. He governed New 
Amsterdam about six years, and managed the Indians with such tact and 
firmness that they remained friendly, bringing cargoes of furs to trade. 
Who wa& the next governor, Ray, and how did he treat the Indians ?” 

“He yas Van Twill er, and he treated them fairly well, but there 



were quarrels between the savages and tbe settlers constantly. Of 
course there was wrong on both sides. The white men were brutal and 
overbearing, and the red men were treacherous and suspicious.’’ 

“ The next governor was William Keift. President Roosevelt calls 
him the worst of the four Dutch governors, in his ‘ Historic Towns.’ He 
was mean and cruel and had no faculty of managing men. He should 
bear the blame of the Dutch 
wars with the Indians from 
1640 to 1645,” continued Will. 

u And he took good care 
to keep his own precious self 
in the fort, and would take 
advice of no man. If he had 
been strong and wise the 
Dutch history of New York 
would have been far different. 

1 le was not mnch like de 
Vries, who was always kind 
but firm with the Indians, and 
was beloved and respected by 
them,” added Roy. 

“What began thesj In- 
d ; an troubles, Ernest ?” 

“ The colonists had been 
forbidden to sell arms to the 
Indians, but some of the 
traders disobeyed, for there was great profit in the business when the 
red men would pay almost any price for a musket, and at least four hun¬ 
dred Mohawk warriors were provided with guns. They felt rather 
independent, as a matter of course, and when Kieft ordered them to 
pay tribute they flatly refused. Their liking for the Dutch began to 
die away then, and they were not slow to take offence whenever offered.” 

u It was in 1634 that Cecil, Lord Baltimore, purchased lands of the 
Indians and founded St. Mary, in Maryland, appointing his brother 




Leonard Calvert, Governor of the place. They treated the natives fairly 
and won their friendship,” said Will. 

“ Yes, the native chiefs visited the colony often. The native women 
taught their English sisters to make Indian meal and bread, while the 
hunters taught the men to get game in the forest. They lived in peace 
for ten years or more, many of the Indians sending their children to be 
instructed by the priests,” continued Roy. 

“But with the increase of white population the troubles and mis¬ 
understandings with the Indians increased also, and not always in pro¬ 
portion. As late as 1730 it was ordered by the General Assembly that 
no treaties of peace should be made with the natives, an act which plainly 
shows the feeling of the times,” said Uncle Jack, with a sigh. “Now 
bring your instruments, we will serenade the owls, and show John whaJ 
civilized music is. Do your best boys.” 



Was that the tread of many feet, 

Which downward from the hillside beat ? 

What forms were those which darkly stood 
Just on the margin of the wood ? ” 

66 INDIAN troubles became frequent and serious about 1636. Cap» 
tain Oldman and bis crew were murdered by the Indians while 
exploring the river, and the Pequods refused to give up the mur¬ 
derers but they offered to ransom them according to Indian custom. This 
was refused and two of their villages were burned. These Pequods were 
the most powerful and warlike tribe in New England, with many warriors 
ready for a fight. But, strong as they were, they hesitated to make war 
upon the whites alone, and tried to get the Narragansetts to help them. 
Why didn’t that tribe join them ? ” asked LTncle Jack. 

“ They would if it hadn’t been for Roger Williams, who was a friend 
of Miantonomoh, their chief,” answered Will. 

“Who was Roger Williams, Ray ? ” 

“He was a man who came to America in 1631. He was a young 
minister, one whom the old records describes as ‘ lovely in his carriage 
godly and zealous, having precious gifts.’ ” 

“ Was he popular, Teddy ? ” 

“He was at first, but when he advanced the opinion that all men 
should be free to follow the dictates of their own conscience, it did not 
please the stern old Puritans very well, and the result was that they 
drove him out of the colony.” 

“ The Puritans treated the Indians fairly, and won their confidence 
and friendship. Many tribes made alliance with them and the sachem of 
the Mohegans asked them to establish a colony in Connecticut, in 1632,” 
said Hadley. 




a But that has nothing to do with Roger Williams, and we want to 
learn more about him just now. How did they drive him out of the 
colony, Ray ? ” 

“ The people began to flock to hear him talk and the magistrates 
were alarmed ; so it was decided to send him to England in a ship which 
was about ready to sail. He was ordered to go to Boston and take passage 
in that ship, but he would not do it, and a boat’s crew was sent to bring 
him by force, but they did not find him.” 

“ Can you tell where he went, Will ? ” 

“ He left Salem, a wanderer for conscience sake, in the bitter cold of 
a northern winter. The snow was deep upon the ground and the weather 
was very cold. He says himself, that, for fourteen weeks, he ‘ was sorely 
tost in a bitter season, not knowing what bed or bread did mean.’ ” 


“That isn’t telling where he went,” cried Roy. “When he was 
banished from the settlements of his own race he sought the country and 
villages of the Indians, whose friendship he had won during his stay in 
the colony. He had learned their language while he was at Plymouth, 
and could speak it almost as well as a native. So he went from lodge 
to lodge, always kindly welcomed by the savages, sometimes spending 
the night in a hollow tree, until he reached Mount Hope, where his 
friend Massasoit lived.” 

“ And he received a warm, true welcome. Was any other great chief 
his friend, Ernest ? ” 

“Yes, Canonicns, the great chieftain of the Narragansett tribe, loved 
him so tenderly that his love ceased only with his life. It was in the 
homes of these friendly Indians that Roger Williams passed that first 
winter of exile in safety. He never ceased to be grateful for their aid 
in his distress, and, during his whole life, he was the especial friend and 
champion of the New England tribes.” 

“He intended to settle at Seekonk, but when he found that the land 
there belonged to the Plymouth colony, he went on to Narragansett Bay. 




and became tbe ‘ Father of Rhode Island.’ He did not want to stay 
under the laws of Plymouth,” nodded Teddy. 

“ Can you blame him for that ? What did he name his colony, 
Hadley, and why ? ” 

“ Because it was to be an asylum for all oppressed people, and in 
gratitude for his deliverance from the many dangers which he had 
passed through, he called the place Providence. He tried to buy the 
land for settlement, but Canonicus refused to sell it, and gave it to him 
as a friend, ‘to be his to enjoy forever.’ It was not a donation for the site 
of a settlement, but was to belong to Williams to do as he pleased with.” 

“Then he was a rich man! ” exclaimed Ray joyfully. “How did 
those old fellows who turned him out feel about it ? I’ll bet they were 
more than a little mad. Of course he sold the land to settlers at a good 


“ Others probably would have done so, and he might have made 
money in that way, but he would not do it. He gave a share of the land 
to all who came there to settle, and the government of the place was 
administered by all of the people that lived there. All public measures 
were decided b}^ a majority, but every man was left to answer to God 
alone in matters of conscience. All forms of religious beliefs were pro¬ 
tected, and even infidelity was saved from punishment. Thus did Roger 
Williams live up to the principles which he advanced,” Will explained. 

“There was a woman about that time who was just like him, that 
is, she was too liberal to suit those stern, old Puritans,” said Ray. “Her 
name was Anne Hutchinson, and when she was driven away from Mas¬ 
sachusetts she went into the terrtiory of the Dutch, and was finally mur¬ 
dered by the Indians, with her whole family, except a child who was 
taken away as prisoner. So you see those first settlers were not always 
good to their own race. There is a queer thing about that. The Purn 
tans came here to get a chance to do as they had a mind to, and they 
wanted everybody to do j ust as they told them to and were mad if thej 



u Now we will return to tire account of tire Pequod war,” Uncle 
Jack reminded them. “ Will, you said that the Narragansetts would 
have joined the tribe if it hadn’t been for Roger Williams. How 
was that ?” 

u Why—he prevented them from doing it.” 

“ And now fellows, what do you think ? The very men who had 
driven him into exile in the midst of a New England winter, now begged of 
him to use his influence with the Narragansett chief, so that that tribe 
would at least remain neutral, if they could not be persuaded to 


help the whites. They knew the Narragansetts wouldn’t do it to please 
them. Wasn’t that cheeky ?” demanded Ernest indignantly. 

“ And did Miantonomoh remain friendly to the whites ?” 

“ Yes, he did ; and his tribe with him. Roger Williams stayed rigln 
there three days and nights, talking with them, and when he went away 
they had agreed to help the whites if there was a war, instead of fighting 
against them. Hurrah for Roger Williams!” shouted Teddy with 
boyish enthusiasm. 

a If he had failed and Miantonomoh had not protected him ? he 



would have been killed instantly, for the Peqnod chiefs were already 
there, and the Narragansetts had made np their minds to help them,” 
added Hadley. 

“ Will, did the Peqnods make war after all ? 

“Yes, they decided they had warriors enongh to try it alone, and 
began to kill the settlers along the Connecticut river. Captain John 
Mason was sent against them with eighty men, and he went to Canonicus 
to ask him to help him. That chief hardly wanted to give open aid, but 
more than two hundred of his braves agreed to go, and they were joined 
by seventy Mohegans nnder Chief Uncas.” 

“ They attacked the Peqnod fort, where the barking of a dog gave 
an unexpected alarm and the attack was a hurried one. To make a sure 
thing of it the wigwams, all made of matting, were set on fire, and the 
Indians tried in vain to put the fire out. The English withdrew to a 
safe place where they could see and pick off the poor Pequods as the}" 
fled from their blazing homes. More than six hundred of them perished, 
the most of them being burned in the wigwams. The battle lasted only 
^n hour, and only two white men were killed,” added Ray. 


“ The warlike Peqnods were not really related to the Indians around 
them,” continued Ernest. “ They came from the country of the 
Mowhaks and had given the colonists considerable trouble before this 
happened. But perhaps the fault was not all with them.” 

“The Pequod fort which the English destroyed at that time, was 
their largest and strongest one, and they did not think that it could 
be taken by the whites. It was a terrible fight. Whenever a Pequod 
appeared he was shot down without delay or mercy. What was the 
result of it, Teddy ?” 

“As the sun rose, a body of three hundred Pequod warriors were 
seen coming from a second fort. They expected to find the English all 
dead, and came to rejoice with victorious comrades. Instead of that they 
saw a ruined and smoking fort and its dead defenders. They were furi 



ous, screaming, stamping, and tearing their hair in their desperation 
and despair. Mason held them in check with a few of his men, while 
the others hastened home to protect the settlement from any possible 

“ But they had other forts and villages.” 

a Well, the whole tribe were so bewildered and frightened by this 
sudden attack that it was an easy thing to finish them up. Their pride 
was crushed, and they made but a feeble resistance. They fled to the 
West, closely pursued by the English, who destroyed their cornfields 
burned their villages, and put their women and children to death with¬ 
out mercy. They made one last, desperate stand, but were defeated with 
great slaughter, and the Pequod tribe lived only in the historv of a 
growing nation,” continued Hadley. 


“ Sassacus was their great chief, and his name had been a terror to 
the tribes all around, as well as to the white men, but his four thousand 
warriors were scattered or killed, and he fled to the Mohawks with a 
small remnant of his followers. He hoped to find a safe refuge there,” 
sighed Teddy. 

“ But it didn’t do him any good,” added Ray. u He was killed there 
and his scalp was sent to the English. Some say that the Mohawks 
killed him, and others that he was slain by his own men, who blamed 
him for the sudden annihilation of his tribe. There were not more than 
two hundred left by this time, and they surrendered soon.” 

“ Were they killed also, Ernest ? ” 

u No, they were given a worse fate, so bad that I bet they wished 
they had been killed. Some were given up to their enemies, the Narra- 
gansetts and Mohegans, who probably put them to torture; and the rest 
were sold as slaves in the West Indies. It was a short war, but it was 
one without mercy on either side, and the horror of it remained with 
the Indians for nearly forty years.” 

“ Yes,” added Teddy. “The thoroughness of the work struck terror 



to all of tlie surrounding tribes, and made them see tbe power of fhe 
white man as never before. If tbe powerful Pequods could be thus beaten, 
wbat would tbeir fate be if they were rasb enough to attempt to drive 
the English out?” 

“And for nearly forty years the horror of this fearful time was 
fresh in the savage minds, and that was a protection to the young 
settlements, greater than the most vigilant watchfulness would have 
been,” observed Hadley. 

“Yes, for nearly forty years the war cry was not heard in New 
England, although individuals on both sides committed depredations on 
each other, and sometimes one was killed. So, if it was a bad thing for 
the Pequods, it was good for the colonies, for it prevented other uprisings 
of the red men,” nodded Ray. 


“ But, as soon as it was over, the people of Connecticut forgot what 
they owed to the fidelity of the brave Narragansett chieftain, Miantono 
moh, who had befriended them through it all. His people went to war 
with the Mohegans, and the old chief was taken prisoner. His enemies 
referred his fate to the same white men whom he had helped, and they 
deliberately decided to give him up to his bitter enemy, Uncas, knowing 
full well the terrible death which would be his. And they did more 
than that. They sent two men to see him executed ! There’s gratitude 
for you !” cried Ernest. 

“ There was too much of such gratitude in those days,” said Uncle 
Jack quietly. “Ray, the Dutch had a war with the Mohawks in 1643, 
can you tell us the cause of it ? ” 

u Governor Kieft was responsible for it, although there had been an 
increasing bad feeling between the Indians and the settlers for some 
time. It really commenced in this way. The Mohawks sent an armed 
band to collect tribute of the river tribes, who belonged to the Algonquin 
family. These Indians fled in terror to seek the protection of the Dutch, 
who professed to give it.” 



4i And were they protected, Will ? ” 

“Well, I don’t want any such protection. We ought to go back a 
little so as to understand this business better, I think. A year or two 
before the Mohawk war the colonists accused the Raritan tribe of steal¬ 
ing some hogs, which, in truth, were taken by some Dutch traders. 
Governor Kieft did not bother to investigate the matter any, but sent 
soldiers to destroy the growing corn of the Raritans as a punishment 
and some of the Indians were killed.. The savages retaliated by attack¬ 
ing the settlement which De Vries—who had always been a true friend 
to the Indians—had founded on Staten Island. Four men were killed.” 

“ That was another unreasonable circumstance,” declared Ray. 
“President Roosevelt says that De Vries was a handsome, gallant man, 
of brave and generous nature. ‘ He was greatly beloved by the Indians, 
co whom he was always both firm and kind ; and the settlers likewise 
loved and respected him, for he never trespassed on their rights, and was 
their leader in every work of danger.’ ” 


l l can tell you a story of what happened before that!” cried Ernest. 
(l Two Indians were coming to the fort to sell beaver skins one day, and 
one of them had a little boy, his nephew, with him. Three Dutchmen 
resolved to rob them, and did do it, taking their furs and killing the 
uncle of the little boy, who got away, registering a vow of vengeance, 
after the Indian custom. Fifteen years afterwards, when he had grown 
to be a bold warrior, he killed Claes Smits, another Dutchman, who 
likely knew nothing about the affair.” 

“ What was done about it, Teddy ? ” 

“ Kieft ordered the Indians to surrender the young man that he 
might be punished for the crime; but the savages refused to give him 
up, as by their laws it was only blood for blood, but they offered to 
ransom him. Kieft refused their proposition, and the matter remained 
an open source of trouble.” 

“ There was provocation surely, but was it enough to execute the 


barbarity and cowardly treachery of Governor Kieft on Shrovetide night? 
One wrong never makes another one right. Tell us about it, Hadley.” 

“ The garrison of the fort, with some Dutch privateers, attacked the 
Indians in the night, while they were peacefully sleeping, fully believing 
in the protection of their murderers. The poor c matures so suddenly 
awakened, could make but a very little resistance. Some of them escaped 


to the woods, but were relentlessly pursued, and driven into the icy wafer 
of the Hudson, where they soon chilled and perished.” 

“ We ~e they all killed ? ” asked Uncle Jack. 

“ Yes ; none were spared—neither men, women, nor children—-and 
their shrieks made the good people of New Amsterdam tremble in their 
comfortable beds ! ” 

a Was that the only party of Indians who were attacked, Ray?” 



“ Another company of Indians, trusting to the friendship of the 
Dutch, had encamped near the fort, and they were all killed. It is but 
1 ust to say that this was not the work of the colonists, who had to pay 
for it, for when the Algonquins found out that their comrades had been 
killed by the Dutch instead of by the Mohawks, there was a general 
uprising, and Governor Kieft was soon glad to make peace. It was in 
this war that Mrs. Anne Hutchinson and her family were killed.” 

“ It did not take the Indians long to drive all of the Dutch settlers, 
who escaped with their lives, to take refuge in the fort. A palisade was 
erected where Wall street now runs. The Indians tortured their prisoners 
cruelly, and the Dutch retaliated with the same barbarous deeds. Women 
and children were spared on neither side. The terrible war lasted five 
years, and was going on about the time of the second Opechancanougb 
massacre in Virginia,” said Will. 


“ Finally, on the thirtieth of August, 1645, the chiefs of the Algon¬ 
quins and a deputation from their old enemies, the Mohawks, who came 
as mediators, met the whites on the spot now known as the Battery, 
and concluded a peace,” Roy concluded. 

u How did the people feel about it, and what became of Kieft? ” 
u The close' of the war was hailed with rejoicings throughout the 
colony. Kieft was regarded with universal hatred as the author of the 
terrible sufferings of the struggle, his barbarous conduct was censured 
and disavowed by the company, and he was recalled. As he neared th r 
shores of the old world, his ship was wrecked on the coast of Wales, and 
all on board perished,” answered Ernest. 

U I don’t care, do you?” questioned Teddy. “ But the next Governor, 
Stuyvesant, practiced kindness and justice toward the Indians and 
soon secured their friendship again.” 

“ And when New Amsterdam was surrendered to the English, the 
Mohawks, who had been friends to the Dutch, entered into an alliance 
With them. This proved to be a lucky thing in the French and English 


wars, for the Indians hated the French and kept them back,” continued 

“It was in 1642 that a party of Mohawks took two priests, Father 
Jognes and Father Goupil, while their escort of Huron Indians nearly 
all escaped. They were led by the great Huron war chief, Ahasistari, 
who, when he saw that his white friends were prisoners in the hands of 
his enemies, strode into the circle of astonished Mohawks who sur¬ 
rounded them, and took his place beside Father Jognes, saying: ‘My 
brother, I made oath to thee that I would share thy fortune, whether 
death or life, and I am here to keep my word,’ ” added Ray. 

“ And the Mohawks were only too glad to get him in any way, I 
can tell you I ” cried Teddy. “They took him at his word, and he died 
at the stake like a hero.” 


‘Can yon tell us what became of the priests, Roy?” 

“They were carried to the Mohawk, and in each village which they 
passed through, they were compelled to run the gauntlet. Still they 
tried to make converts. Father Jognes found a few drops of dew upon 
an ear of corn which was thrown him as food, with which he baptized 
two converts.” 

“Father Goupil was more unfortunate. An Indian saw him making 
the sign of a cross over his child, and, thinking he was working a spell, 
he killed him instantly with his tomahawk. Father Jognes escaped and 
reached Albany, but he boldly entered the Mohawk land, and was mur¬ 
dered by a warrior,” continued Ray. “ Other missionaries afterwards 
suffered death by torture at the hands of these Indians.” 

“The Mohawk and Huron war was in 1648,” asserted Will. “There 
had been a short peace between them, but the war that came was a fiercer 
one than ever before. Bands of Mohawk warriors invaded the Huron 
territory, and both savage and missionary fell before their fury. It was 
on the morning of July the 4th that the village of St. Joseph was 
attacked by a Mohawk war party.” 




“This was a village which had been founded by the missionaries 
Brabenf and Daniel, the latter of which was an old man,” added Roy. 
“He was killed, while his companions, Brabenf and Lallemand, were 
taken prisoners and tortured to death. The Hnrons were scattered, and 
their country was added to that of the Five Nations. Many of the 
conquered Hurons were adopted into the conquering tribes.” 

“This was the time when the Mokawks learned to hate the French 
so thoroughly. Champlain took sides with the Hnrons and Algonqnins, 
and the Five Nations never forgave them for it. They would never 
overlook it,” Ernest asserted. 


“Teddy, can yon tell ns why Father Marquette was not molested 
by the Indians when he descended the Mississippi River in 1673 ? ” 

“It was because a friendly Indian chief hung a peace pipe around 
his neck, telling him to hold it out to every savage whom he met, and it 
would always be a safeguard to him. He did so, and went among all of 
the tribes unharmed.” 

“These Indians once kept a letter safely for fourteen years, and 
then delivered it,” exclaimed Hadley. “It was in this way : Tonti 
addressed it to La Salle, and told the Indians to guard it carefully, and 
give it to the first Frenchman that came that way. They gave it to 

“They proved their fidelity by caring for it so long. I think there 
was a difficulty with the Indians in Virginia, where Berkerly was gov* 
ernor, about 1660. What can yon tell ns about it, Ray ?” 

“ Berkerly would not do a thing to the Indians when they got to 
acting out, because he was making money in the fur trade with them, 
and the settlers decided to take matters into their own hands. They 
succeeded in making a war just as they always did. It wasn’t very long 
before a friendly Indian was killed, and a settler, who was mortally 
wounded at the same time, said that it was the work of some Doeg 



“That was enough to send thirty men off in pursuit of the Doegs,” 
interrupted Will. “They came to a Doeg wigwam where they killed 
eleven Indians. They didn’t know sure, but they thought ‘ more than 
likely ’ that they were the right ones to punish ! Another party of set¬ 
tlers came to a wigwam and opened fire without waiting to ask any ques¬ 
tions. They killed fourteen before they found out that the wigwam 
belonged to some friendly Susquehannahs, and were not Doegs at all.” 

“That was a grave mistake, but a common one in the early days. 
What effect did it have, Roy ?” 

“Why—what do you think? It aroused the tribe to fury. Colonel 
John Washington had a finger in that pie. He was the great-grandfather 
of George Washington, but he didn’t have half of his common sense. 
The chiefs declared that their people had never harmed the whites and 
the war was stayed for a short time.” 

“ But not for long,” Ernest went on. “ Later five chiefs came for a 
conference, and were treacherously put to death. Major Truman was 
tried for their murder, but history does not tell what was done with him 
—more than likely he was just sent back to the old world. That didn’t 
help matters a bit, and the Indians went on the warpath at once, assail¬ 
ing the settlers along the Rappahannock, James and York rivers.” 

“ And it was Becon who finally made peace with them,” Teddy 
asserted in triumph. 

“That is all for to-night. We will not begin with King Philip’s 
war until our next lesson,” said Uncle Jack. 

“ I say, fellows, I can’t keep it any longer, and there is no need to !” 
cried Ernest excitedly. “You know how they spear salmon by torch¬ 
light, don’t you? Well, Jim told me this morning that he and John 
were going to take ns out to-night spearing them, and they must be 
ready now. Jim said not to tell you until our lesson was over, or you’d 
forget all that you knew.” 

“Yum—yum—yum i” flashed Teddy. “ I suppose he thought that 
it made no difference if you did forget what little you knew ! Was 

that it?” 



“ He saw the cloud ordained to grow 
And burst upon his hills in woe , 

He saw his people withering lie 
Beneath the invader’s evil eye. 

Strange feet were trampling on his father’s bones „ 

At midnight hour he woke to gaze 
Upon his happy cabin’s blaze, 

And listen to his children’s dying groans. 

He saw; and, maddening at the sight. 

Gave his bold bosom to the fight; 

To tiger rage his soul was driven, 

Mercy was not, nor sought nor given ; 

The pale-face from his lands must fly; 

He would be free, or he would die! ” 

U 1\ ] OW you may begin tbe account of King Philip’s war. What 
I ^ have you to tell us about it, Ernest?” asked Uncle 

“Massasoit died about 1661. He left two sons, Wamsutta or Alex¬ 
ander, and Pometacom or Philip. These sons married sisters, daughters 
of the sachem of Pocasset. Alexander’s wife was named Wetamoo, 
we shall find more about her. Philip’s wife was named Wootoneka- 

“Wait a minute, Uncle Jack, I read that a full-blooded Niantic 
Indian woman, now living in Wisconsin, claims to be a descendant of 
the famous King Philip !” cried Teddy. 

“How can that be when the histories say that King Philip’s son 
was sold as a slave ? ” inquired Roy. 

“ But history does not tell us whether he had a daughter or not, 




lodded Teddy. “The article that I saw said that he did, and she 
married Ninegret, chief of the Niantic Indians, and this Mrs. Stanwood 
‘is certainly what she claims, a descendant of the great Indian sachem, 
and a genealogy of her family from the time of Ninegret proves it beyond 
a doubt.’ ” 

“ Well, the Wampanoags are not extinct,” declared Hadley. “Two 
sisters named Mitchel are living in Lakeville, Massachusetts, who are 
direct descendants of King Philip’s sister Amy. She married Tuspaquim 
the Black Sachem, chief of the Assawamsets. Tradition says that their 
mother was a descendant of the Pequod chief Sassacus. They are living 
on land which has been in the family for generations. The youngest 
sister is named Wootonekanuske, for the unfortunate wife of King 
Philip; the other sister’s name is Teweelema, and they were educated in 
the public schools of the town.” 


“Do you think it is so, Uncle Jack?” asked Teddy. 

“ Whether these accounts are authentic or not is a personal affair, 
rather than a matter of history. It has nothing to do with the terrible 
New England war of 1675. Ray, you may tell us what you can about 
Alexander, who became chief of the tribe when his father, Massasoit, 

“ It has been said that Uncas, chief of the Mohegans, set the Eng¬ 
lish against him in the first place. At any rate many lawless men had 
come to join the colonies, who did not treat the Indians as the first set¬ 
tlers had treated Massasoit and his followers. The Indians had also 
grown to disregard the treaty of their old chief, and there was increasing 
distrust on both sides. Uncas told the English that Alexander was pre¬ 
paring for war, so they had him arrested and taken to Plymouth at once.” 

“That was a bitter blow for the proud old chief,” continued Ernest. 
“A horse was offered for him to ride, but he refused indignantly, 
saying that he would rather walk with his friends than to ride with his 
enemies. History says that he was taken with a fever, brought on by 



his rage and shame at the indignity put upon him; the Indians thought 
that he had been poisoned by the English, and his wife, who was with 
him, lived for revenge after that. He died before he reached his 

“ I don’t wonder that the superstitious Indians thought that the 
white men poisoned him,” cried Ray. “He was well and in the prime 
of life when they arrested him, and his people could not understand his 
sudden death in any other way.” 

“Uncas was an enemy to him anyway,” declared Will. 

“ But Uncas and his Mohegans were friends to the English, and he 
sent his three sons and sixty warriors to help them,” added Roy. 

“We haven’t come to the war yet, what more about Alexander?” 


“1 found one account which said that Philip killed his brother so 
that he could be the chief, but I do not believe it. Philip saw how fast 
the whites were increasing, and he was a patriot and a statesman, skilled 
in the diplomacy of his nation. Secretly he sought a union of all of 
the New England tribes,” answered Ray. 

“And succeeded pretty well, too,” nodded Will. “He kept his own 
counsel so well that the white men could only suspect what he was about, 
but they treated him very harshly and compelled him to give up his 
arms. That didn’t help matters much.” 

“Did the Indians attack Plymouth?” 

“No, a friendly Indian warned the town, but the act cost him his 
life. He was condemned as a traitor, and disposed of in a way to make it 
appear that he had committed suicide. His people did not dare to execute 
him openly. His body was found, three of the tribe were suspected, 
arrested, tried, found guilty, and put to death. Then the young warriors 
of the tribe shouted for revenge,” answered Ray. 

“ In spite of the order not to sell the Indians any arms many of the 
colonists had done so, because of the high prices which the natives were 
willing and eager to pay. They wanted muskets at any price, and so 



the Englishmen thoughtlessly furnished the weapons for their own 
execution, in their selfishness and greed,” Ernest added. 

“ What two female sachems fought with Philip, Roy ?” 

“ One was Anashonks, who pretended to be very friendly with the 
whites, promised to put herself under English protection and allow hei 
braves to fight on that side, then combined her force with Philip’s.” 

“The other was Wetamoo, the enraged wife of Alexander, who 
firmly believed that he had been treacherously poisoned, and was very 
active in revenge,” continued Will. “When the war was ended and all 
hope was gone, she sprang into the stream to escape capture or to go to 
her people on the other shore, but she was drowned and her body was 
washed on shore. It will never be known whether she committed suicide 
in her despair, or whether her death was an accident.” 

“What was done with her body, Ernest?” 


u I don’t know, but the white men cut off her head and stuck it 
upon a pole in Taunton, where it remained for some time. They had 
a fashion of doing such ghastly things in those days, thinking to 
frighten the rest of their enemies, I suppose. Her people saw it 
there and recognized it with a howl of utter despair.” 

“ Was anything unusal noticed before this war began, Ray?” 

“Yes, superstitious people said that they saw an Indian bow clearly 
defined in the sky, drawn ready for use ; others saw the picture of an 
Indian scalp on the bright surface of the moon ; Northern lights of 
unusual brilliancy glowed in the skies ; troops of phantom horsemen 
were heard dashing through the air; the sighing of the night winds 
sounded like the whistling of bullets ; and, to others, the persistent 
howling of the wolves foretold dire disaster, and many of them found 
their worst fears realized before long.” 

“ Philip was now king. He saw that the English were becoming 
very powerful, and he became convinced that the red man would finally 
become exterminated unless the white men were driven out of the land. 



Little by little the Indians secretly stored np munitions of war. The 
colonists regarded the Indian children as young serpents, who would 
surely bite when they were older, and the red mothers should also die 
that they might bear no more children, so women and children were 
killed at sight in this relentless war of extermination,” said Ernest. 

“This King Philip was one of the ablest Indians of the New 
World. He entered upon the war as a necessity, believing that his 

brother had been poisoned by the 
white man, fully realizing the ruin 
which overshadowed his race. He 
was a terrible foe, with secret and 
awful modes of warfare, but there is 
no evidence that he ever ordered 
the torture of a captive, and there is 
plenty of such evidence that the 
English sometimes gave deserters 
np to the torture. Deeds were laid 
to him which he never did, and 
he was absent from many places 
when they were attacked,” added 

“The conflict once begun it 
was a war to the death with King 
Philip. From all accounts I think that he began the war against his 
better judgment and at the demands of his warriors. He was a true 
hero when he resolved to do his best and share the common fate of his 
nation. A reward was offered for him, forty coats to any one who would 
bring him in alive, or twenty for his head ! And ten coats were offered 
for any one of his braves that was taken as a prisoner,” said Uncle 
Jack. “ What place was first attacked ?” 

“In the war which then began without hope and waged without 
mercy, the Indians knew every nook of the leafy forest, and could make 
a desperate resistance. June 24, 1675, was the day appointed by the 




governor as a day of fasting and prayer in anticipation of tlie coming 
war. That was the day when the first town was attacked,” answered 

“ I read that Philip hurst into tears when the news of that attack 
was told him,” said Will incredulously. “ It was warriors of his own 
tribe that did it, but they acted without his direct orders, and committed 
the act which opened the conflict. Swanzey was quite near Mount 
Hope, yon know, and that was the town.” 

“The assault was made when the people were returning from 
church, and only eight or nine people were killed, but the alarm was 
now given and spread rapidly,” added Ray. 

“ There were some strange escapes from death,” laughed Ernest. 
“ One Mr. Gill buttoned a lot of thick brown paper under his coat, and 
this strange armor saved his life.” 


“Captain Church was one of the great English officers of that war 
and he had a body-guard of Indians who loved him. so well that they 
would not leave him. But they were traitors to their people just the 
same,” cried Teddy scornfully. 

“ It isn’t for ns to condemn them,” said Hadley chidingly. “ Without 
them the story of King Philip’s war would have ha a different ending.” 

“ What happened then ? ” 

“ Philip and his warriors took refuge in a swamp, and the English 
surrounded the place and intended to starve them out, but they escaped 
and fled to the Nipmucks, a small tribe near Worcester, Massachusetts. 
The colonists made the Narragansetts give up all of the Indians who had 
fled to them for safety, and promise to remain neutral,” Ray replied. 

“Didn’t Philip induce the Nipmucks to join him, Will ? ” 

“Yes, and no one will ever know how many other tribes were secretly 
engaged in it. People declared that the colonists were to be severe^ 
punished for their sins, among which were mentioned the wearing oi 
gay clothes by the women; the wearing of long hair by the men ; the 



licensing of ale-houses, and swearing. Some even asserted that it was a 
judgment for not exterminating the Quakers. It was lucky for the poor 
Quakers that there was an Indian war to take their attention!” 

“ Was that so?” ejaculated Ray. 

“Yes it was; I can read you what Northrop says about it. The 
superstitious ones believed all of these signs, and made their meaning 
to suit themselves.” 

“Joined by the Nipmucks, Philip entered Connecticut and attacked 
the settlements from Springfield to Northfield. Captain Hutchinson, 
with only twenty men, was sent to treat with them. Did they succeed, 
Ernest ? 


“Hardly. They were ambushed and killed near Brookfield, and 
the Indians attacked that settlement. They burned all but one house, 
the strongest one in the village, to which the people had all fled. For 
two days they tried in vain lo set the house on fire or force an entrance.” 

“ One man escaped to the woods, and the Indians did not happen to 
see him. He went for help but the rest could hardly hope that he would 
bring them aid in time to save them. At last the savages took a wagon, 
piled it high with flax, hemp, hay and dry wood, set it on fire and pushed 
it against the house, themselves concealed behind it, so that the settlers 
could not shoot them,” continued Ray. 

“ They thought that they were gone sure—those settlers did! ” 
exclaimed Teddy. “They could not put that fire out and the smoke 
choked them. But, just as the house caught, and the smoke was very 
nearly stifling them, the most thundering kind of a storm came up, the 
rain fell in sheets, and not only put the fire out but fixed everything so 
that the Indians could not light another. The redskins stayed around 
until sunset, when help arrived, and they hastily retreated.” 

“All of the Indians were not without mercy and gratitude, even in 
this relentless war,” Will declared. “A prisoner who was to be tortured 
the next morning was visited by an Indian in the night. He told him to 
get up and fol!o w him. The white man obeyed, although he did not 





know but wbat be was to be killed,. The Indian gave him a gun and 
some provisions when they were at a safe distance from the encampment. 
Then he led him through the woods, almost to his ruined home, when 
he left him, saying ;—‘ Many months ago you gave bed and supper to 
tired Indian ; he pay you now. Go and be happy.’ ” 

“What was the next place which the Indians attacked, Ernest ? ” 

“ It was Deerfield, and it was burned. But, before that, Captain 
Lathrop had been sent out, with a small force to carry provisions from 
that place to Hadley, where they intended to establish a garrison. 
Almost all of them were killed at a place which is called Bloody Brook 
''o this day.” 


“ While Deerfield was still burning the Indians attacked Hadley. 
The people were at church at the time,” continued Teddy. 

“ What queer thing happened then, Ray ?” 

“ A tall, old man, in a strange dress, appeared suddenly. Sword 
n hand, he gave quick, sharp orders, and rallied and led them to victory, 
for the Indians were beaten back, and forced to retreat.” 

“ Can you tell us who this strange man was, Will ?” 

“ Folks have always thought that it was Goffe, the regicide, who 
risked his life and liberty to save the settlers then. He had been con¬ 
cealed in the town, and returned to his refuge when the fight was over. 
But his sudden appearance and disappearance was considered very 
strange at that time, and gave superstitious people something to talk 
about. The Indians regarded him with awe, and thought that the Great 
Spirit helped the white men at Hadley. Wasn’t it lucky that they did 
have such fancies?” 

“ I want to tell you what the white men paid for the town of Hadley 
—here is the bill,” cried Ray : 

“ 2 coats, shag and wampum,.^5, 7s. 

Red shag, cotton, knife,. 7s. 

Wampum and two coats,.^5, 10s. 

A kettle, . £i, 5s. 

For your being drunk, . 10s- 



What do you think of that price for a whole town?” 

“ What happened next, Ernest ? ” 

“ Philip visited his home at Mount Hope, found it in ruins, and went 
to the Narragansetts for shelter. They would not give him up to the 
white men as they had the other Indians, and so the colonists determined 
to make war on them before they were pursuaded to join Philip. They 
forgot that they were friends, I guess.” 

“ Anyway, they attacked the principal fort of the Narragansett 
tribe. This village was where South Kingston is uow. It was attacked, 
the houses set on fire, all of their winter supplies burned, and old men, 
women, and children burned in the blazing huts. Another large body 
of natives was surprised just above Turner Falls,” added Teddy. 

“ The fort at Kingston was a palisaded one,” Hadley continued. 

It was nearly twenty miles from the next village, and it was a bitterly 
cold night in winter. Captain Church tried to get them not to set fire 
to the wigwams, but it was done.” 


u I’ll tell you what a writer of that time said,” excil imed Ray. u He 
said : ‘ The Indians were about preparing their dinner when our sudden 
and unexpected assault put them beside that work, making their cooking 
room too hot for them at that time, when they and their mitche fried 
together.’ Probably some of them ate their supper in a colder place that 
night. Most of their provisions, as well as their huts, being then con¬ 
sumed by fire, those who were left alive were forced to hide themselves 
in a cedar swamp, where they had nothing to defend them from the cold 
but boughs of spruce and pine trees.” 

“ The English, to their eternal disgrace, permitted a young Narra, 
gansett captive to be tortured to death by their Indian allies, ‘ partly 
that they might not displease these confederates, and also that they 
might have ocular demonstration of savage cruelty.’ The victim had 
killed and scalped many Englishmen, as he acknowledged, and they 
thought fit to let him suffer, although the sight brought tears to their 



eyes ! Oh, the Indians were the only ones who did such things, you 
know ; but wasn’t the permitting just as bad as the doing ? Answer me 
that ! ” demanded Teddy. 

“ In the fight at Kingston the white men lost two hundred and fifty 
men, killed and wounded, including six captains. But as many as a 
thousand of the Indians were slain, and quite a number made prison¬ 
ers,” added Will. 

“ Their defeat was complete, and Canonchet, their chief, was among 
the prisoners. He was offered his life and liberty if he would get his 
tribe to make peace, but he refused to do so. When sentenced to death 
he said scornfully: ‘ I like it well! I shall die before I say anything 
unworthy of me,’ ’’continued Ray. 


“No quarter was asked in this fight and no mercy was shown. The 
wigwams were set on fire and all who coulci not escape were burned with 
them. The Narragansetts were nearly exterminated. Philip and many 
of his followers escaped and joined the Nipmucks. The next spring 
Lancaster was burned, Springfield being saved for the time by the 
warning of a friendly Indian,” said Roy. 

“Poor Canonchet! He said: ‘We will fight to the last man rather 
than become servants to the English,’ and he certainly kept his word,” 
said Teddy musingly. 

“ What became of those who escaped, Hadley ? ” 

“ They flea to the swamp where they burrowed in the ground, and 
covered themselves with boughs, living on acorns and nuts, which they 
sometimes had to dig out of the snow. Many of them found a lingering 
death instead of a speedy one.” 

“Reverend Mr. Ruggles commented on the scene of one of these 
burned villages as follows: 1 The burning of the wigwams, the shrieks 
and cries of the women and children, and the yells of the warriors, 
exhibited a most horrible and affecting scene, so that it greatly moved 
some of the soldiers. They were in much doubt and even seriously 



inquired whether burning their enemies alive could be consistent with 
humanity and the principles of the gospel! ” exclaimed Ernest. 

“ Did this put an end to the war, Ray ? ” 

“No indeed ! Philip then tried to get the Mohawks into the fight 
and the remnant of the Narragansetts, with his own men, kept up the 
warfare as furiously as they could. It was in June, 1676, before Philip’s 
cause began to appear hopeless to him, and the savages began to quarrel 
among themselves.” 

“Lancaster, Medford, Weymouth, Groton, Springfield, Sudbury and 
Marlborough in Massachusetts, and Providence, and Warwick in Rhode 
Island were destroyed, either wholly or in part, and numerous other 
settlements were attacked and made to suffer more or less severely. 
What can you tell us about the attack on Lancaster, Will ? ” 


“ The house of the Rev. Mr. Rowlandson was valliantly defended, 
but Mrs. Rowlandson and three children, with others, were taken 
captive. The Indians burned the town and, that night, they had a bar¬ 
becue of oxen, sheep, swine and fowls, which they had taken from the 
settlers, cattle being roasted whole. The long march was no better than 
the night of revelry, yet the savages were not unkind to the prisoners, 
and even gave Mrs. Rowlandson a horse to ride. The child which she 
carried died of its wounds, and the other two were claimed by different 

“ What! Were they made slaves ? ” demanded Teddy. 

“ It was slavery on both sides, the English sending the conquered 
Indians to the West Indies, and the Indians keeping their captives in 
almost hopeless bondage, when every day might be their last on earth. 
Mrs. Rowlandson’s captor sold her to Quinnapin, who had married 
Alexander’s widow, Weetamo, whose especial slave she became. Of this 
mistress she said : * A severe and proud dame she was, powdering her 

hair and painting her face, going with her necklaces and jewels in her 
ears. When she had dressed herself her work was to make wampum 



and beadwork.’ The story of this woman’s captivity was dreadful 
although the Indians were not especially unkind to her, and at last ohe 
and her children were ransomed,” answered Hadley. 

“ While these horrors were raging Roger Williams stayed at his 
post, and even reproached the savages sometimes. Nanntenoo, chief of 
the Narragansetts, answered him proudly: ‘ Mr. Williams, you shall 
never be injured, for you are a good man and have been kind and just 
to us,’ ” added Will, 

“ Because a family named Leonard had been kind to King Philip 
and his band, the town of Taunton was spared for their sakes, although 
the work of murder went on all around them,” said Ray. 

“ I read in the paper that Mendon was going to erect a memorial 
tablet to the memory of those killed there. Tradition says that only 
one house was spared in the place—that of a Quaker!” said Ernest. 


“ One Captain Mosley pulled off his wig and put it in his pocket 
before going into the battle in full sight of the Indians. The act was 
better than a regiment of artillery. The Indians fled from such a 
mighty magician with a howl and yell of terror. They could not stand 
before one who could take one head off and put it in his pocket and still 
have one left to face them with,” laughed Teddy. 

“How was Philip succeeding during all this time, Hadley?” 

“ Not very well. He appealed to the Mohawks to take up the 
hatchet, but seeing that his case was a hopeless one, they refused to 
join him. So, in proud despair, he went back to Mount Hope to die. 
When one of his men urged him to make peace with the whites he 
struck him dead. It was about this time that his wife and son were 
taken prisoners.” 

“ That conquered him,” declared Ernest. “ He had borne all the 
rest with the determination of a hero. Now he cried despairingly, ‘My 
heart breaks, I am ready to die.’ ” 

“ What happened to Philip at last, Roy ? ” 



u His warriors grew tired of such unequal warfare and began to 
leave him. He was hunted from one place to another, and finally shot 
by the brother of the man whom he had killed for advising him to sur¬ 
render. After his death his followers united with the Niantics under 
Ninegret, the one who once said, 4 It would be better to preach among 
the English until they become good.’ ” 

“ Philip’s little son was sold as a slave in the Bermudas, and the 
grandson of the great and good Massasoit, who had welcomed and 
befriended the English, was condemned to pass his days in servitude in 
a foreign land,” said Will indignantly. 


44 Captain Church would not allow the body of the forest king to be 
buried. The head was sent to Plymouth, where it was exposed for 
twenty years. The body was quartered and hung on four trees, after a 
dreadful custom that they had in those good old days. He had one hand 
which had been scarred by the bursting of a pistol, and this was given 
to Alderman, the Indian who shot him, who preserved it in spirits and 
4 got many pennies 5 by using it as a show,” said Ray. 

“ Did the death of King Philip close the war, Will ? ” 

44 It was soon followed by peace, for the spirit of the Indians was 
broken. Hardly a hundred men were left alive in the Narragansetts, 
and the other tribes had suffered severely. The Mohegans had remained 
faithful to the English, so Connecticut had not suffered as much as the 
other colonies/’ 

“ What can you tell us of the losses, Ray ? ” 

“ Twelve or thirteen towns were totally destroyed, and many others 
in part. Six hundred houses were burned, and the money loss was half 
a million of dollars, which was a great sum for those da}^s. Ovet six 
hundred young men fell in the war, and there was hardly a family which 
did not mourn some loved one who had given his life for his country.” 

“ Did this war affect other Indians ? ” 

44 It was attended by an uprising of the Maine Indians, which was 



begun by an English sailor upsetting a canoe to see if an Indian baby 
would swim naturally. The child went to the bottom at once and 
although the mother got it out quickly, it died, and the father aroused 
his people to war on the whites. Can you blame him for that?” 
demanded Hadley. 

“ This was a border warfare,” continued Ernest, “ rather than a 
regular one, and the French supplied the Indians with needful arms, 
being very pleased to do so. The women were as brave as the men 
were. One girl held a door until all her family escaped, and was left for 
dead when the savages did break in. She recovered, and lived to tell the 
story for many years.” 

u Annawon, King Philip’s most trusted brave, gave Captain Church 
Philip’s belt and some other things, saying: 4 Great captain, you have 
killed Philip and conquered this country, for I believe that I and my 
company are the last that war against you,’ ” said Teddy. 


“Captain Church was the cause of taking both Tuspaquin and 
Annawon, both great chiefs, promising them their lives and that he 
would employ them as soldiers. But when he was absent they were 
tried, condemned as murderers, and executed,” continued Roy 

“ Part of the captives lived to be ransomed,” asserted Will. u I read 
where Benjamin White, who went to secure the release of some of these 
prisoners, wrote urgently to his friends : 4 1 pray you hasten the matter 
of ransom, for it requireth great haste, stay not for the Sabbath nor for 
shoeing of horses.’ ” 

u I can tell you a story of this war. I know it is true for I have 
seen the descendants of the people, and heard the story told,” declared 
Ernest. 44 Thomas Eames, of Framingham, was in Boston, when his 
house was attacked by eleven Indians, and so he escaped. They burned 
the barn, house and cattle ; killed the mother and five children and 
carried off six or seven children and all the plunder that they could ” 



“Tell it all!” exclaimed Teddy. U I know that story, too. Mrs. 
Eames had said that she would never be taken alive. She was making 
soft soap at the time, and she defended her home as long as the boiling 
soap lasted. Three of the children escaped and returned home in a short 
time. Another boy escaped soon after, and two girls and perhaps a boy 
were carried to Canada. The youngest girl was found and redeemed by 
government agents, but the others were never heard from.” 

u I read this verse about King Philip, which I think is good to close 
our lesson about him with,” said Ray, softly repeating: 

“‘Even that he lived is for his conquerer’s tongue * - 
By foes alone his death-song must be sung. 

No chronicles but theirs shall tell 

His mournful doom to future times. 

May these upon his virtues dwell, 

And in his fate forget his crimes* 



3tf Through the trees fierce eyeballs glowed. 

Dark forms in the moonshine showed, 

Wild from their native wilderness, 

With painted limbs and battle dress. 5 * 

Hp'HE next day Teddy could hardly wait until the guide and his 
Indian companion were out of sight and hearing before he 
exclaimed eagerly: 

“I don’t suppose that you fellows know that they have gone to bring 
in the bear which John shot in the swamp this morning, do you ? I was 
there just after he killed him Had and I, I mean—and what do you 
think he did the first thing? You can never guess, so I will tell you. 
He begged that bear’s pardon for killing him ! ” 

“That is an old, old custom, but I didn’t think that any of the 
Indians did it now,” said Uncle Jack slowly. “In the old days, as soon 
as the Indian hunters were quite sure that a bear was dead, they begged 
its pardon. When they carried it into the village, all of the inhabitants 
clustered around it, stroking and kissing its head, and begging its pan 
don for causing its death.” 

“Was that all, and what was the good of it? ” demanded Ernest. 

“Then they would call it their relation—their dear grandmother or 
grandfather, and would tell it that the English shot it, not they, who 
loved it so. After it was cut up, the head was placed upon a scaffold, 
which was adorned with all the ornaments that could be found in the 
village, and a quantity of tobacco was placed under its nose, while eat¬ 
ables were set around it.” 

“That was so that the bear could have the best that they had to 
give, I suppose,” Hadley remarked sarcastically. 

“Just that, my boy. The next day a feast was made to its spirit, 

something like that made to the dead of their own race. All of the men 




smoked hurriedly, and blew the smoke into the nostrils of the bear. 
After begging its pardon again and again, they all ate heartily of its 
body, which had been prepared while they were seeking its forgiveness! 
Probably that custom was common when John was a boy, and he has 
never forgotten it.” 

“ But all of these old superstitions are passing away with the belief 
in witchcraft. We white folks can’t say much,” said Ray quietly. 

“ Not if all of our notions are looked up,” answered Roysignificantly 
“Once I knew a boy who wouldn’t get into his berth until he had 
pulled the blanket away and looked under the Deacon’s Seat.” 

“Shut up, can’t you?” whispered Ray, with a nudge. “Folks that 
know the most don’t tell of it.” 

“You may go on, Ernest,” said Uncle Jack as soon as the laugh at 
Ray’s expense had subsided. 


“ It was the aim of the white men, English as well as French, to 
make one tribe of Indians fight another, when they did not turn them 
against their own enemies, so that they would not have to fight either. 
Miantonomo was an able chieftain of the Narragansetts, and Uncas 
belonged to the Mohegans* These two were bitter enemies, and at last 
Miantonomo was taken prisoner.” 

“ I remember that, we have had it in our lessons,” interrupted Teddy. 
“You remember how the case was referred to the English, who saw no 
reason why mercy should be granted to him ! Even ‘ five of the most 
judicious elders of the church ’ thought that he should be put to death ! 
He was executed in Norwich, Connecticut, at a place which is still 
called 1 Sachem’s Plain,’ and a monument is erected there, which bears 
the simple words ‘MIANTONOMO, 1643.’ ” 

“ You are forgetful, we’ve had that,” laughed Hadley. “ We want 
to tell what we know about William Penn now, and how he treated the 
Indians. Isn’t that so, Uncle Jack ? ” 

“Yes, but you are all excusable for forgetting, when you tell us 



something which we have overlooked, or add to what has already been 
said on a subject,” smiled Uncle Jack. “ William Penn was the * Father 
of Pennsylvania,’ and as such holds a prominent place in the history of 
our country as well as in that of the Indians. We will find who he was 
before we go on with the Indian story.” 


“ Why-e-e, he was William Penn !” cried Roy in astonishment. 

“ We know that, but what about him before he was our William 
Penn ? Ernest, can you tell us ? ” 

“ He was the son and heir of Admiral Sir William Penn, an English 



naval commander. His father liad very high hopes and desires for him, 
but he became a Quaker when only a boy.” 

“ What did his father say to that? ” questioned Teddy. 

11 Oh, at first he didn’t say very much for he thought that it was a 
boyish fancy which he would outgrow. So, when he left Oxford Univer¬ 
sity, he sent him to travel to improve his mind and to cure him of his 

“Well, it didn’t cure him, did it? To the end of his life his 
interests were with those of the Quakers. He gave them his money, his 
time, and even his liberty, and was always ready to help one of them 
who was in distress. When they were persecuted he was abways their 
fearless champion,” cried Hadley. 


* His father even turned him out of doors, but his mother’s 
entreaties soon made him reconsider that harsh measure,” continued 
Ray. “ Then he sent him to France and Italy, where he acquired an 
elegant polish of manner that delighted him, but he remained a Quaker 
just the same.” 

“ What did his father do then, Will ? ” 

i ‘ He sent him to Ireland, to the splendid court of the Earl of Ormond, 
one of his friends, but the next thing that he knew young William 
was in prison with the Quakers ! His father got him out, and tried to 
move him by entreaties, even tears, but the best promise which he could 
get from him was that he would not wear his hat in the presence of the 
King, the Duke of York, and himself !” 

“ He was in prison more than once after that,” added Roy. “ At one 
time the jury could not, or would not agree, and they were kept for two 
days without ‘ meat, drink, fire or tobacco.’ Even then they would not 
convict him, and were imprisoned themselves until they could pay a fine.” 

“ His friends made fun of him, and it was a common saying that 
4 William Penn was a Quaker again, or some very melancholy thing.’ v 
laughed Ernest.” 



‘He was offered high, rank m the navy, the favor of his king; 
and many other desirable things, but he refused them all. When his 
father was dying his love for his son returned and he sent for him. It 
was then that he said to him : ‘Son William, if you and your friends 
keep to your plain way of preaching and living, you will surely makf 
an end of the priests,’ ” nodded Teddy. 

“ How old was Penn at that time, Hadley ?” 


“ He was twenty-six years old, and his father left him much property 
which he spent for his Quaker scheme. He married a woman whose 
character was as beautiful as her person, and who was a fitting com* 
panion for him in his noble work.” 

“ It was about this time that he became interested in the new land 
of America and the possibility of making a Quaker settlement there,” 
Ray continued. “ King Charles II. owed his father a large sum of 



money, as much, as ^16,000, and, as the king never seemed to have any 
money to spare, it was a pretty poor debt.” 

“ You mean every one but William Penn himself thought that it 
was,” interrupted Will. “He quietly offered to take land in the New 
World in payment, and the careless, jolly king was only too glad to give 
him what he really didn’t own to pay the troublesome account, so he 
gave him Pennsylvania.” 

“It wasn’t Pennsylvania then, though,” declared Roy. “It was in 
the year 1681 that Penn bought the land of the king, and the monarch 
gave it the name of Pennsylvania, or Penn’s woods. Then as soon as 
he could get any title from the Crown, Penn invited all peoples to help 
him settle the land. And he bought the land again from the Indians.’ 


* He played them quite a trick about it though,” laughed Ray. 
“They agreed fora certain sum to give him as much land as a young 
man could walk around in a day, but the man walked so fast and so 
far that they were astonished, and not a little provoked, for they thought 
that he must have run. But Penn gave them more presents until they 
said that they were satisfied.” 

“Why didn’t he come over with the first colony, Teddy?” 

“ He did come in 1682, and made a treaty of peace with all of the 
Indians around. They called him ‘ Father Penn,’ and always brought 
him presents.” 

“They called him the Quaker king, too,” asserted Ernest. 

“In memory of the meetings which they had with him the Indians 
used to meet at the assembly place for a long time. There they would 
repeat what he had said to their ancestors, and this practice continued 
until 1780,” said Will. 

“What can you tell us about one of these meetings at Shakamaxon, 
the assembly place, Teddy ?” 

“ Penn set a day for the Indians to meet him there. When the day 
arrived, and the old chiefs and the young warriors came, they found 



Penn already there; standing under the branches of a great elm tree, 
waiting for them.” 

“ What did he say to them, Hadley ?” 

“ He ashed them to be the friends of his people, said that he did not 
come to America to rob or hill them, but to live beside them as brothers 

“ What about this tribe of Indians that he was talhing to, Ray?” 

“ The Delawares and the Lenni Lenapes were just the same, and 
the western Indians called them the Wapenachhi. Their lands were 
from the Hudson to the Potomac. They were a noble, gentle people, 
and the warlihe Iroquois called them women because of this disposition. 
They were the devoted friends of William Penn, and his people, and 
always called him Mignon, or Elder Brother.” 

What can you tell us of the treaty which he made with the Indians, 



M After Penn told them that he and his friends desired to live in 
peace with them forever, the chiefs pledged themselves to £ live in love 
with William Penn, as long as the sun and moon endured Repre¬ 
sentatives of the principal tibes, the Lenni Lenapes, the Mingoes and 
the Shawnees, were there.” 

“ Can you repeat the treaty, or any part of it, Ernest ?” 

“I can read it to yon, Uncle Jack, for I have it right here,” was the 
quick reply, for while the others had been talking he had been looking 
it up. u It is ‘ that all of William Penn’s people, or Christians, and 
all of the Indians, should be brethren, as the children of one father 
joined together as with one heart, one body and one hand. That all 
paths should be open and free to both Indians and Christians. That the 
doors of the Christians’ houses should be open to the Indians, and the 
houses of the Indians open to the Christians, and that they should 
make each other welcome as their friends. That the Christians should 
not believe any false reports or rumors of the Indians, nor the Indians 



believe any sucli reports of the Christians, but should first come a* 
brethren, to inquire of each other.’ ” 

“ It would have been a good thing if more treaties like that had 
been made,” observed Teddy, and Ernest went on. 

“ ‘ And that both Christians and Indians, when they hear any false 
reports of their brethren, should bury them as in a bottomless pit. 
That if the Christians had any ill news that might be to the hurt of 
the Indians, or the Indians heard any such ill news that might be to the 
injury of the Christians, they should acquaint each other with it 
speedily, as with friends and brethren. That the Indians should do no 
manner of harm to the Christians, or their creatures, nor the Christians 
do any harm to the Indians, but treat each other as their brethren.’ ” 
“That was a pretty strong contract, wasn’t it?” asked Roy. “Was 
that all of it? What was to be done if they didn’t mind it?” 


“ It went on to say, 4 But, as there are wicked people of all nations, 
if either Indians or Christians should do any harm to each other, com¬ 
plaint should be made of it by the people suffering that right may be 
done; and when satisfaction is made, the injury or wrong shall be for¬ 
gotten and buried as in a bottomless pit. That the Indians should in 
all things assist the Christians, and the Christians assist the Indians 
against all wicked people that would disturb them.’ ” 

“ Oh, you must be getting tired—I will tell the rest,” interrupted 
Teddy. “ 4 And lastly, that both Christians and Indians should acquaint 
their children with this league and firm chain of friendship made 
between them ; and that it should always be made stronger and stronger, 
and be kept bright and clean, without rust or spot, between our children 
and our children’s children, while the creeks and rivers run, and while 
the sun, moon and stars endure.’ ” 

“Penn was always a frequent visitor to the Indians, and was gladly 
welcomed by them. He was also just to his colony. Long before any 
streets were laid out in Philadelphia, when only a few rude huts had 



been built, and some of the settlers slept in holes in the ground and in 
hollow trees-” 

“ Oh, Uncle Jack ! Now I know that yon are fooling us. There 
never was such a time as that !” exclaimed Ernest. 

“ There certainly was, and then Penn called the people together to 
make the laws which were to govern them. What happened in Europe 
when it became known that in the little Quaker settlement in far-off 
America, all men were considered free and equal, Hadley? ” 

“ Large numbers of people wanted to leave the old country and 
have a home in Penn’s City of Brotherly Love, and Philadelphia soon 
grew into a large town, with a school and printing press. When Penn 
died almost his last words were ‘ Mind our poor friends in America l ’ ” 


“ These Delaware Indians had a famous chief who was so much 
beloved by the whites as well as by his own race that, after he died, he 
was called a saint, and his name was placed in the calendars. Can you 
tell us what his name was, Ray ? ” 

“ It was spelled in more than oneway in the old books,like Tamany, 
Temeny and Tamanend, but he was called St. Tammany. May first, 
every year, his day was celebrated with great respect by the Revolutionary 
soldiers and until Jefferson was president.” 

“What was this celebration like, Will?” 

“Oh, the folks formed a procession and marched to a certain 
place which they called the Wigwam. There Indian speeches were 
made, the peace pipe was smoked, and the day was passed in festal 
enjoyments. After the noon feast they had Indian dances, then smoked 
the calumet again before the company separated.” 

“Did the Tammany societies, the Tammany halls and such things 
come from that festival and chief?” asked Roy. 

“ I guess they did,” smiled Uncle Jack. 

“Then I think that the grand, old chief would be a little restless if 
he knew what his name is attached to nowadays,” Teddy said dryly. 



“ What war was begun in 1689, Hadley ? ” 

“ There were wars right along from that time for seventy years, but 
the one that you mean was called King William’s war. The frontier 
towns had to bear the blunt of the warfare. The French and English 
got into rows over the other side of the water and their colonies had to 
pick it up whether they wanted to or not.” 

“ But they hated each other, and were jealous, and so they were 
always ready, I guess,” said Teddy. 

“ The Algonquin Indians were the allies of the French, and the 
Iroquois were true to the English,” Hadley went on. “The French were 
as savage as their allies, killing men, women and children, and making 
no effort to prevent torture. Of course, some of the commanders were 
exceptions to this accusation. It is not just to lay all of the cruelty of 
those sad times to the Indian, when some of it, especially the killing of 
the women and children, was done by command of the French, who had 
determined on a war of extermination.” 


“ But both the French and English stooped to get the Indians as 
allies, and sometimes they were afraid to try to check their cruel prac¬ 
tices, for fear of displeasing and losing them. Both nations gave rewards 
for the scalps brought in by the Indians,” said Teddy truthfully. 

“Yes, great cruelties were the results of the wars between the 
French and English in America, the commanders on both sides were 
knowing to them, and their nations should blush at their records. In 
1689 fifteen hundred Mohawks took Montreal, killing two hundred of 
the inhabitants with awful cruelty, and taking as many more prisoners. 
Dover, N. H., was the next to suffer, the Indians being incited by Count 
Frontenac, Governor of Canada. The commander at Dover was 
Waldron,” Will continued. 

“What about the Five Nations, Roy?” 

“ These Indians were the Iroquois. They were friendly to the 
English, but hostile to the French, and their territory was between the 




colonies of tlie two nations. When the war began the French retaliated 
for Montreal by attacking Dover.” 

“ Which was commanded by Major Richard Waldron, as Will said. 
He was the man who seized two hundred Indians who came to him to 
treat for peace and sent them to Boston. There eight or nine of them 
were put to death and the rest were sold as slaves. The Indians never 
forgave him for that, and were always plotting how they could get even 
with him,” Teddy added. 

“ They came pretty near doing it, I should say. Will, yon may 
tell us how it happened that the surprise was so complete.” 


“It was one June evening in 1689 when two Indian women came to 
Major Waldron’s house and asked to stay all night. They were given a 
place to sleep, and when the family were all slumbering, these women softly 
opened the door and admitted the fierce warriors who had been waiting 
outside. Waldron sprang up, and began a brave fight, but it was of no 
use. He was seized, placed in a chair, and tortured until he fainted, 
when the tormentors killed him.” 

“Were the Indians satisfied with his death, Ernest?” 

“No ; they burned the settlement, killed nearly half of the inhabit' 
ants, and took the rest off in a captivity worse than death,” remarked 

“ All of the frontier towns from Maine to New York, suffered severely, 
and in February, 1690, the French and Indians surprised and burned 
Schenectady, killed the most of the inhabitants, and carried many women 
and children into captivity. The French were more fierce in waging 
this war of extermination than the Indians were, and did some of the 
things which were laid to their savage allies. I have read that the 
savages were incited to do terrible deeds by the Jesuit priests and, after 
peace was declared, two of these men, in priestly dress, openly acknowl¬ 
edged that they led them,” said Teddy. 

“I guess that they did forget their peaceful calling a little, but 



women and children were relentlessly killed by the French and English, 
as well as by their savage allies,” declared Hadley. 

u The French not only wanted to exterminate the English, but they 
were perfectly willing that the Indian should follow them into the his¬ 
tory of the past, as soon as he ceased to be useful to them ! They offered 
a bounty for Indian scalps, giving as high as fifty dollars for a single 
one,” cried Ray. 

“Massachusetts and New Hampshire offered twenty pounds for each 
Indian captive, and forty pounds for every scalp. You see they thought 
that dead Indians were safer than live ones,” Teddy asserted. “This 
business of getting Indian scalps was a profitable one, and many unscru¬ 
pulous men engaged in it, not caring whether the scalps came from the 
heads of friendly Indians or hostile ones. At last the bounty ran up to 
one hundred pounds.” 


“The people of Schenectady were asleep when the place was at¬ 
tacked,” Ernest told them. “It was a cold winter night in February. 
At midnight the people were awakened by the awful war-cry and the 
smashing of doors. The terrible story is soon told. Only a few of the 
inhabitants escaped, and, in their night clothes, they ran through the 
snow and cold to Albany. Sixty people were killed and many taken to 
Canada as prisoners.” 

“Can you tell us of any other towns which were destroyed, Teddy?” 

“More than I wish I could ; and the story of one seems to be the 
story of all. Another party of French and Indians attacked Salmon 
Falls, in New Hampshire, where they killed the men, burned the houses, 
and carried away the women and children. A third party did the same 
thing for the little town of Casco, in Maine, and Pemaquid, in the same 
State, was destroyed a short time after Dover was.” 

“ Can you not tell us of other towns, Hadley ? ” 

“I think that all of the frontier towns suffered severely, but I guess 
you mean Deerfield and Haverhill in Massachusetts.” 



“ I found a story about tbis dme,” said Ernest. “ A man named 
Dustin lived near Haverhill. He was at work in his field when the 
Indians attacked his house. He sprang upon his horse and started to 
the rescue of his family, but met the most of his children coming to find 
him. He saved them, but his wife and baby were taken away, together 
with the nurse and a boy from Worcester. The little one was soon 
killed, for it was only an incumbrance, and the others were taken to an 
Indian village, just above Concord.” 


“ Every day the Indians described their modes of torture and told 
them to prepare for it, but they couldn’t frighten Hannah Dustin!” cried 
Teddy. “ And Sam Leonardson, the boy, was a brave one. He appeared 
to be contented, and worked for those Indians like a beaver, so they 
grew to like him. Then he asked his master to show him how to kill a 
man with the hatchet one day. That pleased the Indian, who immedi 
ately made up his mind that his adopted son would be a great warrior 
H* did not know that he would be the first one for Sam to practice on.” 



“ Hannah Dustin was a resolute woman, even for those times. She 
had no idea of remaining a prisoner if she could escape, and planned 
with her fellow captives to make the attempt. There were ten Indians, 
a squaw, and a child ir the party at the time. The captives managed 
to get the tomahawks, killed the men, wounded the squaw because they 
couldn’t help it, and spared the child,” Hadley continued. 

“ And Hannah Dustin was so mad because of the killing of her poor 
little baby that she actually scalped every one of those Indians. She 
took the gun and tomahawk belonging to the murderer of her child and 
the dreadful bag of scalps. Sam had a canoe all ready, and they paddled 
down the river to Haverhill, where they were welcomed as people arisen 
from the dead,” added Ray. 

“That is such an old, old story I didn’t think it worth while to 
repeat it. It is in every Indian book and history, and has been ever 
since I can remember,” exclaimed Roy scornfully. 


“ But it shows that the women of these times were as brave as the 
men were. It teaches us that we owe this broad, beautiful land of 
America to just such resolute men and women ! ” cried Ernest warmly. 

“Can you tell us what Indian chief led the attack on Haverhill, 
Hadley ? ” 

“ It was Assacambuilt, and his war-club had ninety-eight notches 
on it at the time, the number of English whom he had slain ! In 1706, 
when on a visit*to France, he was knighted by Louis XIV, and always 
wore his “badge of honor,’ which told his rank.” 

“ If every man in the colonies had been as brave and energetic as 
that woman and boy the French would have found Canada too warm 
to stay in,” declared Ray. 

“ We mustn’t forget that Lafayette was a Frenchman,” said Wilt 

“ Of course he was, and he was a good one, too 1 ” admitted Ray 
warmly. “But I want you to understand that, whil^ the French in 


strange superstitions. 

France were kind and humane, the French in Canada were so jealous of 
the English, and hated them so much, that they were much more savage 
than their savage allies.” 

“The first Jesuit missionaries were noble men, who honestly tried 
to convert the Indians and teach them better things. But their suc¬ 
cessors knew no higher duty than to exterminate the English colonies, 
the hated English heretics ! These priests confessed and absolved the 
Indians, then sent them out to murder, promising them the reward of 
everlasting bliss in heaven,” said Ernest decidedly. 

“ Two of them, Thury and Bigot, even tried to make the Eastern 
Indians break the treaty of peace and renew the war. They did much 
to make the name Jesuit a term of horror and reproach among English 
speaking people,” Teddy added, quickly. 

“Captain Church served in this war, aud once he put a number of 
his prisoners to death, some of them women and children, because the 
French and Indians were so cruel,” said Hadley. “ It seems as if 1 an 
eye for an eye ’ was the chief practice in those times, when no party . 
could make claim to generosity and common humanity.” 

“ King William’s war came to a close in 1697. It lasted over seven 
years, and caused great suffering. The Five Nations, the brave allies oi 
the English, suffered most, for their country was repeatedly invaded by 
the French, and by their hereditary enemies of their own race,” 
continued Ray. 

“The ‘ Flower of Essex’ was ambushed by Indians, and seventy 
killed in the contest known as ‘The Bars Fight.’ A monument has 
been erected on the spot, the gift of James W. Barnard, of Boston, whose 
ancestor, Joseph Barnard, was among the slain on that day. It was in 
August, 1695,” added Roy. 

“ It was only five years until Queen Anne’s war began, and they 
were not years of undisturbed peace,” said Uncle Jack. “Our next 
lesson will begin with that struggle.” 



* I am fresh from the conflict— Pm drunk with the blood 
Of the white men, who chased me o’er prarie and flood, 

Till I trapped them at last, and exultantly swore 
That my fearless red warriors should revel in gore! 

I have well kept my oath, O Manitou, the Just! 

Three hundred white hirelings are low in the dust.” 

** what have you to tell us about Queen Anne’s war? ” Uncle 

Jack began. 

“ England went to war with France and Spain, and, of 
course, the colonies of those countries in America had to take the quarrel 
up. James Moore was then the governor of Carolina, and he was engaged 
in the Indian slave trade.” 

“ What had he to do with the war ? ” demanded Ernest. 

“ He had a great deal to do with it, I can tell you. He attacked St. 
A ugustine with his force of white soldiers and Indians, but Spanish ships 
arrived in time to prevent his success.” 

u What was his next move, Teddy ? ” 

“ He attacked the Appalachee tribe, saying that he wanted to 
nubdue them before they had time to take up arms on the side of Spain, 
but his real object was slaves and plunder. The savages had done 
nothing but accept the Catholic religion—that was enough to make the 
English go to war in those days though. Many of the tribe were killed, 
many more taken as prisoners, their churches were destroyed, and the 
lands of the Appalachees «vere given to the Seminoles, who helped in 
their downfall.” 

“The English had i selfish motive in doing that,” declared Ernest. 
“ When the Seminoles settled on that land they became a barrier between 
the English and Spanish colonies, and that was a good thing.” 

“ What was happening in the northern part of the United States 
while these things were going on in the south, Hadley ? ” 



troubles on the frontier. 

“ Great numbers of women and children bad been taken to Canada 
and sold by the French as slaves, during King William’s war. When 
peace was declared in 1697 it was hoped that better things would be 
seen, but the treaty was broken again in 1702, when Queen Anne’s war 
began, and the terrible scenes were repeated with horrible variations. 
Deerfield was again burned, a French commander winning unenviable 
fame by his relentless killing of women and children. At last even the 
Indians were disgusted with their more savage leaders and refused to 
kill any more, but the French gave them additional presents—and 
promiser—and they kept at it.” 


u What about the attack on Deerfield, Ray ? ” 

“ The town had been warned by a friendly Mohawk, and the inhabit¬ 
ants had kept a close watch through the winter without seeing anything 
to alarm them, so they relaxed their vigilance. The first of March, 
when the snow was very deep and covered by a crust nearly as hard as 
ice, about two hundred French, with one hundred and forty Indians, all 
under the command of Rouville, attacked the place about daybreak.” 

“ Where were the sentinels ? ” asked Teddy. 

u They had left their posts, thinking that there was no danger of 
any attack, for they had seen no signs of the enemy through the night,” 
answered Ernest. “The attacking party had a good chance to creep up 
the drifts of icy snow to the top of the palisades, and then it was an easy 
thing to leap inside of the enclosure, the Indians sounding the terrible 
war cry. Forty were killed and one hundred and twelve taken to 

“ I will be first with a story of this massacre,” cried Teddy. “A 
minister by the name of Williams, his wife Eunice, and five children 
were among the prisoners. The baby was soon thrown out into the 
snow to die because it cried with the cold. The mother went on until she 
grew so faint and tired that she could not travel, and then she was killed 
with her captor’s tomahawk.” 



u Can you tell what became of the rest of them, Ernest ? n 

“ They were taken to Canada and were afterwards ransomed, with 
the exception of the youngest girl, who had been adopted by some con¬ 
verted Indians near Montreal, and they would not give her up. She 
continued to live with them and finally married a Mohawk chief. Once 
she came to Deerfield, in her Indian dress, to see her relatives. They 
could not persuade her to stay with them, however, and she went bach 
to her children and her adopted people.” 

“As late as 
1837 some of the 
Williams Indians, 
of whom there are 
several families, 
visited Deerfield. 

The chief took the 
girl’s name when 
he married her, 

I’ve heard. Among 
these visitors was 
an old woman of 
eighty, who said 
that Eunice was 
her grandmother. 

These Williams 
Indians still live 
on the St. Lawrence river,” added Will, continuing the history. 

“It was on this time that Mr. Williams wrote : ‘ Not long before 

the break of day the enemy came in like a flood upon us, our watch 
being unfaithful—they came to my house in the beginning of the onset, 
and by their violent endeavors to break open doors and windows, 
awakened me out of sleep—about sun an hour high we were taken out 
for the march. I saw my neighbors’ houses in flames—we were taken 
about a mile, where we found a great number of our neighbors, nine* 




teen of which were afterwards killed by tbe way, and two more starved 
to death. The prisoners were generally treated well, for they were 
worth a ransom.” 

“ Did none of these poor people ever return to their homes, Ernest ? ” 
“ Yes, many did. In 1706 fifty-seven of them were sent to Boston 
in a flagship, but there were many more of them who never left Canada. 
Some died, and some married with their captors.” 

u This war, or this branch of it, was conducted with the most brutal 
ferocity by the French. Hertel de Rouville gained everlasting infamy 
by killing helpless women and children, and his motto was ‘ no quarter.’ 
Vaudreuil, the governor of Canada, urged his forces to terrible deeds 
and, when even the savages became weary of the work, he induced some 
of them to continue. In 1708 Haverhill w 7 as surprised by the French 
and Indians under Rouville, and its inhabitants suffered fiendish tor¬ 
tures. None of them escaped death or captivity, and death was the rnosl 
merciful,” continued Teddy. 


“ What can you tell us about this attack on Haverhill, Hadley ? ” 

“ The village consisted of about thirty houses then. It was attacked 
about daybreak by a party of the French and Indians. That was August, 
29,1708. There was some queer escapes as usual, and this is one. A Mr. 
Rolfe, his wife, and youngest child were killed in the beginning. They 
had a slave named Hagar, who took two more of the children, one six 
and the other eight years old, and hurried them to the cellar, where she 
covered them with tubs, and hid herself behind a barrel. They escaped, 
although the Indians were in the cellar many times for the milk which 
was set upon the shelves. They even took meat from the barrel!” 

“ Another girl, named Anna Whittaker, hid in an apple-chest under 
a stairway, and was not discovered. There were three soldiers in Mr. 
Rolfe’s house at the time, but they were too frightened to do anything 
at all. They threw down their arms and begged the Indians for the 
worthless lives which were not spared. An Indian hates a coward, and 



Tiey ought to have known that they would kill them,’’ continued Ray 

“ I will tell you another story!” cried Will. “In the family of 
Thomas Hartshorne the father and three sous were killed and the 
mother left alone with her younger children. She felt that she could 
not save them all, so she left the baby on a bed in the chamber, fearing 


that its cries would reveal their hiding place, and hid with the others in 
the cellar, where they were not found.” 

“ Did the Indians find the baby ? ” demanded Ray breathlessly. 

“Yes, they plundered the house and threw the baby out of the 
chamber window when they discovered it. After they went away the 
mother searched for it and found it on a pile of boards, stunned but alive, 
and that child grew to be such a large strong man that he was often 
joked about being stunted by the Indians ! Why, he was much larger 



than common men,—perhaps that usage made him grow,” laughed 

“There are a great many other stories which might he told-—there 
always is in these Indian wars, you know !” exclaimed Roy. “One poor 
woman saved her child by falling so that she shielded it when she was 
fatally wounded; another saved her family by spearing an Indian with 
an iron spit, when he was forcing an entrance, and that when her husband 
had given up and said that ‘it would be better to let them come in ; 
and finally a man named Davis began to strike on the church with a 
great club, and to yell ‘ Come on, we’ll have ’em ! ’ The Indians thought 
that the soldiers were coming, and skedaddled in a hurry.” 


“So far in our history there has been no war with the Indians in 
North Carolina, although the Tuscaroras began to be suspicious and 
distrustful of the increasing settlements of the whites. What happened 
about 1711, Hadley ? ” 

“Tracts of their lands were given to a company of Germans from 
the region of the Rhine. The Indians rebelled and took some of them 
prisoners, with the surveyor named Lawson. They thought that he was 
to blame for the loss of their land because he surveyed it, and put him 
to a cruel death.” 

“ What was their next move, Ray ? ” 

“Then they got the Creeks to join them, and attacked the settlements 
on the Roanoke and Pamlico sound. Many innocent settlers paid the 
penalty of war before the matter was settled up.” 

“ That was always the way—the innocent had to suffer for what the 
guilty did. But in the end the Tuscaroras were expelled from the State,” 
Will concluded. 

“ What did this trouble lead to, Ray ? ” 

“It led to the war with the Yammassees in 1715, when these Indians, 
without any warning and by the most cunning planning, attacked the 
frontier settlements. They had helped the English in the war against 



the Tuscaroras, but when they were no longer needed the English 
treated them so badly that they not only turned against them, but they 
pursnaded the friendly Catabaws, Creeks, and Cherokees to go on the 
warpath too. It was a long, desperate struggle, but the Indians were 
driven ‘ farther west,’ as usual. ” 

a The Yammassees went to Florida, but the other tribes fled to the 
West,” Ernest said in correction. “ And the power of all of them was 
broken—for a time.” 

“ To show you how the boys behaved in those times I will tell you 
a little story which I read,” said Will. “ Several of the men 
had been killed in the fight, and after it was all over, a little boy came 
to the doctor and asked him to take a bullet out of his head. To his sur¬ 
prise the doctor found that a spent ball had actually passed under the 
skin on the little fellow’s forehead.” 


“That wasn’t all the story—I saw it myself,” declared Ray. “ ‘And 
that isn’t all, Mr. Doctor,’ the child said with a tremulous smile, as he 
pointed to his arm, which was broken at the elbow. Why didn’t you 
say something about it before ? ’ asked his mother. ‘ Because,’ answered 
the little hero coolly, ‘ the captain told us to keep still during the battle, 
and I thought you would be frightened and make a noise if I told you.’ ” 

“I will tell you another about Bobasheela,” added Roy. “An 
Englishman once spent some time among the Indians and was given 
that name. At one time, when he was floating down the river astride of 
two logs, he was taken by four Indians armed with war clubs, and in full 
war dress. Of course he thought he was a goner that time.” 

“ Why did they take him ? Was there trouble between the red men 
and the whites at that time ? ” 

“ No, two Indians had been executed some time before that, their 
friends thought unjustly, and these braves had sworn vengeance on the 
commander of the post, although he was a new officer, and not there at 
the time of the execution. The Indian leader asked Bobasheela if he 



knew this commander, telling him they were on their way to kill him and 
burn the settlement. The man answered warmly that he knew him well, 
knew that he was not in command when the two warriors were executed, 
and that he would be at the wedding party, which he himself had started 
to attend that night.” 

“ What did the Indians do then ? ” asked Teddy breathlessly. 
“ Don’t tell us that they killed Bobasheela.” 

“ No, for they didn’t. After a moment’s pause the chief said : k My 
friend, you have said enough. If you tell me that your friend, or the 
friend or enemy of any man, takes the hand of a fair daughter on that 
ground to-night, we will not offend the Great Spirit by raising the war 
cry there. This is the command of the Great Spirit, and a true warrior 
will not break it.” 


“Then the wedding saved their lives ! ” ejaculated Ernest. 

“ So it seems, for the Indians considered it wrong to kill at such a 
time, and never did if they knew it. The chief went on to say : ‘ My 
friend, these warriors you see around me, with myself, had sworn to kill 
the first human being that we met on our warpath. We shall not harm 
you, so you see I give you your life. You will, therefore, keep your lips 
shut, and we will return in peace to our village. My face is now blackened, 
and the night is dark, therefore you cannot know me. But this arrow 
you will keep, it matches with the others in my quiver, and by it you 
may always know me. But the meeting of this night is not to be 
known.’ ” 

“ Did he take the arrow,” asked Hadley. 

“Yes, and he afterwards met the same Indian in the office of the 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis, and was recognized by him. 
Then they often met, even hunted together, and at last the chief gave 
him the name of Bobasheela, by which the Indians knew him ever after.” 

“I’ll tell you the ending of that story,” cried Teddy. “ I’ve found it 
—here it is. Several years after this man returned to England he 

troubles on the frontier. 


attended an exhibition of Indians, and this same chief happened to be 
one of them. The Indian electrified the whole audience by stopping 
suddenly in the midst of the wild dance, and uttering a war-whoop, with 
his eye fixed, and his finger pointing to a man well back in the hall. 
The act was not on the programme and the manager was puzzled as well 
as the audience.” 

“ Well, don’t stop right there. What was the matter with him ? ” 
asked Ray impatiently. 

“ He looked at the man steadily for a minute or two, then he said 
softly, in an inquiring tone, ‘ Bobasheela ? Bobasheela ? ’ He had recog 
nized his friend of the wild woods of far away America. Bobasheela 
came forward, and the Indian leaped from the stage to embrace him.” 

“They never forget a friend—nor an enemy,” said Uncle Jack 


“There seems to have been trouble everywhere with the Indians 
about 1700, or a little after,” said Ray. “There was a small Indian 
village at Norridgewock, in Maine, where a Jesuit priest, named Sebas¬ 
tian Rasies, lived.” 

“He was one of the good Jesuits, who gave up everything in this 
world to try and teach the Indians the truths of pure Christianity,” 
continued Will. “ He lived as the Indians themselves did, not only that 
he might be able to teach them better if he was one with them, but that 
he might learn their habits, manners, and language, and thus become 
a good Indian scholar.” 

“Well, what happened to that little Indian village, Roy ? ” 

“ The people of Massachusetts hated the Jesuits bitterly, as perhaps 
they had reason to, only they didn’t try very hard to tell the guilty 
from the innocent, and there was jealousy enough between the whites 
and the red men. These Massachusetts people determined to capture 
the good priest. They failed twice, but the third time that they attacked 
the village there were only a few warriors in it. Father Rasies was 


TROUBLES ON THE frontier. 

killed. He did not try to escape, but stood between the enemies of bis 
own race and bis red friends, to gain time for tbe Indians to get away.” 

“ That’s another black mark against the English,” nodded Teddy. 

u Can you tell us the story of Paugus and Chamberlain, Ernest? ” 

“ It was in May, 1725, that there was a battle between the colonists 
under Captain Lovewell and a tribe of Indians in New Hempsbire, 
called the Pequakets.” 

“ ‘Anon, there eighty Indians rose, 

Who’d hid themselves in ambush dread ; 

Their knives they shook, their guns they aimed, 

The famous Paugus at the head. 

John Lovewell, captain of tbe band, 

His sword he waved, that glittered bright; 

For the last time he cheered his men, 

And led them onward to the fight !’ ” 

Ray quoted, and then the history was continued. 


u Among Lovewell’s men was one John Chamberlain. He was as 
tall and sinewy as the tallest Indian, two of them were hardly a match 
for him, and be could outrun a moose,” Will continued. u The red men 
shunned and feared him, passing his lonely dwelling cautiously and in 
wise silence, letting him pass their ambush unmolested, even when they 
numbered a score or more. They knew well that if they fired at him, 
and missed their mark, his vengeance would be swift and terrible.” 

“ Go on, Ernest.” 

“The Pequakets lived on the shore of Lake Winnepisiogee, and the 
mighty Paugus was their chief, strong and tall, swift and cunning, cruel 
and revengeful—the terror of the frontier. The settlers bad often tried 
in vain to kill or take him prisoner, and once, when they set his wigwam 
on fire, he was hidden so near that he felt the heat of the flames, and the 
smoke nearly made him cough—if he had done that they would have 
got him sure.” 

u Tbe fight was a long and desperate one, but tbe Indians were 



finally defeated,” interrupted Teddy, eager to tell tlie finish. “ When 
it was about over Chamberlain went to a lake, now called LovewelPs 
Pond, to wash his gun and quench his thirst. Paugus went to the pond 
at the same time on the same errand, and each foeman recognized the 
other and fully realized what must come.” 

“ But they coolly made a truce to wash their guns out, and put 
them in order,” Hadley exclaimed incredulously. “Then they took 
thur places on the beach, facing each other. ‘Now, Paugus, I’ll have 
you,’ said Chamberlain. 4 Na, na, me have you,’ was the defiant reply, 
and soon two echoes broke the forest stillness. Paugus was killed while 
Chamberlain lost a lock of hair! ” 

“What was the result of this strange duel, Ray ?” 

“ The. Indians fled as soon as they knew that their chief was dead 
but only fourteen of the settlers lived to return to their friends. The 
battle was a blow to the Indians, although it could hardly be called a 
vkvjry for the white men.” 


“What can you tell us of the Natchez tribe, Hadley?” 

“It was in 1729 that Bienville exterminated them. This tribe was 

not very numerous, but they were more intelligent and civilized than 

the other tribes. They worshiped the sun and their herd chief claimed 

to be a descendant of that fiery body. He ^tood at the door of his cabin 

every morning and waited patiently until the sun appeared above the 

eastern hills, then he bowed before it three times and prostrated himself 

upon the ground. Then he arose, took a pipe which he never used at 

any other time, and from it puffed smoke towards the east, the west, the 

north, and the south. He ate his morning meal before the others could 

and, when he had finished, one of his officers would announce the fact to 

the people with these words:— £ The Grand Sun has eaten, and the rest 

of the world may now eat.’ ” 

“ Do you know what led to the war with them, Will ?” 

H The Grand Sun was a brother to Stung Serpent, and both of them 



were very friendly to the white men until the commander of the post at 
Natchez wanted the Grand Sun’s home to build a village on. This resi¬ 
dence was a beautiful Indian village near Natchez, called White Apple. 
The chief did not want to give it up because it had been in his family 
for generations be/ore the white man saw the shores of America.” 

“ Why didn’t the commander take another place ? ” demanded Teddy 
impatiently. “ America was large enough for every one here at that 
time, I’m sure.” 

“Oh, he was noted for injustice towards the Indians—his name was 
M. de Chopart. No place but White Apple would do for him to build 
his handsome village on, and he very coolly ordered the chief to give it 
up,” said Hadley. 


“What did the chief reply to this selfish demand, Ray?” 

“He gently reminded him that his ancestors had lived there as 
many years as there were hairs in his head, and said decidedly that it 
was right for their descendants to stay there always. Then he called a 
council, and tried to make peace with Chopart at first, but he would not 
listen to anything that he didn’t want to hear.” 

“What was the next move, Will?” 

“The Indians began to prepare for a massacre of the whites. They 
worked secretly, sending bundles of sticks to other bands of the tribe, 
telling them to break a stick every morning, and rally to the fight upon 
the day that the last stick was broken. An Indian woman told the com¬ 
mander of the plot, but he would not believe her, and made no prepara¬ 
tion for defence.” 

“This led to the war which resulted in the extermination of the 
tribe,” continued Roy. “Fort Rosalie was attacked, and of the seven 
hundred there, not one escaped. The commander who was the cause of 
all the trouble, was one of the first to fall. The Indians hated him so 
much that no warrior was allowed to touch him. He was killed with a 
wooden tomahawk by one of the meanest men of the whole tribe.” 



“When this news reached New Orleans, Bienville resolved to avenge 
it. The Choctaws, hereditary enemies of the Natchez tribe, furnished 
him with sixteen hundred of their best warriors, and the result was as 
he expected and determined that it should be,” said Ernest. 

“ What was that, Teddy? ” 

“The Natchez tribe were utterly defeated, and the remnant were 
forced to surrender. The Grand Sun, as well as those of his followers 
who had been spared, all were sold as slaves, and the Natchez tribe passed 
from the living to the dead history of the new nation.” 

“That wasn’t all of the story. Bienville got their hereditary 
enemies, the Choctaws, to help him do the job. And, after they had 
conquered the Natchez Indians, they tried the same thing on the Chicka- 
saws. Bienville pretended that he thought they had been helping the 
Natchez. But the commander of the first expedition that was sent 
against them was taken and burned at the stake, and the next attempt 
was not more successful, so they decided that they would let them alone 
for awhile,” said Roy. 

“ But, after a treaty of peace was concluded by the whites, the 
trouble with the Indians continued. So colonization progressed amid 
the horrors of both red and white wars almost up to the time of the 
Revolution. Next, we will have the accounts of the French and Indian 
war, the most important, perhaps, of them all,” said Uncle Jack, and 
the books were replaced on the shelf, while the boys went for an evening 
row on the river. 

“ Play and study spice each other out here in the woods,” cried 
Teddy, as they pushed out from the shore. 



** A yell the dead might wake to hear, 
Swelled on the night air, far and clear-—— 
Then smote the Indian tomahawk, 

On crashing door and shattering lock.” 

^ IV J EXT we shall learn about General James Edward Oglethorpe 
I \ and his treatment of the Indians. You have already heard 
the story of the significant present which Tomochichi gave 
him. Ernest, can yon tell us what kind of a man he was ? ” 

“ History calls him a ‘ brave and humane gentleman.’ He was a 
bold soldier of his time ; after he left the army he used to visit the 
prisons, trying to better the condition of the unfortunate inmates. It 
was then the custom in England to shut men up when they could not 
pay their debts, and he did not think it was the right way to do.” 

“ What has all that to do with James Oglethorpe in America, I want 
to know? ” asked Teddy impatiently. 

:: A great deal, as you will soon see. The man who would labor for 
the poor of his own race was not very likely to oppress the poor of 
another land. Oglethorpe found a number of rich men, as generous as 
himself, to join him in making a refuge for these debtors. King George 
II. gave them a tract of land in the New World, which he named Georgia, 
after himself,” answered Ernest. 

“It was in 1733 that Oglethorpe landed on a bluff on the SavannaV 

river, called Yamacraw, and bought it of the Indians for the site of his 

town. He had about one hundred and twenty poor Englishmen with 

him. How did the Indians receive him, Hadley ? ” 

“ The Muscogees, the Creeks, the Cherokees, and the Oconees sent 

chiefs to him at once, to make an alliance, and all of them ‘trusted 

implicitly in the promises which he made them.’ Even the distant 

Choctaws sent messengers to make treaties with him, and a profitable 



Irade was established with tribes as far west as the Mississippi 

“Oglethorpe founded Savannah ; did he found any other towns on 
the Savannah River, Ray ? ” 

“ Yes, Frederica and Darien, and some other places which are stil? 
flourishing towns.” 

“What lands did he buy of the Indians, Will ? ” 

“ All of that lying between the Savannah and the Altainaka, and all 
of the islands on that coast 
except St. Catharine’s, which 
the Indians reserved for hunt¬ 
ing and bathing purposes.” 

“ Can you tell me where 
the Creek Indians got that 
name, Roy?” 

“ Drake says that it was 
because of the large member 
of creeks on the land which 
they occupied. It don’t take 
much to name a people or a 
tribe, you know.” 

“In 1734, when Ogle¬ 
thorpe went to England, he 
took Tomochichi and his 
queen with him, and they 
were well pleased with their 
risit. The Indians all loved him so well that they gave him a name 
which meant in their language the same that 1 The Beloved ’ would in 
ours,” cried Ernest. “ And so his colonies increased and prospered.” 

“Can you tell us anything about John Wesley, the missionary, 
Hadley ? ” 

“He and his brother Charles came to Georgia in 1736, and he 
immediately became a missionary to the Indians, but he did not stay in 




America very long, not more tlian two or three years, at that time, any¬ 
way. He was the founder of the religious sect called the Methodists, 
and was followed by the preacher Whitfield, who founded the Orphan 
House near Savannah. All of these men were true teachers of the 
Indians while they stayed in America, and helped to make the history 
of Georgia.” 

“What can you tell us of the year 1739, Ray?” 

“ The war between England and Spain began, and Oglethorpe was 
ordered to invade Florida. He was willing to undertake it, for he was 
a brave soldier and had no great love for his Spanish neighbors. The 
Indians who liked him so well were his allies, and those in Florida 
sided with the Spanish. But he failed to capture St. Augustine, and 
returned home. Then the Spanish general thought it was his turn, 
and followed him up with a great fleet, boasting that he would not leave 
an Englishman south of the Potomac.” 


“And did he, Will?” 

“I should say that he did, but Oglethorpe’s promptness and wit 
made him do so. One of his men deserted and went over to the 
Spaniards, and the English soldiers were afraid that he would tell how 
small their fotre really was. So Oglethorpe wrote a letter to the 
deserter, telling him to be sure and make the Spaniards think that they 
did not have many men, in fact telling him to tell just what they did 
not want the enemy to know.” 

“ What was that for ? ” cried Teddv. 

“ Why, don’t you see ? He knew that they wouldn’t believe it; 
that they would think that he was trying to deceive them. He knew 
that they would take the deserter for a spy, and would not believe a 
thing that he told them. It was rather hard on the deserter, but 

“ How did he send the letter, Roy ? ” 

“ He gave a Spanish prisoner his liberty, and sent him with it. 



knowing very well that he would give it right to the Spanish general, 
as he did. Then Oglethorpe posted his soldiers and Indians, and waited 
for the attack which never came, for the Spaniards left as soon as they 

“ And so Georgia was saved to the English ; it would not have 
been done without Oglethorpe’s Indians. What happened in 1744, 
Ernest ? ” 

“France joined with Spain against England. Between the pos¬ 
sessions of France and England lay the fertile Ohio valley, and they 
both claimed the region, although it was occupied by neither of 

“ The Indians didn’t want either of them there !” cried Teddy. 
“ They were willing to trade with the ones who gave them the most for 
their furs, but they did not want them to settle on their lands. They 
asked and with reason, ‘ If the French take possession of the north side 
of the Ohio, and the English of the south, where is the Indian’s land ?’ ” 


a What was the first move, Hadley.” 

“ George Washington, then a young man, was sent to the French 
to find out what they intended to do. Half-King, a Delaware chief 
furnished him with a guard, telling him naively that, as the French 
were the first to come there, and his tribes did not want either of them 
to take their lands, he would help the English drive them out. I suppose 
he hoped to make friends with the English in that way, and pursuade 
them to stay away, too.” 

“ The Iroquois kept the French from getting control of the Hudson 
river. These Indian wars prevented the English from scattering over 
the country, and made them stand by each other, thus training them 
for ‘union and strength,’ ” nodded Teddy. 

“That was the beginning of the French and Indian war, the most 
important of all the colonial wars, which lasted nine years and gave all 
territory east of the Mississippi to England, with the exception of two 



islands near Newfoundland and New Orleans, which were retained by 
France,” added Ray. 

“ In the ‘ grand talk, 5 which the Indian chiefs had with Washington 
they promised that he should have a guard to the nearest French post. 
There the French tried hard to get Half-King to break the promise, but 
they did not succeed. What was the first battle fought in this war, 
Will ? 55 

“ It was called the battle of Great Meadows, where the English were 


assisted by Half-King and his warriors, and the French were defeated 
It took just ten minutes to beat the French there, kill their commander, 
and take many prisoners. 55 

“ But Washington had to give up Fort Necessity, which he built 
there, to the French and Indians! 55 cried Hadley. “ He knew that they 
would soon be back, and sent for re-inforcements, which, by the way, he 
did not get. They fought desperately for nine hours, and were allowed 
to march out with all the honors of war. 55 



“I don’t wonder that he had to leave, there were six hundred of the 
French and over a hundred Indians,” added Ray. 

u Then General Braddock was sent over here by the King of Eng¬ 
land, and he was quite sure of a speedy victory. He had rather a mean 
idea of both the American colonists and the American Indians; can you 
tell us what he said to Franklin about the Indians, Will ? ” 

“ Franklin was telling him of the Indian modes of warfare, and 
advising him to look out for them, while he listened incredulously and 
answered with a scornful laugh : 1 These savages may be a formidable 
enemy to your raw American militia, but upon the King’s regular and 
disciplined troops, sir, it is impossible that they should make an 
impression.’ ” 


“ Well, they did make an impression on them at the time of Brad- 
dock’s defeat!” cried Roy. “ I suppose he meant well, but he didn’t 
know much about the Indians. When Washington asked him to let his 
men fight from behind trees, he declared that only cowards would 
do that. And the result was complete victory for the French and 

“ It was there that Washington was shot at so many times by the 
Indians,” Ray declared. “About fifteen years after the fight an old 
chief told General Washington that he was there that day, and not only 
fired at him himself, but ordered all of his warriors to do so. When he 
was unharmed they thought that it was the will of the Great Spirit for 
him to live, and that the bullets were mysteriously turned aside so that 
they could not hit him—and I guess they were about right—Washing¬ 
ton hadn’t then done his work for America.” 

“ One Indian threw his gun down upon the ground, declaring that 
the Great Spirit was protecting the English warrior, whom he was try¬ 
ing to kill, and it was Washington ! ” cried Ernest. 

“ Braddock was badly wounded, and did not speak a word for a day 
after the battle, then he turned to one of his officers with the words: 



4 Who would have thought it ? ’ He learned something about Indian 
fighting, but he died to learn it,” observed Teddy. 

“ A doctor had a very narrow escape in 1755. With eight others he 
was attacked by the Indians and, being the last man in the line, he 
turned and fled back to the fort from which they had just marched. Two 
Indians pursued him. He shot one and tried to distance the other. At 
the foot of a hill a dead pine tree had fallen directly across the trail, and 


sharp, broken branches were sticking up all over it, like a porcupine’s 
quills. There was no time to stop or turn aside when he saw the tree, 
so that the doctor made the spring in his desperation, and managed to 
clear the sharp prongs. The Indian was not so lucky, but was impaled 
on one of the sharp sticks. The doctor reached the fort in safety. That 
is the first story of this war, and it shows what a little thing will some¬ 
times decide between success and failure,” laughed Will. 

‘ Here is another storv—it happened the next year! ” Roy cried 


eagerly. “ It is the account of how one Janies Smith was adopted by a 
tribe of Indians, to whom the French had given him as a prisoner. 
Smith was confined in an old hut while the Indians had a feast, think¬ 
ing every moment that he would soon be taken out and tortured. He 
was led out in the morning, his hair was all pulled out by the roots 
except a topknot, which was tied so as to make it stand up straight, and 
then ornamented with a silver brooch. His nose and ears were bored 
and ornamented with rings. He was then stripped and painted in vari¬ 
ous colors, after which a belt of wampum was fastened about his neck, 
and silver bands were placed upon his arms.” 

u Why did they do that ? ” demanded Ernest. 


a Listen and you will find out. He felt sure that he was about to 
6e tortured when an old chief took him by the arm, led him into the 
clear space in front of the village, gave three shrill whoops, and they 
were immediately surrounded by the whole tribe. The old chief made 
a long speech which Smith could not understand, and then delivered 
him up to three girls.” 

“To kill ? ” breathed Teddy, with a shudder. 

u They led him into the river and tried to push him under the water 
but, although he expected to die, he had no notion of being drowned by 
girls. He fought with desperation while the tribe, watching every 
move, laughed uproariously. Finally some of the Indians called out 
‘ No hurt, no hurt you,’ and he stopped resisting. As soon as the girls 
had dipped him well they scrubbed all of the paint off, and led him back 
to the chief. Then the Indians dressed him in a richly ornamented 
shirt, leggings, and moccasins, gave him a buffalo robe to sit on, a pipe, 
a tomahawk, a pouch, some tobacco, and flint, and steel.” 

“Quite a change in the treatment? What came next?” asked 

“ The chiefs seated themselves around him and smoked for some 
time in silence, then the old chief said, ‘ My son, you are now one of us ? 



and will be treated like our own people. By an ancient custom, the cere* 
mony whicb you have just gone tbrougb with bas placed you on an equal* 
ity witb ourselves, every drop of white blood having been washed awayl 
We are now your brothers and are bound by our laws to treat you as 
such, to love you, to fight for you, and to avenge your injuries as much 
as though you had been born with usd He was then introduced to the 
members of the family which had adopted him, and received with a great 
show of affection. He was educated in all the cunning of the Indian, 


and remained with the tribe more than four years, when he managed to 
make his escape.” 

“ I can tell yon a story of something which happened about that 
time—I cannot tell you the exact year,” said Ernest eagerly. “There 
is a little stream which empties into the Hudson River, which bears the 
name of Murderer’s Creek—I will tell you why it is called so. About 
1754 a small tribe of Indians, now scattered or extinct, lived there. A 
family named Stacey lived in a small log cabin near the mouth of the 



stream, and an old Indian named Naoman often visited tliemand became 
very fond of the little boy and girl, aged five and three years.” 

44 He didn’t kill them ? ” exclaimed Teddy. 

44 No, but one day he entered the house, lighted his pipe, and smoked 
for some time in gloomy silence. When asked if he was sick he shook 
his head, arose, and went away. This happened three or four times, 
but at last when Mrs. Stacey asked his trouble, he said, ‘I am a red man, 
the pale-faces are my enemies, why should I speak ? ’ She reminded 
him that they had alwa}^s been his friends. 4 It would cost me my life, 
you white-faced women cannot keep a secret,’ he next said. 4 Try me 
and you will find that I can,’ she said persuasively. 4 Swear by the 
Great Spirit that you will tell no one but your husband, not if my tribe 
kill you for not telling,’ he commanded. 4 1 swear it,’ she answered 


44 And he told her that the tribe was going to kill them ? ” questioned 

44 Yes, and they were going to begin the massacre that night. 4 Be 
quick, but cause no suspicion,’ Naoman said, as he went away. They 
tried to do this, but were seen, captured and taken to the Indian village, 
where Naoman sat with warriors in council.” 

44 The chief declared that some one had been guilty of treason, and 
ordered Stacey to tell who it was. Stacey would not name the traitor, and 
his wife said that she had been warned in a dream, 4 The Great Spirit 
does not talk to the pale-face in dreams l ’ said one of the old warriors 

44 Did she tell ? ” breathed Ray. 

44 Another of the Indians seized her little son and daughter and held 
the dreadful tomahawk over their heads, saying : 4 Woman, thou hast 
two tongues and two faces. Speak the truth or the children shall die. 
Name the red man who betrayed his tribe. I will ask you three times 
only.’ The poor mother was silent, even when her children cried to her 
for help. Suddenly Naoman strode forward with the command 4 Stop \ 



White woman, you have kept your word with me. Chiefs, I am the 
traitor. I have eaten the bread, warmed myself at the fire, and shared 
the kindness of these Christian white people, and it was I who told 
them of their danger. I am a leafless, withered trunk; cut me down if 
yon will ; I am ready to fall.’ ” 

“They didn’t kill him ! ” cried Will earnestly. 

“What else could they do?—he was a traitor to his people. The 
doom of a traitor in civilized nations is death. His white friends were 
killed also, and his sacrifice was made in vain. And that is why that 
place is called Murderer’s Creek.” 

“What happened in September, 1756, Ernest?” 

“ There was an Indian village on the Alleghany River, called Kit¬ 
tanning. It was the home of the noted chief, Captain Jacobs. Colonel 
Armstrong determined to destroy it, because the Indians who lived there 
were French allies, and also rather troublesome neighbors. So the 
village was set on fire and the great chief, with nearly all of his followers, 


“ The war now began in earnest, and soon came the terrible massacre 
at Fort William Henry. Events followed each other rapidly, and each 
battle was a repetition of the one before it, with another side victorious, 
perhaps. Teddy, what about the Cherokees ? ” 

“ They were the true friends of the true man, Oglethorpe of 
Georgia. England would have lost her colony there many times had it 
not been for them—they would come hundreds of miles and fight like 
tigers for Oglethorpe. After he left them they learned that all white 
men were not the same. They fought with the British during the Revolu¬ 
tion, an English agent living in the nation as one with them, and sway¬ 
ing them to his will in all things.” 

“And it is asserted in history that never was such torture known as 
was inflicted on their helpless prisoners, with him in their midst I These 
British officers tortured Georgia women with thumb screws to make them 



reveal the hiding places of their husbands and sons. Truly the Indian 
was not the only savage in America ! ” exclaimed Ernest. 

“ Who were the worst ? ” asked Hadley. u The Indians who burned 
and tortured English prisoners, or the French commanders who were 
within sight and hearing? Yet this was done repeatedly by French 
sanction, and later the English did the same thing when the Indians, as 
their allies, were fighting the Americans.” 

“ An Iroquois captive, taken by the French, had his feet broiled, 
his hands burned with red hot irons, his joints broken, the sinews of his 
arms and legs pulled out, and was then scalped and red-hot sand turned 
upon his head,” added Ray. 


“I think that we are off the track ! ” cried Roy. “ Uncle Jack asked 
us about the Cherokee war, which began in 1759, when the Governor of 
South Carolina sent a party of men into their country against the wishes 
of the people and of the legislature of his State. These men did such 
damage that the Cherokees resolved on a war of extermination. They 
had always been very friendly with the English, and had received no 
pay for their services. When they started to go home they were obliged 
to take food from the settlers as they went along, as they had been given 
neither food nor money to buy it with.” 

“ They had a queer way of raising money for their poor. They 
would hold a war-dance, and each chief who danced and bragged of his 
exploits had to throw a present upon a bear skin. He could brag as 
much as he liked, but a present must be given for each incident. In 
this way quite a sum was sometimes received, when there were a lot of 
braves present, and after paying the musicians the rest was always 
given to the poor,” laughed Will. 

“I found something which I think will interest all of you!” 
exclaimed Ray. “We have been talking of treaties, and one of the 
first treaties ever made with the Indians contained this clause : ‘ If any 

citizen of the United States , or any person not being an Indian , shall 



attempt to settle on any of the lands southward or westward of such bourn 
daries which are hereby allotted to the Indians for their hunting grounds , 
or having already settled and will not remove from said land within six 
months after the ratification of this treaty , such person shall forfeit the 
protection of the United States , and the Indians may punish him or not as 
they please? ” 

u What do you think of that ? If all of the Indian treaties were so 
the Indians had a right to ‘ punish ’ the white men who tried to take 
their lands !” ejaculated Teddy. 


“ I think we are off the track again,” declared Will. “ In all history 
there never was a race civilized in so short a time as the Cherokees 
were, yet they were also told to ‘ move on,’ and even had to be helped to 
do so by military force, so great was their love for their homes. They 
did in a century what it took the Britons five hundred years to do. 
They are temperate, industrious and intelligent, living by the honest 
fruits of their labor, and as ambitious to advance as any whites.” 

“ In 1878, these people had a brick council house which cost $22,000, 
and they lived in log, frame or brick houses, as their means allowed. 
And it was not an uncommon sight to find a sewing machine or a piano 
in their homes,” said Roy. 

“ That was not all,” cried Ernest quickly. “They had seventy-five 
day schools, two seminaries, a manual labor school, an orphan asylum, 
twenty-four stores, twenty-two mills, several blacksmithshops, and all of 
the work was done by their own people.” 

“ And they have not gone back on their records since,” said Uncle 
Jack. “ At least that is what the reports say. We will begin our next 
lesson with the attack on Fort Edward, where we will make the acquaint¬ 
ance of more than one hero who fought in the Revolution. Our own 
wars are so mixed up with the history of the Indian it is impossible to 
tell one without closely following the other. The Indians were allies 
on both sides in the early days of our nation, you must remember,” 



u I shall wash from my face every cloud-colored stain. 

Red—red shall alone on my visage remain ! 

I will dig up my hatchet and bend my oak bow ; 

By night and by day I will follow the foe.” 

U [ FIND that we did not finish our lesson last night,” Uncle Jack said 
chidingly. “What sort of people were these Cherokees, Ray?” 

“They had villages, cultivated the land, and were fast becom¬ 
ing civilized; but their homes were destroyed and they were driven to 
the mountains, where they carried on a border warfare for years.” 

“They are the Indians who had a written language of their very 
own, and a newspaper printed in it, which has been established since 
1830,” cried Ernest. “ Sequoyah, a full blood Cherokee, invented their 
alphabet. It has eighty-six sounds ; each character standing for a sylla¬ 
ble. He taught his own band to read and write by its use, then went to 
teach other bands, and so the Cherokee dialect became a written lan¬ 
guage, thanks to an uneducated Indian.” 

“When Canada was surrendered to the English, the Indians 
there were not very well satisfied. Can yon explain why that was 
so, Teddy?” 

“ Why, they liked the French the best, I suppose. And another 
thing—it don’t speak very well for our folks—the French would not 
allow rum to be sold to the Indians, but the Eng lish soon found that 
there was money to be made in that way, and used liquors freely in their 
trade, to the rapid demoralization of the red man. Some of the tribes 
saw this, and had sense enough to hate the English for it.” 

“It was in 1761 that a Mr. Davis and his wife, of the James river 
settlement, were taken as prisoners. Mr. Davis was killed, but his wife 
was taken to the Indian village, where she was obliged to dress like the 

Indian women. She was a wise woman, and began at once to doctor hei 
16 241 



red captors, making suck marvelous cures, in tkeir eyes, that ske was 
regarded as a messenger from tke Great Spirit, treated as sacred, and 
allowed all tke privileges of tke tribe, as a wonderful ‘ medicine woman.’ 
For some time ske wandered about tke woods in searck of roots and 
kerbs, always coming back to the camp in due season. Ske made these 
stays longer and longer, until at last ske ventured to strike for freedom,” 
said Hadley. 

“That was in 1763, and ske had been a prisoner about two years,” 
continued Ray. “When ske did not return at night, tke Indians sus¬ 
pected that they had lost tkeir ( medicine woman,’ and they set out to 
find her. She crossed tke river three times to conceal her footsteps, but 
in doing this again ske was discovered, and, to evade her pursuers, ske 
crept into a hollow sycamore log.” 


u And got away? ” demanded Hadley. 

“Yes. As ske lay in tke hollow log tke Indians passed and 
re-passed tke spot, even sitting down on tke log. They camped near 
by, but went on in tke morning, and ske started off in tke opposite 
direction from that taken by them. When ske reached tke river ske 
crossed it on a drift log and, travelingby night, ske soon came to a place, 
quite near a settlement if ske had known it, where ske laid down to die 
in utter despair, but was discovered by some of tke settlers.” 

“ What did ske live on all that time ? ” inquired Ray. 

“ Ok, on river shell-fish, wild fruits and roots,” answered Will care¬ 
lessly. “That would be easy enough.” 

“ If you think so you had better try it and see how easy it is ! ” 
retorted Ray. 

“ And just think of it! That woman actually traveled three hun¬ 
dred miles through forests and swamps, and over rivers and mountains, 
before ske got to tke Green Brier settlement,” added Ray in genuine 

“Here is a true story which I meant to have told you before,” 



exclaimed Ernest. “Letitia Crane was the great-great grandmother ofthe 
one who told it to my mother, and she told it to me, so you see it isn’t a 
hook story at all. It was when the Indians attacked Kittery. They came to 
her house, killed her mother and a brother, and took her prisoner. Her 
father was away from home at the time. They took her to Canada where 
she was adopted by an old chief who had lost his daughter.” 

“And she lived with the Indians always, I suppose,” cried Teddy. 

“ I didn' t say so. She lived there until she was fourteen years old, 
and when the prisoners were exchanged her father went to Canada to 
get her. She clung to the chief and wanted to stay with him, but he 
persuaded her to go, saying that he should not live many moons and 
then she would be alone. But she was never contented, although she 
married and had a white family of her own. Every full moon in the 
beautiful summer time she would go off in the woods alone for two or 
three hours. She never seemed happy, never forgot her Indian ways, 
and did not seem to like her former wb**^ life. She always told how 
kindly the Indians treated her.” 


“ Now, if your stories are told for the present, we will continue with 
the history of the French and Indian war. I am not finding fault, for 
I think that stories will teach you the manners and characteristics of 
the times as nothing else will,” said Uncle Jack smilingly. “ I believe 
we were to begin with the proposed attack on Fort Edward; what can 
you say about it, Teddy ? ” 

“The governor of Canada sent a party to attack the fort *, he had 
two hundred French regulars and twelve hundred Indians, but when 
the Indians found that it was defended by artillery, they would not do 
a thing, they were afraid of the cannon. So the commander concluded 
to attack Johnson’s camp instead. Meanwhile Johnson sent one thou¬ 
sand soldiers and two hundred Mohawks to the aid of the fort, and they 
marched directly into an ambuscade laid by the French.” 

“ The Mohawks were led by their famous chief, Hendricks, who fell 



at the first fire, and they all retreated to the camp as fast as ever they 
could/ ’ Hadley added. 

“The French followed closely, and were greatly surprised and con¬ 
fused when they were met by a volley from cannon, for they thought 
there were none in the camp. The French were defeated, and Dieskau, 
their brave commander, was deserted by his men and allies, and taken 
prisoner,” Ray concluded. 

“When General Abercrombie planned the attack on the great French 
fort at Ticonderoga, Isreal Putnam, bold Captain Stark, and Bradstree* 
were with him,” said Will. “The fort was too strong for them to take, 
and they retreated. The French sent the Indians out to pick up the 
stragglers, and among those whom they took as prisoners were Israel 
Putnam and a dozen comrades.” 


“All but Putnam escaped at once,” interrupted Ray. “He was 
seized, doomed to torture, and bound to a tree. Dry wood and leaves 
were heaped around him, and the Indians had begun the death dance, 
when a French officer happened along. It was lucky for Putnam that 
he wasn’t like some of the other French officers, for he got the Indians 
to spare his life instead of letting the torture go on.” 

“It was General Amherst who moved against Ticonderoga in 1759, 
and the French abandoned it when they saw him coming. He then took 
Crown Point in the same way,” said Ernest. 

“The Indians, most of them, deserted Montcalm when Wolfe went 
to take Quebec. A few of them were true -to him, but the majority 
remained neutral, for they had decided that his cause was rather a 
doubtful one,” nodded Teddy. 

“What was the last trouble of the French and Indian war called, 

“ It was a war with the Ottawas, and was called Pontiac’s Conspiracy, 
and it was in 1762 or 1763. Pontiac was a Catawba by birth, but was 
taken prisoner and adopted by the Ottawas. He became chief by his 



bravery and skill, and his adopted people loved him well. He made a 
secret conspiracy with the Delawares, the Shawnees, the Senecas, the 
Miamis and many smaller tribes. They intended to take Detroit, and 
cut the barrels of their guns so that they could carry them under their 
blankets. Pontiac sent Major Gladwin, the commander, word that he 
was coming to talk with him at a certain time. He intended to get 
within the fort in that way, and then massacre the garrison. The plot 

was revealed by an Indian girl, and 
did not succeed, but Gladwin let 
them go.” 

“ Pontiac thought that the 
whites were getting too numerous. 
He disputed the right of way when 
Major Rogers went to place an 
English garrison in Detroit, and 
sent the war belt of wampum and 
the reddened tomahawk to the other 
tribes, to call them to war,” Ernest 

“ He asked Major Rogers: ‘ How 
dare you come into my country 
without my leave ? 1 and then he 
made plans to keep them out,” said 
Hadley, “and the trouble began.” 

“ What did he do, Ray ? ” 

“ He then gave the signal for the war and, in less than three weeks, 
they had captured all the forts west of Niagara, with the exception of 
Detroit and Pittsburg. The garrisons were most of them killed, more 
than a hundred traders were murdered and scalped, and over five 
hundred families driven from their homes.” 

“ The destruction by the Indians extended over the territory between 
the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and all of the settlements there were 
abandoned for a time. It was Bouquet, with his Highlanders, who 




dually beat the Indians, using their own wily tactics. The conquered 
savages fled to the West, and the Ohio valley has been free from 
them ever since,” nodded Will. 

“ At one time two hundred Indians were besieging a block-house,’ 1 
said Roy. “ It was near Detroit and it was surrounded by two hundred In¬ 
dians. The garrison determined to fight as long as hope remained, and it 
didn’t seem that that would be long. The Indians fired blazing arrows, 
which caught on the roof repeatedly, and the flames broke out again and 
again. The water supply grew short, but the soldiers dug a well inside 
the works, but they were obliged to surrender at last.” 


“Northrop says that the plan of operations which Pontiac adopted 
was the most remarkable exhibition of genuine leadership ever given by 
an Indian. Did he meet with any lasting success, Hadley ?” 

“No, he was finally deserted by his followers, even by his own 
people, but still would not submit. He left his home and set out for the 
western tribes, thinking to incite them to war upon the hated English. 
Lord Amherst offered a reward for his head, and he fell by an 
assassin’s hand.” 

“ I read that his assassin, an Illinois Indian, was hired to do the deed 
by an English trader, who gave him a keg of whiskey! His death 
resulted in a war between the Indians, and the Illinois tribe was nearly 
exterminated,” Ray added. 

“Alexander Henry, an Indian trader, won the friendship of a 
Chippewa chief named Wawatam, who told him that, while enduring a 
long fast, he had dreamed that he must adopt a white man as a brother. 
He had waited long for the right man to come but he was the one. Henry 
made no objection, and the chief went away, happy in his new rela¬ 
tionship,” said Will. 

“ It was a good < adopt’ for Henry,” laughed Roy. “When Pontiac 
went on the war-path his Indian brother came again, to warn him, but 
his warning was not heeded, and soon Henry was taken prisoner. One day 




Wawatam suddenfy 

appeared at the 

lodge, spoke to the 

chief, smoked the 

pipe with him, and 

went away. Soon he 

and his wife returned, both 

bearing gifts which they 

laid at the feet of the chief, 

and Wawatam said: ‘See 

there my friend and brother 

among the slaves ! You know what I feel. On the day when this war 



began you were afraid for this very reason, that I would betray your 
secret. I crossed the lake because you promised to protect my fiiend. 
I now come offering you goods for bis ransom.’ ” 

“ Did tbey let bim go ?” demanded Teddy. 

“ Yes, tbe ransom was accepted, and Henry was free to go borne witb 
bis red brother, where be adopted tbe Indian dress as a safeguard against 
tbe other Indians. He was conducted to bis own home as soon as it 
was safe for bim to go there. How is that for a story of tbe Pontiac 
war ?” asked Will. 


“ But tbe long, cruel war was over at last, and tbe prisoners began 
to be exchanged, and gladly returned to their homes again. One woman 
got her captive daughter back by singing songs which she bad sung to 
her long before she was taken by tbe Indians. She went from place to 
place, looking at tbe returned prisoners, and singing tbe songs over and 
over. Tbe girl recognized them, although she bad forgotten to speak 
her own language. What about that story of gold in California, Roy?” 

“ Captain Isaac Stewart probably saw tbe rich gold mines of that 
State long before tbe gold discovery of 1849. He was taken prisoner 
about fifty miles west of Fort Pitt, about 1764, and was carried to tbe 
Wabash. There were more prisoners, but tbey were doomed to suffer 
torture. A squaw took a fancy to bim and offered a horse for bis ransom, 
but be was still a prisoner. In about two years a Spanish explorei 
redeemed bim, also a Welshman, and took them away witb bim.” 

“Go on, what are you stopping for? We want to know about tbe 
gold,” Ernest protested. 

“ They went up tbe Red river several hundred miles, and there tbey 
saw a tribe of Indians who were white, witb reddish hair. They spoke 
a different language from all other Indians—tbe Welshman said that it 
was much like bis own—and be decided to stay witb them as be could 
understand them.” 

“ White Indians ! How came tbey there? ” breathed Teddy. 



“ They said that their ancestors came from a far-off conn try, and 
landed far east of the Mississippi river, but when the Spaniards came 
they fled before them towards the west. Does that mean that America 
was discovered before the Spaniards came here ? ” asked Roy. 

“ Well, what about the gold?” questioned Will impatiently. 

u The Spaniard and Stewart went across the mountains, to where 
all of the streams ran toward the west and were filled with particles of 
yellow sand. The Spaniard said that he had found what he was looking 
or and they need go no farther, so they went back to a post on the Mis¬ 
souri river and Stewart went home. And that is all there is-to that 
story,” Ernest concluded. 

u Drake does not think that that story is well sustained. He does 
not believe in that tribe of white Indians,” Hadley declared. 


“ And what good did his discovery of gold do Stewart, if he didn't 
get any of it ? ” asked Teddy scornfully. 

“ I haven’t a real historical story to tell you, but it is a pretty good 
one,” said Will, looking up from an old book which he had been search¬ 
ing eagerly. “An Indian once went to a tavern and asked for some¬ 
thing to eat, but the landlady would not give him anything without 
money, and was rather cross until a man in the room offered to pay for 
his dinner.” 

“ I know that,” cried Ernest. M After the Indian had eaten he told 
the man that he should always remember his kindness, and added: 
i As for the woman, I will tell her a little story. The Bible says God 
made the world, and took him, and looked on him and said “ it is very 
good”; then He made light and took him and looked on him and 
said “ it is very good ; ” then He made the land, the water, the sun and 
moon, and stars and grass and trees, and took him and looked on him all 
and said u it is very good” ; then He made beasts and birds and fishes, and 
took him and looked on him and said “it is very good; ” then He made 
man and took him, looked on him and said “ it is very good ;” and last of 



all He made woman, and took him and looked on him—“ and He no dare 
say any such word!’ ” Then the Indian left very suddenly.” 

“That isn’t all of that story, I will finish it for you,” cried Ray. 
“ Some years after that the man was taken prisoner and carried to Canada 
by the Indians. He would have been put to the torture, but an old woman 
took a fancy to him and adopted him in the place of a son who had been 
killed in battle. The next year an unknown Indian came to him as he 
was cutting trees, and told him to meet him at a certain place that 

“ I wouldn’t have gone. How did he know but what he would be 
hilled,” ejaculated Teddy. 


“He did go, and found the Indian waiting with arms and provisions. 
He led him safely through the forest for many days. When he finally 
stopped on the edge of a clearing, he said : ‘ Do you remember the poor 
Indian at the tavern ? You feed him, you kind to him. I am that poor 
Indian ; now, go home.’ Then he turned and strode into the forest 
without another word, and the man decided that paying for that Indian’s 
supper was a good investment.” 

“ Let me tell you one more story!” cried Will. “ In the early times 
there was a class of bold, fearless men, who were often more than a match 
for the Indians, both in strength and stratagem. Among them were two 
brothers, named Poe, Adam and Andrew.” 

“I’ll help you with that story,” laughed Roy. “Once, with six 
other men, they started out after some Indians who had been robbing 
the settlers. Fearing a trap, Poe quietly left his comrades, and went 
along the trail to reconnoitre. He soon saw two Indians, a big one and 
a small one, who were cunningly watching for the white men to come. 
His gun missed fire, and the click of the lock betrayed him to the foe.” 

“What did the Indians do then, Ernest?” 

“ Poe didn’t wait for them to do, he darted forward and seized one of 
them in each hand, trying to choke the smaller one, while he tumbled 



them both to the ground. The smallest one sprang np with an unwise 
whoop, and raised his tomahawk, but dropped it again when he received 
a well-directed kick in the stomach from Poe’s moccasined foot.’’ 

“Go on, Teddy.” 

“Why, there isn’t much more to tell about that fight. Poe shot the 
little Indian, and his comrades came np and wounded the other badly. 


The Indian deliberately tumbled into the river to escape them, floun¬ 
dered out into deep water, and drowned. He saved his scalp 1 ” 

“I am rather late, perhaps; but I want to tell you a story about the 
French and Indian war,” cried Hadley. “It was when the American 
army was encamped on the plains of Chippewa. There was a lonely 
out-post, quite near the forest, and every night for nearly a week the 
sentinel there was shot with an arrow. The commander would not order 
another soldier to stand there, so no sentry was placed for a few nights.” 

“ But at last a Virginia soldier volunteered to take the place—you 



know those Virginia Rangers were never behind when there was danger 
ahead,” continued Ray. M He firmly bade the sentry-guard 4 Good-night’ 
and took his post. It was a dark, cloudy night, with hardly a star to be 
seen. The sentinel heard and saw nothing for some time,-then he heard 
a slight rustling in the bushes at the edge of the forest, and a bear 
shambled by him to the thicket on the other side.” 

“ I’ll tell you about that,” shouted Will excitedly. “ That bear was 
a redskin with a bear’s hide on ! Just as he was going into the bushes 
again the moon happened to shine out brightly for a second, but thai 
time was long enough for the light to reveal Indian moccasins under the 
claws of the bear! ” 

“ What did the sentinel do then ? ” demanded Roy. 


“ We? 4 , he didn’t know what to do for a minute, but he did know 
that there might be plenty of just such bears in the neighborhood. So 
he quietly took off his hat and coat, and put them under the branch of a 
fallen tree, so that they looked as if a man was sitting there. Then he 
crept into the thicket, grasped his rifle tightly, and waited. Soon an 
arrow whizzed by his head, and the hat on the stick nearly fell to the 

u Didn’t he take his turn then ? ” questioned Teddy. 

* “Not just then. He waited and soon counted twelve Indians in a 
little cleared spot. They had been hidden on the ground, lying at full 
length among the leaves, you know. He was near enough to hear what 
they said when they planned to kill the sentinel the next evening, and 
then massacre the others. After this discussion they arose and marched 
off in single file.” 

“And the sentinel let them go! ” said Roy in a disgusted tone. 

“For that time he did,” returned Will. “ What could he do with a 
dozen Indians ? When he took his hat he found that the arrow had 
passed through it. He went to the commander immediately and received 
alieutenaut’s commission, as a reward for the information which he gave.” 



“ Didn’t they get that bear ? ” asked Ray. 

“ Oh, yes. I forgot to finish my story. The next evening they 
fixed the hat and coat without any man in them, and a party of soldiers 
hid in the thicket. They waited about an hour before they saw any 
sign of the enemy. Then they saw the bear shamble out, retire, and 
then rise suddenly upon his hind legs and fire an arrow at the mock 
sentinel, that knocked the hat to the ground. Then the war-hoop 
sounded. The Lieutenant gave a command and the Virginians charged. 
Over half of the Indians were killed before they knew what hit them, 
and the rest ran off, leaving ten chiefs dead on the field. That lieutenant 
is better known in history as the brave and able General Morgan.” 

“ What next ? ” asked Will. 

“Why, we have come to the time of the Revolution, didn’t yon 
know ? ” laughed Roy. 

“And to-morrow John and I are going to cut a bee-tree—you can go 
along if yon will behave yourselves,” said the guide quietly. “We shall 
go in the evening, so you will not miss a lesson—and so the bees will 
not be so lively.” 

But the boys did not hear the last words I 




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