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Professor Kent Roach 

Winter 2011 




Professor Kent Roach 

Winter 2011 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2018 with funding from 
University of Toronto 



Chapter 1; Introduction, Definitions and Overview 

A. Growing Awareness and Concerns About Wrongful Convictions. 13 

Reference re Milgaard (1992), 90 D.L.R. (4th) 1 .14 

United States of America v. Burns and Rafay 2001 SCC 3.18 

Samuel Gross et al., “Exonerations in the United States 1989 through 2003” (2005) 95 
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 523. 28 

Joshua Marquis, “The Myth of Innocence” (2005) 95 Journal of Criminal Law and 
Criminology 501.34 

B. General Overview of Wrongful Convictions in Canada.40 

Bruce MacFarlane, “Convicting the Innocent: A Triple Failure of the Justice System” (2006) 
31 Man. L.J. 403 .. 41 

Martin Friedland and Kent Roach, “The Wrongful Conviction of Donald Marshall Jr.”, in 
Martin Friedland and Kent Roach, Criminal Law and Procedure: Cases and Materials, 
Eighth Edition (1997), pp. 137-161 . 49 

List of websites and resources. 62 

List of movies and documentaries about wrongful convictions.66 


C. Definitional Issues: Miscarriage of Justice and/or Wrongful Conviction.67 

Clive Walker, “Miscarriages of Justice in Principle and Practice”, in Clive Walker and Keith 
Starmer, Miscarriages of Justice: A Review of Justice in Error (1999), pp.31-55.68 

Michael Naughton, Redefining miscarriages of justice: A revived human rights approach to 
unearth subjugated discourses of wrongful criminal conviction (2005) 45 British Journal of 
Criminology 165.71 

Kent Roach and Gary Trotter, “Miscarriages of Justice in the War Against Terror” (2005) 109 
Penn State L. Rev. 967.74 

Criminal Code Sections 696.1-696.4.77 


D. Theoretical Considerations: Is there a Tolerable Risk of Wrongful Convictions?.79 

Ronald Dworkin “Principle, Policy, and Procedure” in A Matter of Principle (Cambridge: 
Harvard University Press, 1985) ch. 3.80 

Kent Roach, “The Protection of Innocence Under Section 7 of the Charter” (2006) 35 Sup. Ct. 
L. Rev. (2d) 249.85 

Chapter 2: Eyewitness Identification Evidence 

A. A frequent cause of wrongful conviction 

Christopher Sherrin, “Comment on the Report on the Prevention of Miscariages of Justice” 

(2007) 52 C.L.Q. 140.90 

Innocence Project, “Understand the Causes: Eyewitness Misidentification” Online at .91 

B. Estimator variables 

Brian Cutler, “A Sample of Witness, Crime, and Perpetrator Characteristics Affecting 
Eyewitness Identification Accuracy” (2006) 4 Cardozo Pub. L. Pol’y & Ethics J. 327.92 

C. System variables and reforms 

Gary Wells, “Eyewitness Identification: Systemic Reforms” [2006] Wis. L. Rev. 615.101 

The inquiry regarding Thomas Sophonow: the investigation, prosecution and consideration of 
entitlement to compensation , Peter Cory, Commissioner (Manitoba 2001), 31-34 (henceforth 
“Sophonow Inquiry”).117 

D. Current Law 

FPT Heads of Prosecution Committee, Working Group, “Report on the Prevention of 
Miscarriages of Justice” online at: .120 

R. v. Miaponoose (1996), 110 C.C.C. (3d) 445 (Ont. C.A.).123 

R. v. Hibbert (2002), 163 C.C.C. (3d) 129 (S.C.C.). 127 

R. v. Goulart-Nelson, [2004] O.J. No. 4010 (C.A.) (QL).132 

R. v. Grant (2005), 198 C.C.C. (3d) 376 (Alta. C.A.).134 


E. Legal reforms at trial 

(1) Expert evidence 

R. v. McIntosh (1997), 117 C.C.C. (3d) 385 (Ont. C.A).136 

Jill Copeland, “Helping Jurors Recognize the Frailties of Eyewitness Identification Evidence” 
(2002)46 C.L.Q. 188.141 

Lee Stuesser, “Experts on Eyewitness Identification: I Just Don’t See It” (2006) 31 Man. L.J. 

(2) Other reforms 

Kent Roach, “Unreliable Evidence and Wrongful Convictions: The Case for Excluding 
Tainted Identification Evidence and Jailhouse and Coerced Confessions” (2007) 52 C.L.Q. 
210. 156 

Angela Baxter, “Identification Evidence in Canada: Problems and a Potential Solution” 
(2007) 52 C.L.Q. 175.162 

Noah Clements, “Flipping A Coin: A Solution for the Inherent Unreliability of Eyewitness 
Identification Testimony” (2007) 40 Ind. L. Rev. 271.164 

Chapter 3: Jailhouse Informants 

Core Readings: 

The Commission on Proceedings Involving Guy Paul Morin, Report, Volume I (The Hon. 
Fred Kaufman, CM, QC, Toronto, On 1998), pp. 403-4; 555-565; 580-1; 599-607 (henceforth 
“Kaufman inquiry”).166 

Sophonow Inquiry, chapter three.190 

R v. Brooks (2000), 141 C.C.C. (3d) 321 (S.C.C.) [the judgments of Bastarache and Binnie, 
JJ. for the majority].199 

Christopher Sherrin, “Jailhouse Informants in the Canadian Criminal Justice System, Part II: 
Options for Reform” (1998) 40 C.L.Q. 157.219 

The Hon. Stephen S. Trott, “Words of Warning for Prosecutors Using Criminals as 
Witnesses” (1996) 47 Hastings L.J. 1381.235 

Other Useful Sources on the Internet 


California Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice: Report and Recommendations 
regarding Informant Testimony, 

R v. Kehler , 2004 SCC 11 

R. v. Assoun, 2006 NSCA 47 [at par. 153 et seq] 

R v. Mallory , 2007 ONCA 46 (CanLii) 

DVD Resources 

Innocence Project, Lecture Four, “Jailhouse Snitches, Informants and Co-operators”, by Ellen 
Yaroshefsky, Clinical Professor of Law, Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law (2001) 

Jailhouse Informants Panel, Unlocking Innocence Conference, Winnipeg, Mb. October 2005 
[Conference website: ] 

Further Reading 

Report of the 1989-90 Los Angeles County Grand Jury: “Investigation of the Involvement of 
Jail House Informants in the Criminal Justice System in Los Angeles County” (Douglas 
Dalton, Esq., Special Counsel) 

Bruce A. MacFarlane, QC “Convicting the Innocent: A Triple Failure of the Justice System”, 
(2006), 31 Man. L.J. 403 [pp.465-470] 

Valerie Alter, “Jailhouse Informants: A Lesson in E-snitching”, 10 J. Tech. L. and Pol’y 223 

Goldstein v. City of Long Beach, 481 F. 3d 1170, 2007 US App Lexis 7141 (USCA, 9 th Circ., 
2007) [is there liability for failing to train prosecutors about the dangers surrounding the 
evidence of jailhouse informants?] 

Chapter 4: False Confessions 

A. Contribution, Cause and Effect 

Christopher Sherrin, “False Confessions and Admissions in Canadian Law” (2005) 30 
Queen’s L.J. 601.238 

B. Current Law 

R. v. Oickle (2000), 147 C.C.C. (3d) 321 (S.C.C.).254 

R. v. Ducharme (2004), 182 C.C.C. (3d) 243 (Man. C.A.).272 

C. Proposed reforms 

Christopher Sherrin, “False Confessions and Admissions in Canadian Law” (2005) 30 
Queen’s L.J. 601.277 


Richard Leo et al., “Bringing Reliability Back In: False Confessions and Legal Safeguards in 
the Twenty-First Century” [2006] Wis. L. Rev. 479 .284 

Christopher Sherrin, “Comment on the Report on the Prevention of Miscariages of Justice” 
(2007) 52 C.L.Q. 140.292 

Chapter 5 : Cause and/or Cure of Wrongful Convictions : Forensic Science and DNA 

A. DNA: A Driving but Limiting Force in our Increased Awareness of Wrongful 

Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld, (2001). DNA and innocence scholarship. In Saundra D. 

Westervelt & John A. Humphrey (Eds.), Wrongly convicted: Perspectives on failed justice, 
pp.241-252. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press.295 

B. Forensic Science and the Causes and Cures of Wrongful Convictions 

Gary Edmond, “Construing Miscarriages of Justice” (2003) 22 Oxford J. of Legal Studies 
53. 301 

Kaufman inquiry.308 

The Report of the Commission of Inquiry into certain aspects of the trial and conviction of 
James Driskell (henceforth “Driskell inquiry”).342 

C. Forensic Pediatric Pathology 

Bruce MacFarlane “Convicting the Innocent: A Triple Failure of the Justice System” (2006) 

31 Man. L.J. 403.354 

Office of the Chief Coroner, Backgrounder: Public Announcement of Review of Criminally 
Suspicious and Homicide Cases Where Dr. Charles Smith Conducted Autopsies or Provided 
Opinions, April 19 2007.363 

Reynolds v. Kingston (Police Services Board), 2007 ONCA 166.370 

Meadow v. General Medical Council, [2006] EWCA Civ 1390.373 

FPT Heads of Prosecution Committee, Working Group, “Report on the Prevention of 
Miscarriages of Justice” Online at: .376 

D. Keeping Bad Science out of Court 


Stephen Odgers and James Richardson, “Keeping Bad Science Out of the Courtroom” (1995) 

18 U.N.S.W.L.J. 108...388 

R. v. Mohan (1994), 2 S.C.R. 9.395 

R. v. J. (J-L.) (2000), 148 C.C.C. (3d) 487 (S.C.C.).398 

R. v. Trochym 2007 SCC 6.401 


Chapter 6: The Police and Wrongful Convictions; Malfeasance and Tunnel Vision 

Dianne Martin (2005). The Police Role in Wrongful Convictions: An International 
Comparative Study. In S.D. Westervelt and J.A. Humphrey (Eds.), Wrongly convicted: 

Perspectives on failed justice. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.13 

Kaufman Inquiry.22 

Sophonow Inquiry. 28 

Illinois Commission on Capital Punishment, chapter 2.35 

John Arnold Epp, “Penetrating Police Investigative Practice Post Morin ” (1997) 31 
U.B.C.L.Rev. 95.60 

R. v. Osmar (2007), 217 C.C.C. (3d) 174, leave to appeal refused [2007] S.C.C.A. No. 

Elizabeth Campbell and Doug LePard, How Police Departments can reduce the risk of 
wrongful convictions. A paper presented at the International Society for the Reform of 
Criminal Law Conference, Vancouver, June 2007.79 

Chapter 7: The Role of Prosecutors, Defence Counsel and Trier of Fact 

A. Tunnel Vision 

FPT Heads of Prosecution Report, Chapter 4, Tunnel Vision.96 

Bruce Macfarlane, “Convicting the Innocent” (2006) 31 Man.L.J. 403 

[Part III - Causes of Wrongful Convicitions - A. Predisposing Circumstances].102 

B. Role of the Crown: Overly Aggressive Prosecutors 


Melvyn Green, “Crown culture and wrongful convictions: A beginning” (2005) 29 C.R. (6th) 


British Columbia Crown Counsel Charge Assessment Guidelines.117 

The Hon. Michel Proulx and David Layton (2001). The Prosecutor: Summary and 
Recommendations. In Ethics and Canadian Criminal Law. Toronto: Irwin Law.123 

Marshall Inquiry.124 

Driskell Inquiry.129 

Dan Lett, “Ex-prosecutor’s cases questioned” Winnipeg Free Press, June 21 2007, online: 

4607934c.html .144 

The Lamer Commission of Inquiry Pertaining to the cases of Ronald Dalton, Gregory Parsons 
and Randy Druken (hereafter “Lamer Inquiry”).146 

R. v. Stinchcombe (1991), 68 C.C.C. (3d) 1 (S.C.C.).168 

R. v. S.(F.) (2000) 144 C.C.C.(3d) 466 (Ont.C.A.).170 

R. v. Regan (2002), 161 C.C.C. (3d) 97 (S.C.C.).172 

Krieger v Law Society of Alberta, 2002 SCC 65...176 

Further Reading (not assigned reading or included in materials): 

- The Relationship between prosecutorial misconduct and wrongful convictions: 
shaping remedies for a broken system, by Peter Joy, 2006 Wisconsin Law Review 399 

- The Multiple Dimensions of Tunnel Vision in Criminal Cases, by Keith Findlay and 
Michael Scott, 2006 Wisconsin Law Review, p. 291 

- The Frayed and Tarnished Silver Thread: Stinchcombe and the Role of Crown 
Counsel in Alberta, by Glen Luther, (2002), 40 Alta. L.Rev. 567 

- Improving Prosecutorial Decision Making: Some Lessons of Cognitive Science, by 
Alafair Burke, (2006), 47 Wm and Mary L.Rev. 1587 

- The Relationship between prosecutorial discretion and wrongful convictions: Shaping 
Remedies for a Broken System, 2006 Wis.L.Rev. 399 

- The Zeal Deal: Prosecutorial Resistance to Post-Conviction Claims of Innocence, by 
Daniel Medwed, (2004), B.U.L. Rev 125 

- Zealous Advocacy in a Time of Uncertainty: understanding lawyers' ethics: wrongful 
convictions: it is time to take prosecution discipline seriously, by Ellen Yaroshefsky 
(2004), 8 D.C.L. Rev. 275 

- The Seven Deadly Prosecutorial Sins, by Robert Frater, 7 Can.Crim.L.R. 209 

- The Criminal Defence Lawyer's Role, by David Layton, (2004), 27 Dal.L.J. 379 


C. Role of Defence Counsel 

Marshall Inquiry.179 

Lamer Inquiry.184 

Stephen Bright Testimony.193 

Dwight Stewart, The Role of Defence Counsel in Wrongful Convictions, A paper presented at 
the International Society for the Reform of Criminal Law Conference, Vancouver, June 
2007. 201 

R. v. G.D.B. [2000] 1 S.C.R. 520.214 

Dale Ives “The Canadian Approach to Ineffective Assistance of Counsel” 
(2004), 42 Brandeis L.J. 239.216 

C. Judges 

Marshall Inquiry.227 

William W. Schwarzer, “Dealing with Incompetent Counsel: The Trial Judge’s Role” (1980) 
93 Harv. L. Rev. 633.241 

Hans Sherrer, “The complicity of judges in the generation of wrongful convictions” (2003) 30 
Northern Kentucky L. Rev. 539.242 

Mackeigan v. Hickman, [1989] 2 S.C.R. 796 .253 

D. Juries 

Lamer Inquiry.257 

Kent Roach (1999), Due process and victims' rights: the new law and politics of criminal 
justice. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.262 

R. v.Pan; R. v. Sawyer [2001] 2 S.C.R. 344.264 

Chapter 8: Addressing Wrongful Convictions: Appellate Review and Ministerial 


Richard Nobles, David Schiff and Nicola Shaldon, “The Inevitability of Crisis in Criminal 
Appeals” (1993) 21 Int. J of Sociology of Law 1-23.270 


Post Appeal Remedies - CCRC v SCCRC. A conference presentation by Gerry Sinclair of 
the SCCRC at the Conference to Mark the 10 th Anniversary of the CCRC. May 10, 2007...280 

Post Appeal Remedies II. The CCRC as an Investigative Body, Amanda Pearce, Case 
Review Manager, CCRC.288 

Kaufman Inquiry.303 

Patricia Braiden and Joan Brockman, “Remedying Wrongful Convictions Through 

Applications to the Minister of Justice Under Section 690 of the Criminal Code” (1999) 17 
W.Y.B. Access to Justice 3.311 

Applying for a Conviction Review. Justice Canada Publication.328 

Kerry Scullion, “Wrongful Convictions and the Criminal Conviction Review Process pursuant 
to S. 696.1 of the Criminal Code of Canada” Commentaries on Wrongful Convictions 
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, January 2004 Volume 46, no 2, 

Karen Campbell. (2007). The fallibility of justice in Canada: A critical examination of 
conviction review. In C. R. Huff and M. Kilias (Eds.), Wrongful convictions: International 
perspectives on miscarriages of justice. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.339 

Lawrence C. Marshall, “Do exonerations prove that the system works?” (2002) 86 Judicature 

Chapter 9; Addressing Wrongful Convictions: Temporary and Permanent Commissions 

of Inquiry 

A. General 

Lissa Griffin, “The Correction of Wrongful Convictions: A Comparative Perspective” (2001) 
16 American University International Law Review 1241 .361 

B. Canadian Experiences 

Marshall Inquiry, Report on Miscarriages of Justice (1989). Part 2 Recommendations - 

Righting the Wrong: Dealing with the Wrongfully Convicted.378 

Karen Campbell, “Policy Responses to Wrongful Conviction in Canada: The Role of 
Conviction Review, Public Inquiries and Compensation” (2005) 41 Criminal Law Bulletin 

Kent Roach, “Inquiring into Wrongful Convictions” (1999) 35 Criminal Law Bulletin 


Richard J. Wolson & Aaron M. London, “The structure, operation, and impact on wrongful 
conviction inquiries: The Sophonow Inquiry as an example of the Canadian experience” 
(2004) 52 Drake Law Review 677.399 

C. UK Experiences 

Runciman Royal Commission on Criminal Justice Report , (1993) Chapter 11: Miscarriages of 


Annabelle James, Nick Taylor, and Clive Walker, “The Criminal Cases Review Commission: 
Economy, Effectiveness and Justice” [2000] Criminal Law Review 140.415 

David Kyle, “Correcting miscarriages of justice: The role of the Criminal Cases Review 
Commission” (2004) 52 Drake Law Review 657 .420 

Richard Nobles & David Schiff, “The Criminal Cases Review Commission: Establishing a 
workable relationship with the Court of Appeal” [2005] Criminal Law Review 173 .431 

Graham Zellick, “The Criminal Cases Review Commission and the Court of Appeal: The 
Commissioner’s perspective” [2005] Criminal Law Review 937...440 

D. US Experiences 

Christine C. Mumma, “The North Carolina Actual Innocence Commission: Uncommon 

perspectives joined by a common cause” (2004) 52 Drake Law Review 647 .447 

Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld, “Toward the formation of ‘Innocence Commissions’ in 
America” (2002) 86 Judicature 98 ...453 

Online Resources: 

Report of the Kaufman Commission on Proceedings Involving Guy Paul Morin 

The Inquiry Regarding Thomas Sophonow 

The Report of the Commission of Inquiry into certain aspects of the trial and conviction of 
James Driskell report ian2007.pdf 

The Lamer Commission of Inquiry Pertaining to the cases of Ronald Dalton, Gregory Parsons 
and Randy Druken 

Commission of Inquiry into the Wrongful Conviction of David Milgaard 

(final report due in 2007) 

Commission of Inquiry into Forensic Pediatric Pathology 

Criminal Cases Review Commission 



Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission 

Chapter 10: Addressing Wrongful Convictions: The Role of the Media and Advocacy 


A. Media 

Michael Mello, “Death and his lawyers: Why Joseph Spaziano owes his life to the Miami 
Herald - and not to any defense lawyer or judge” (1995) 20 Vermont Law Review 19.461 

M. Stephens & P. Hill. (1999). The role and impact of journalism. In Clive Walker & Keir 
Starmer (Eds.), Miscarriages of justice: A review of justice in error, pp. 263-284. London, 
UK: Blackstone Press Ltd.475 

Rob Warden, “The revolutionary role of journalism in identifying and rectifying wrongful 
convictions” (2002) 70 UMKC Law Review 803.486 

B. Advocacy Groups 

Carole McCartney “Liberating Legal Education? Innocence Projects in the US and Australia” 
[2006] Web Journal of Current Legal Issues: Legal Education Special Issue. . 518 

Ellen Y. Suni, “Ethical issues for innocence projects: An initial primer” (2001) 70 UMKC 
Law Review 921.522 

Online Resources: 

Association in Defense of the Wrongly Convicted 

Innocence Project 

Affiliated with the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law at Yeshiva University 

Centurion Ministries 

Innocence Network UK 

Additional Readings: Wrongful Conviction Writings from Popular Media 

Chaiton, S. and Swinton, T. (2000). Lazarus and the Hurricane. Toronto: Penguin Books 


Finkle, D. (2004). No claim to mercy: The controversial case for murder against Robert 
Baltovich. Toronto: Penguin Group (Canada). 

Karp, C., and Rosner, C. (1991). When justice fails: The David Milgaard story. Toronto: 
McClelland and Stewart Inc. 

Makin, K. (1998). Redrum the innocent. Toronto: Penguin Books Canada. 

Sher, J. (2001). Until you are dead: Steven Truscott’s long ride into history. Toronto: A.A. 
Knopf Canada 

Vollen, L., & Eggers, D. (2005). Surviving justice: America‘s wrongfully convicted and 
exonerated. San Francisco: McSweeney’s Books. 

Chapter 11: Addressing Wrongful Convictions: Compensation and Exoneration 

A. Why Compensate the Wrongfully Convicted? 

“Arguments for Compensation,” Compensating the Wrongfully Convicted, New Zealand Law 

Commission, 1998, 9-12.531 

B. Canada 

“Compensation,” Sophonow Inquiry.533 

Guidelines - Compensation for Wrongfully Convicted and Imprisoned Persons, 1988.544 

C. United Kingdom 

Compensation for Wrongful Conviction: Note for Successful Applicants, United Kingdom, 
Home Office, 2007.548 

Home Secretary Outlines Changes to System for Compensating Miscarriages of Justice, 
United Kingdom, Home Office, April 19, 2006.552 

D. United States 

Compensating the Wrongfully Convicted, Innocence Project, 

( .554 

Adele Bernhard, “Justice still fails: A review of recent efforts to compensate individuals who 
have been unjustly convicted and later exonerated” (2004) 52 Drake Law Review 703.556 

Shawn Armbrust, “When money isn’t enough: The case for holistic compensation of the 
wrongfully convicted” (2004) 41 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 157.570 

E. Innocence Hearings 

Driskell Inquiry, pp. 138-145 



List of websites and resources 


** Wrongful Conviction and Innocence Resources on the Internet: 

**Wrongful Conviction Reading Room: conviction reading room.htm 

** Actual Innocence Awareness Database: library/innocence/ 

**Gary Wells - Eyewitness ID: 

**Innocence Blog: 

Bluhm Blog on False Confessions: confessions/index.html 

Eyewitness Identification Reform Blog: 

**The Truth About False Confessions: 
Convicting the Innocent - A triple failure of justice: 

%20Revised%202006.p df 

Bearing False Witness Blog: 

Wrongful Convictions Blog: 

Strange Justice Blog: 

Truth in Justice: 



The Inquiry Regarding Thomas Sophonow: 

Report of the Working Group on the Prevention of Miscarriages of Justice: 

Lamer Inquiry Report: 

Commission of Inquiry into Certain Aspects of the Trial and Conviction of James 

New Jersey Death Penalty Commission: penalty.asp 


Commission of Inquiry into the Wrongful Conviction of David Milgaard: 

The Inquiry into Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Ontario: 


AIDWYC (Association in Defence of the Wrongfully Convicted): 

**The Innocence Project: 

**Center on Wrongful Convictions: 

The Osgoode Hall Law School Innocence Project: 
http ://www. innocenceproj ect. ca/ 

**New York State Defenders Association: 

http:/ Resources/Innocence Wrongful Convictions/innocence 

wrongful convictions.htinl#CurrentDevelopments 

Life After Exoneration Program: 



Injustice Quebec: 

Justice Denied: The Magazine for the Wrongfully Convicted: 

Death Penalty Information Center: 

Dr. Edmund Higgins: 

Truth in Justice: 




Miscarriages of Justice Organization (MOJO): 

The Innocence Network: 

Innocence Institute of Point Park University: 

Witness to Innocence: 

The Faces of Wrongful Conviction: 


Criminal Conviction Review Group (Canada): 

Criminal Cases Review Commission (UK): 

Connecticut Advisory Committee on Wrongful Convictions: 


California Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice: 


Pierre Gill: 

The Darryl Hunt Project for Freedom and Justice: