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CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 
OF WASHINGTON 



YEAR BOOK No. 44 
July 1, 1944— June 30, 1945 

With Administrative Reports through December 14, 1945 




CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

1945 



THE LORD BALTIMORE PRESS, BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 



CONTENTS 

PAGES 

Officers and Staff v— x 

Organization, Plan, and Scope xi 

Articles of Incorporation xii-xiv 

By-Laws of the Institution xv— xviii 

Abstract of Minutes of the Forty-seventh Meeting of the Board of 

Trustees xix-xx 

Report of the Executive Committee xxi-xxv 

Report of Auditors xxvi-xxxiv 

Report of the President /-/ / 

Reports of Departmental Activities and Cooperative Studies 
Astronomy 

Mount Wilson Observatory i- 18 

Terrestrial Sciences 

Geophysical Laboratory 19- 20 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 21- 57 

Special Projects 

Committee on Coordination of Cosmic-Ray Investigations 59- 63 

S. E. Forbush and Isabelle Lange 60 

Victor F. Hess 60— 61 

S. A. KorfiE 61-62 

Marcel Schein 62— 63 

Biological Sciences 

Division of Plant Biology 65— 87 

Department of Embryology 89-101 

Department of Genetics 103—147 

Nutrition Laboratory 149-156 

Special Projects 

T. H. Morgan, Alfred H. Sturtevant, and Lilian V. Morgan 157-160 

H. C. Sherman 160— 161 

Historical Research 

Division of Historical Research 163—186 

Bibliography 187-188 

Index 189-196 



111 



PRESIDENT AND TRUSTEES 



*Thomas Barbour 
James F. Bell 
Robert Woods Bliss 
Lindsay Bradford 
Frederic A. Delano 
Homer L. Ferguson 
W. Cameron Forbes 
Walter S. Gifford 



Robert Woods Bliss 
Vannevar Bush 



PRESIDENT 
Vannevar Bush 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Walter S. Gifford, Chairman 

Elihu Root, Jr., Vice-Chairman 

Frederic A. Delano, Secretary 

Herbert Hoover 
Frank B. Jewett 
Ernest O. Lawrence 
Alfred L. Loomis 
Roswell Miller 
Henry S. Morgan 
Seeley G. Mudd 
Henning W. Prentis, Jr. 

Executive Committee 

Walter S. Gifford, Chairman 

Frederic A. Delano 
W. Cameron Forbes 
Henry R. Shepley 

Finance Committee 
Frederic C. Walcott, Chairman 



Elihu Root, Jr. 
Henry R. Shepley 
Richard P. Strong 
Charles P. Taft 
Juan T. Trippe 
James W. Wadsworth 
Frederic C. Walcott 
Lewis H. Weed 



Frederic C. Walcott 
Lewis H. Weed 



Lindsay Bradford 
Henry S. Morgan 



Henning W. Prentis, Jr. 
Elihu Root, Jr. 



Auditing Committee 

Frederic A. Delano, Chairman 

Homer L. Ferguson James W. Wadsworth 

STANDING COMMITTEES FOR THE YEAR 1946 

Committee on Astronomy 

Herbert Hoover, Chairman 

Roswell Miller Elihu Root, Jr. 

Seeley G. Mudd Juan T. Trippe 

Committee on Terrestrial Sciences 
Frank B. Jewett, Chairman 
Homer L. Ferguson Alfred L. Loomis 

Ernest O. Lawrence Frederic C. Walcott 

Committee on Biological Sciences 
Lewis H. Weed, Chairman 



*Thomas Barbour 
James F. Bell 



Frederic A. Delano 
Henning W. Prentis, Jr. 



Committee on Historical Research 
Henry R. Shepley, Chairman 
Robert Woods Bliss Charles P. Taft 

Richard P. Strong James W. Wadsworth 

* Deceased January 8, 1946. 

V 



FORMER PRESIDENTS AND TRUSTEES 



PRESIDENTS 

Daniel Coit Gilman, 1902-1904 Robert Simpson Woodward, 1904— 1920 

John Campbell Merriam, President 1 921— 1938; President Emeritus 1939— 1945 



TRUSTEES 



Alexander Agassiz 
George J. Baldwin 
John S. Billings 
Robert S. Brookings 
John L. Cadwalader 
William W. Campbell 
John J. Carty 
Whitefoord R. Cole 
Cleveland H. Dodge 
William E. Dodge 
Charles P. Fenner 
Simon Flexner 
William N. Frew 
Lyman J. Gage 
Cass Gilbert 
Frederick H. Gillett 
Daniel C. Gilman 
John Hay 

Myron T. Herrick 
Abram S. Hewitt 
Henry L. Higginson 
Ethan A. Hitchcock 
Henry Hitchcock 
William Wirt Howe 
Charles L. Hutchinson 
Walter A. Jessup 
Samuel P. Langley 
Charles A. Lindbergh 
William Lindsay 
Henry Cabot Lodge 
Seth Low 



1904-05 
1925-27 
1902—13 
1910-29 
1903-14 
1929-38 
1916—32 

!9 2 5-34 
1903-23 

1902-03 

1914—24 

1910-14 

1902—15 

1902-12 

1924-34 

!9 2 4"35 
1902—08 

1902-05 

1915-29 

1902-03 

1902-19 

1902-09 

1902—02 

1903-09 

1902—04 

1938-44 

1904-06 

IQ 34"39 
1902—09 

1914-24 

1902—16 



Wayne MacVeagh 
Andrew J. Mellon 
Darius O. Mills 
S. Weir Mitchell 
Andrew J. Montague 
William W. Morrow 
William Church Osborn 
James Parmelee 
Wm. Barclay Parsons 
Stewart Paton 
George W. Pepper 
John J. Pershing 
Henry S. Pritchett 
Elihu Root 
Julius Rosenwald 
Martin A. Ryerson 
Theobald Smith 
John C. Spooner 
William Benson Storey 
William H. Taft 
William S. Thayer 
Charles D. Walcott 
Henry P. Walcott 
William H. Welch 
Andrew D. White 
Edward D. White 
Henry White 
George W. Wickersham 
Robert S. Woodward 
Carroll D. Wright 



1902-07 
1924-37 
1902-09 
1902-14 
1907-35 
1902—29 

J 9 2 7-34 
1917-31 

1907-32 

1916-42 

1914-19 

J930-43 
1906-36 

1902-37 

1929-31 

1908-28 

1914-34 

1902-07 

1924-39 

1906-15 

1929-32 

1902—27 

1910-24 

1906-34 

1902—03 

1902-03 

1913-27 

1909-36 

1905-24 

1902—08 



Besides the names enumerated above, the following were ex-officio members of the Board 
of Trustees under the original charter, from the date of organization until April 28, 1904: 
the President of the United States, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House 
of Representatives, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, the President of the 
National Academy of Sciences. 



VI 



STAFF OF INVESTIGATORS FOR THE YEAR 1945 



ASTRONOMY 

Mount Wilson Observatory 

Pasadena, California 

Organized in 1904; George E. Hale, Director 1904-1923, Honorary Director 1923-1936; Walter S 
Adams, Director 1 924-1 945. 



Ira S. Bo wen, Director, January 1, 1946 

Walter Baade 

Harold D. Babcock 

William H. Christie 

Theodore Dunham, Jr. 

Joseph O. Hickox 

Edison Hoge 

Edwin P. Hubble 

Milton L. Humason 

Alfred H. Joy 

Robert B. King 



Paul W. Merrill 
Rudolph Minkowski 
Seth B. Nicholson 
Edison Pettit 
Robert S. Richardson 
Roscoe F. Sanford 

fGuSTAF STROMBERG 

Adriaan van Maanen 
Olin C. Wilson 
Ralph E. Wilson 



TERRESTRIAL SCIENCES 

Geophysical Laboratory 
2801 Upton St., N.W., Washington, D. C. 

Organized in 1906, opened in 1907; Arthur L. Day, Director 1909-1936 



Leason H. Adams, Director 
John S. Burlew 
Joseph L. England 
Ralph E. Gibson 
Roy W. Goranson 
Joseph W. Greig 
Earl Ingerson 
Frank C. Kracek 
Orville H. Loeffler 
*Herbert E. Merwin 



George W. Morey 

fELBURT F. OSBORN 

Charles S. Piggot 
Eugene Posnjak 
Howard S. Roberts 
John F. Schairer 
Earnest S. Shepherd 
George Tunell 
William D. Urry 
Emanuel G. Zies 



Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 
$241 Broad Branch Road, N.W., Washington, D. C. 

Organized in 1904; Louis A. Bauer, Director 1 904-1 929 



John A. Fleming, Director 

Oliver H. Gish, Assistant Director 

Lloyd V. Berkner 

Edwin J. Chernosky 

Dean B. Cowie 

Scott E. Forbush 

Albert A. Giesecke, Jr. 

George K. Green 

Lawrence R. Hafstad 

Norman P. Heydenburg 

Ellis A. Johnson 

Henry F. Johnston 

Mark W. Jones 

Paul G. Ledig 

* Retired in 1945. 
t Resigned in 1945. 



Alvin G. McNish 
Wilfred C. Parkinson 
Richard B. Roberts 
William J. Rooney 
Walter E. Scott 
Stuart L. Seaton 
Kenneth L. Sherman 
William F. Steiner 
Oscar W. Torreson 
Merle A. Tuve 
Ernest H. Vestine 
George R. Wait 
Harry W. Wells 



vii 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 

Division of Plant Biology 
Central Laboratory , Stanford University, California 

Desert Laboratory, opened in 1903, became headquarters of Department of Botanical Research in 1905. 
Name changed to Laboratory for Plant Physiology in 1923; reorganized in 1928 as Division of Plant 
Biology, including Ecology. 






Herman A. Spoehr, Chairman 
Jens C. Clausen 
Garrett J. Hardin 
William M. Hiesey 
David D. Keck 
Winston M. Manning 



•j-Emmett V. Martin 
Harold W. Milner 

*FoRREST SHREVE 

James H. C. Smith 
Harold H. Strain 



Department of Embryology 

Wolfe and Madison Streets, Baltimore, Maryland 

Organized in 1914; Franklin P. Mall, Director 191 4-19 17; George L. Streeter, Director 191 8-1 940 



George W. Corner, Director 

Robert K. Burns 

Louis B. Flexner 

Chester H. Heuser, Curator of the 

Embryological Collection 



Margaret R. Lewis 

Samuel R. M. Reynolds 

Joseph Schiller, Research Associate 

Walter S. Wilde 



Department of Genetics 
Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New Yor\ 

Station for Experimental Evolution, opened in 1904, combined with Eugenics Record Office in 1921 to 
form Department of Genetics. Charles B. Davenport, Director 1904-1934; Albert F. Blakeslee, Director 
I935-I94I- 



Milislav Demerec, Director 
Ugo Fano 

Berwind P. Kaufmann 
Edwin C. MacDowell 
Barbara McClintock 
f Harry E. Warmke 



Research Associates 

John J. Biesele 
Margaret R. MacDonald 
S. G. Stephens 



Nutrition Laboratory 

2g Black] an Street, Boston, Massachusetts 

Organized in 1907, opened in 1908; Francis G. Benedict, Director 1 907-1 937 
Thorne M. Carpenter, Director V. Coropatchinsky 

Activities discontinued January 1, 1946 

* Retired in 1945. 
t Resigned in 1945. 



Vlll 



HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



Division of Historical Research 
io Frisbie Place, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Department of Historical Research organized in 1903; Andrew C. McLaughlin, Director 1 903-1 905, 
J. Franklin Jameson, Director 1 905-1 928. In 1930 this Department was incorporated as the Section of 
United States History in a new Division of Historical Research. 

Alfred V. Kidder, Chairman 



Section of Aboriginal American History 

Sylvanus G. Morley 
Earl H. Morris 
Harry E. D. Pollock 
Tatiana Proskouriakoff - 
Karl Ruppert 
Anna O. Shepard 
Edwin M. Shook 
A. Ledyard Smith 
Robert E. Smith 
Gustav Stromsvik 
Sol Tax 
J. Eric S. Thompson 



Section of Post-Columbian American History 

Eleanor B. Adams 
Robert S. Chamberlain 
Ralph L. Roys 
France V. Scholes 
*Leo F. Stock 

Section of the History of Science 

George Sarton 
Alexander Pogo 



RESEARCH ASSOCIATES 
Research Associates Engaged in Post-Retirement Studies 



Albert F. Blakeslee, Genetics 
Frederick H. Seares, Astronomy 



George L. Streeter, Embryology 



Research Associates Connected with Other Institutions 

V. Bjerknes (University of Oslo), Meteorology 
Edward L. Bowles (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Physics 
Joseph C. Boyce (New York University), Physics 
Ralph W. Chaney (University of California), Paleobotany 
A. H. Compton (University of Chicago), Physics 
Th. Dobzhansky (Columbia University), Genetics 
Frank T. Gucker, Jr. (Northwestern University), Chemistry 
Ross G. Harrison (Yale University), Biology 
Arthur T. Hertig (Boston Lying-in Hospital), Embryology 
Victor F. Hess (Fordham University), Physics 
Thomas H. Johnson (Bartol Research Foundation), Physics 
S. A. Korff (Bartol Research Foundation), Physics 
E. A. Lowe (The Institute for Advanced Study), Paleography 
Robert A. Millikan (California Institute of Technology), Physics 
fT. H. Morgan (California Institute of Technology), Biology 
Walter H. Newhouse (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Geophysics 
Robert Redfield (University of Chicago), Anthropology 
Henry N. Russell (Princeton University), Astronomy 
H. C. Sherman (Columbia University), Nutrition 
Joel Stebbins (University of Wisconsin) , Astronomy 

* Retired in 1945. 
t Deceased. 

ix 



OFFICES OF ADMINISTRATION 



Office of the President 

Vannevar Bush, President 

Walter M. Gilbert, Executive Officer 

Samuel Callaway, President's Secretary 



Office of Publications and Public Relations 

Frederick G. Fassett, Jr., Director 
Ailene J. Bauer, Assistant to the Director 
Dorothy R. Swift, Editor 



Office of the Bursar 

Earle B. Biesecker, Bursar 

J. Stanley Lingebach, Assistant Bursar 



Investment Office {New Yor\ City) 

Parker Monroe, Investment Officer 

Richard F. F. Nichols, Assistant Investment Officer 



ORGANIZATION, PLAN, AND SCOPE 

The Carnegie Institution of Washington was founded by Andrew Carnegie, 
January 28, 1902, when he gave to a board of trustees an endowment of registered 
bonds of the par value of ten million dollars. To this fund an addition of two 
million dollars was made by Mr. Carnegie on December 10, 1907, and a further 
addition of ten million dollars was made by him on January 19, 191 1. Further- 
more, the income of a reserve fund of about three million dollars, accumulated 
in accordance with the founder's specifications in 191 1, is now available for general 
use, and in recent years a total of ten million dollars has been paid by the Carnegie 
Corporation of New York as increase to the Endowment Fund of the Institution. 
The Institution was originally organized under the laws of the District of Columbia 
and incorporated as the Carnegie Institution, articles of incorporation having been 
executed on January 4, 1902. The Institution was reincorporated, however, by 
an act of the Congress of the United States, approved April 28, 1904, under the title 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. (See existing Articles of Incorporation 
on following pages.) 

Organization under the new Articles of Incorporation was effected May 18, 1904, 
and the Institution was placed under the control of a board of twenty-four trustees, 
all of whom had been members of the original corporation. The trustees meet 
annually in December to consider the affairs of the Institution in general, the progress 
of work already undertaken, and the initiation of new projects, and to make 
the necessary appropriations for the ensuing year. During the intervals between 
the meetings of the trustees the affairs of the Institution are conducted by an 
Executive Committee chosen by and from the Board of Trustees and acting through 
the President of the Institution as chief executive officer. 

The Articles of Incorporation of the Institution declare in general "that the 
objects of the corporation shall be to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal 
manner, investigation, research, and discovery, and the application of knowledge 
to the improvement of mankind." 

The Institution is essentially an operating organization. It attempts to advance 
fundamental research in fields not normally covered by the activities of other agencies, 
and to concentrate its attention upon specific problems, with the idea of shifting 
attack from time to time to meet the more pressing needs of research as they develop 
with increase of knowledge. Some of these problems require the collaboration 
of several investigators, special equipment, and continuous effort. Many close relations 
exist among activities of the Institution, and a type of organization representing 
investigations in astronomy, in terrestrial sciences, in biological sciences, and in 
historical research has been effected. Conference groups on various subjects have 
played a part in bringing new vision and new methods to bear upon many problems. 
Constant efforts are made to facilitate interpretation and application of results of 
research activities of the Institution, and an Office of Publications and Public 
Relations provides means for appropriate publication. 



XI 



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION 

Public No. 260. An Act to incorporate the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled, That the persons following being persons who are 
now trustees of the Carnegie Institution, namely, Alexander Agassiz, John S. Billings, 
John L. Cadwalader, Cleveland H. Dodge, William N. Frew, Lyman J. Gage, 
Daniel C. Gilman, John Hay, Henry L. Higginson, William Wirt Howe, Charles L. 
Hutchinson, Samuel P. Langley, William Lindsay, Seth Low, Wayne MacVeagh, 
Darius O. Mills, S. Weir Mitchell, William W. Morrow, Ethan A. Hitchcock, 
Elihu Root, John C. Spooner, Andrew D. White, Charles D. Walcott, Carroll D. 
Wright, their associates and successors, duly chosen, are hereby incorporated and 
declared to be a body corporate by the name of the Carnegie Institution of Wash- 
ington and by that name shall be known and have perpetual succession, with the 
powers, limitations, and restrictions herein contained. 

Sec. 2. That the objects of the corporation shall be to encourage, in the broadest 
and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery, and the application 
of knowledge to the improvement of mankind; and in particular — 

(a) To conduct, endow, and assist investigation in any department of science, 
literature, or art, and to this end to cooperate with governments, universities, colleges, 
technical schools, learned societies, and individuals. 

(b) To appoint committees of experts to direct special lines of research. 

(c) To publish and distribute documents. 

(d) To conduct lectures, hold meetings, and acquire and maintain a library. 

(e) To purchase such property, real or personal, and construct such building or 
buildings as may be necessary to carry on the work of the corporation. 

(f) In general, to do and perform all things necessary to promote the objects 
of the institution, with full power, however, to the trustees hereinafter appointed 
and their successors from time to time to modify the conditions and regulations 
under which the work shall be carried on, so as to secure the application of the 
funds in the manner best adapted to the conditions of the time, provided that the 
objects of the corporation shall at all times be among the foregoing or kindred thereto. 

Sec. 3. That the direction and management of the affairs of the corporation and 
the control and disposal of its property and funds shall be vested in a board of trustees, 
twenty-two in number, to be composed of the following individuals: Alexander 
Agassiz, John S. Billings, John L. Cadwalader, Cleveland H. Dodge, William N. 
Frew, Lyman J. Gage, Daniel C. Gilman, John Hay, Henry L. Higginson, William 
Wirt Howe, Charles L. Hutchinson, Samuel P. Langley, William Lindsay, Seth 
Low, Wayne MacVeagh, Darius O. Mills, S. Weir Mitchell, William W. Morrow, 
Ethan A. Hitchcoc\, Elihu Root, John C. Spooner, Andrew D. White, Charles D. 
Walcott, Carroll D. Wright, who shall constitute the first board of trustees. The 
board of trustees shall have power from time to time to increase its membership 
to not more than twenty-seven members. Vacancies occasioned by death, resignation, 
or otherwise shall be filled by the remaining trustees in such manner as the by-laws 

xii 



ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION 

shall prescribe; and the persons so elected shall thereupon become trustees and 
also members of the said corporation. The principal place of business of the said 
corporation shall be the city of Washington, in the District of Columbia. 

Sec. 4. That such board of trustees shall be entitled to take, hold, and administer 
the securities, funds, and property so transferred by said Andrew Carnegie to the 
trustees of the Carnegie Institution and such other funds or property as may at any 
time be given, devised, or bequeathed to them, or to such corporation, for the purposes 
of the trust; and with full power from time to time to adopt a common seal, to 
appoint such officers, members of the board of trustees or otherwise, and such 
employees as may be deemed necessary in carrying on the business of the corporation, 
at such salaries or with such remuneration as they may deem proper; and with 
full power to adopt by-laws from time to time and such rules or regulations as 
may be necessary to secure the safe and convenient transaction of the business of 
the corporation; and with full power and discretion to deal with and expend the 
income of the corporation in such manner as in their judgment will best promote 
the objects herein set forth and in general to have and use all powers and authority 
necessary to promote such objects and carry out the purposes of the donor. The 
said trustees shall have further power from time to time to hold as investments 
the securities hereinafter referred to so transferred by Andrew Carnegie, and any 
property which has been or may be transferred to them or such corporation by 
Andrew Carnegie or by any other person, persons, or corporation, and to invest 
any sums or amounts from time to time in such securities and in such form and 
manner as are permitted to trustees or to charitable or literary corporations for 
investment, according to the laws of the States of New York, Pennsylvania, or 
Massachusetts, or in such securities as are authorized for investment by the said deed 
of trust so executed by Andrew Carnegie, or by any deed of gift or last will and 
testament to be hereafter made or executed. 

Sec. 5. That the said corporation may take and hold any additional donations, 
grants, devises, or bequests which may be made in further support of the purposes 
of the said corporation, and may include in the expenses thereof the personal expenses 
which the trustees may incur in attending meetings or otherwise in carrying out 
the business of the trust, but the services of the trustees as such shall be gratuitous. 

Sec 6. That as soon as may be possible after the passage of this Act a meeting 
of the trustees hereinbefore named shall be called by Daniel C. Gilman, John S. 
Billings, Charles D. Walcott, S. Weir Mitchell, John Hay, Elihu Root, and Carroll D. 
Wright, or any four of them, at the city of Washington, in the District of Columbia, 
by notice served in person or by mail addressed to each trustee at his place of resi- 
dence; and the said trustees, or a majority thereof, being assembled, shall organize 
and proceed to adopt by-laws, to elect officers and appoint committees, and generally 
to organize the said corporation; and said trustees herein named, on behalf of the 
corporation hereby incorporated, shall thereupon receive, take over, and enter into 
possession, custody, and management of all property, real or personal, of the cor- 
poration heretofore known as the Carnegie Institution, incorporated, as hereinbefore 
set forth under "An Act to establish a Code of Law for the District of Columbia, 
January fourth, nineteen hundred and two," and to all its rights, contracts, claims, 
and property of any kind or nature; and the several officers of such corporation, or 

xiii 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

any other person having charge of any of the securities, funds, real or personal, 
books, or property thereof, shall, on demand, deliver the same to the said trustees 
appointed by this Act or to the persons appointed by them to receive the same; 
and the trustees of the existing corporation and the trustees herein named shall 
and may take such other steps as shall be necessary to carry out the purposes of 
this Act. 

Sec. 7. That the rights of the creditors of the said existing corporation known as 
the Carnegie Institution shall not in any manner be impaired by the passage of this 
Act, or the transfer of the property hereinbefore mentioned, nor shall any liability 
or obligation for the payment of any sums due or to become due, or any claim or 
demand, in any manner or for any cause existing against the said existing corporation, 
be released or impaired; but such corporation hereby incorporated is declared to 
succeed to the obligations and liabilities and to be held liable to pay and discharge 
all of the debts, liabilities, and contracts of the said corporation so existing to the 
same effect as if such new corporation had itself incurred the obligation or liability 
to pay such debt or damages, and no such action or proceeding before any court 
or tribunal shall be deemed to have abated or been discontinued by reason of the 
passage of this Act. 

Sec. 8. That Congress may from time to time alter, repeal, or modify this Act 
of incorporation, but no contract or individual right made or acquired shall thereby 
be divested or impaired. 

Sec. 9. That this Act shall take effect immediately. 

Approved, April 28, 1904 



xiv 



BY-LAWS OF THE INSTITUTION 

Adopted December 13, 1904. Amended December 13, 1910, December 13, 1912, 
December 10, 1937, December 15, 1939, December 13, 1940, and December 18, 1942 

Article I 

THE TRUSTEES 

1. The Board of Trustees shall consist of twenty-four members, with power to 
increase its membership to not more than twenty-seven members. The Trustees 
shall hold office continuously and not for a stated term. 

2. In case any Trustee shall fail to attend three successive annual meetings of the 
Board he shall thereupon cease to be a Trustee. 

3. No Trustee shall receive any compensation for his services as such. 

4. All vacancies in the Board of Trustees shall be filled by the Trustees by ballot. 
Sixty days prior to an annual or a special meeting of the Board, the President shall 
notify the Trustees by mail of the vacancies to be filled and each Trustee may submit 
nominations for such vacancies. A list of the persons so nominated, with the names 
of the proposers, shall be mailed to the Trustees thirty days before the meeting, 
and no other nominations shall be received at the meeting except with the unanimous 
consent of the Trustees present. Vacancies shall be filled from the persons thus 
nominated, but no person shall be declared elected unless he receives the votes of 
two-thirds of the Trustees present. 

Article II 

MEETINGS 

i. The annual meeting of the Board of Trustees shall be held in the City of 
Washington, in the District of Columbia, on the first Friday following the second 
Thursday of December in each year unless the date and place of meeting are 
otherwise ordered by the Executive Committee. 

2. Special meetings of the Board may be called by the Executive Committee by 
notice served personally upon, or mailed to the usual address of, each Trustee twenty 
days prior to the meeting. 

3. Special meetings shall, moreover, be called in the same manner by the Chairman 
upon the written request of seven members of the Board. 

Article III 

OFFICERS OF THE BOARD 

i. The officers of the Board shall be a Chairman of the Board, a Vice-Chairman, 
and a Secretary, who shall be elected by the Trustees, from the members of the 
Board, by ballot to serve for a term of three years. All vacancies shall be filled by 
the Board for the unexpired term; provided, however, that the Executive Committee 
shall have power to fill a vacancy in the office of Secretary to serve until the next 
meeting of the Board of Trustees. 

2. The Chairman shall preside at all meetings and shall have the usual powers 
of a presiding officer. 

2 xv 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

3. The Vice-Chairman, in the absence or disability of the Chairman, shall perform 
his duties. 

4. The Secretary shall issue notices of meetings of the Board, record its transactions, 
and conduct that part of the correspondence relating to the Board and to his duties. 

Article IV 

EXECUTIVE ADMINISTRATION 

The President 

1. There shall be a President who shall be elected by ballot by, and hold office 
during the pleasure of, the Board, who shall be the chief executive officer of the 
Institution. The President, subject to the control of the Board and the Executive 
Committee, shall have general charge of all matters of administration and supervision 
of all arrangements for research and other work undertaken by the Institution 
or with its funds. He shall devote his entire time to the affairs of the Institution. 
He shall prepare and submit to the Board of Trustees and to the Executive 
Committee plans and suggestions for the work of the Institution, shall conduct its 
general correspondence and the correspondence with applicants for grants and with 
the special advisers of the Committee, and shall present his recommendations in 
each case to the Executive Committee for decision. All proposals and requests for 
grants shall be referred to the President for consideration and report. He shall have 
power to remove and appoint subordinate employees and shall be ex officio a 
member of the Executive Committee. 

2. He shall be the legal custodian of the seal and of all property of the Institution 
whose custody is not otherwise provided for. He shall sign and execute on behalf 
of the corporation all contracts and instruments necessary in authorized administrative 
and research matters and affix the corporate seal thereto when necessary, and 
may delegate the performance of such acts and other administrative duties in his 
absence to the Executive Officer. He may execute all other contracts, deeds, and 
instruments on behalf of the corporation and affix the seal thereto when expressly 
authorized by the Board of Trustees or Executive Committee. He may, within 
the limits of his own authorization, delegate to the Executive Officer authority to 
act as custodian of and affix the corporate seal. He shall be responsible for the 
expenditure and disbursement of all funds of the Institution in accordance with 
the directions of the Board and of the Executive Committee, and shall keep accurate 
accounts of all receipts and disbursements. He shall submit to the Board of Trustees 
at least one month before its annual meeting in December a written report of the 
operations and business of the Institution for the preceding fiscal year with his 
recommendations for work and appropriations for the succeeding fiscal year, which 
shall be forthwith transmitted to each member of the Board. 

3. He shall attend all meetings of the Board of Trustees. 

4. There shall be an officer designated Executive Officer who shall be appointed 
by and hold office at the pleasure of the President, subject to the approval of the 
Executive Committee. His duties shall be to assist and act for the President as the 
latter may duly authorize and direct. 

xvi 



BY-LAWS OF THE INSTITUTION 

5. The President shall retire from office at the end of the calendar year in which 
he becomes sixty-five years of age. 

Article V 

COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be the following standing Committees, viz. an Executive Committee, 
a Finance Committee, and an Auditing Committee. 

2. The Executive Committee shall consist of the Chairman and Secretary of the 
Board of Trustees and the President of the Institution ex officio and, in addition, 
five trustees to be elected by the Board by ballot for a term of three years, who 
shall be eligible for re-election. Any member elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for 
the remainder of his predecessor's term: Provided, however, that of the Executive 
Committee first elected after the adoption of these by-laws two shall serve for one 
year, two shall serve for two years, and one shall serve for three years; and such 
Committee shall determine their respective terms by lot. 

3. The Executive Committee shall, when the Board is not in session and has 
not given specific directions, have general control of the administration of the affairs 
of the corporation and general supervision of all arrangements for administration, 
research, and other matters undertaken or promoted by the Institution; shall appoint 
advisory committees for specific duties; shall determine all payments and salaries; 
and keep a written record of all transactions and expenditures and submit the 
same to the Board of Trustees at each meeting, and it shall also submit to the 
Board of Trustees a printed or typewritten report of each of its meetings, and at the 
annual meeting shall submit to the Board a report for publication. The Executive 
Committee shall have power to authorize the purchase, sale, exchange, or transfer 
of real estate. 

4. The Executive Committee shall have general charge and control of all ap- 
propriations made by the Board. 

5. The Finance Committee shall consist of five members to be elected by the 
Board of Trustees by ballot for a term of three years. 

6. The Finance Committee shall have custody of the securities of the corporation 
and general charge of its investments and invested funds, and shall care for and 
dispose of the same subject to the directions of the Board of Trustees. It shall have 
power to authorize the purchase, sale, exchange, or transfer of securities and to 
delegate this power. It shall consider and recommend to the Board from time to 
time such measures as in its opinion will promote the financial interests of the 
Institution, and shall make a report at each meeting of the Board. 

7. The Auditing Committee shall consist of three members to be elected by the 
Board of Trustees by ballot for a term of three years. 

8. The Auditing Committee shall, before each annual meeting of the Board of 
Trustees, examine the accounts of business transacted under the Finance Committee 
and the Executive Committee. They may avail themselves at will of the services 
and examination of the Auditor appointed by the Board of Trustees. They shall 
report to the Board upon the collection of moneys to which the Institution is 
entitled, upon the investment and reinvestment of principal, upon the conformity of 

xvii 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

expenditures to appropriations, and upon the system of bookkeeping, the sufficiency 
of the accounts, and the safety and economy of the business methods and safeguards 
employed. 

9. All vacancies occurring in the Executive Committee and the Finance Committee 
shall be filled by the Trustees at the next regular meeting. In case of vacancy in 
the Finance Committee or the Auditing Committee, upon request of the remaining 
members of such committee, the Executive Committee may fill such vacancy by 
appointment until the next meeting of the Board of Trustees. 

10. The terms of all officers and of all members of committees shall continue until 
their successors are elected or appointed. 

Article VI 

FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION 

i. No expenditure shall be authorized or made except in pursuance of a previous 
appropriation by the Board of Trustees, or as provided in Article V, paragraph 6, 
hereof. 

2. The fiscal year of the Institution shall commence on the first day of November 
in each year. 

3. The Executive Committee, at least one month prior to the annual meeting in 
each year, shall cause the accounts of the Institution to be audited by a skilled 
accountant, to be appointed by the Board of Trustees, and shall submit to the annual 
meeting of the Board a full statement of the finances and work of the Institution 
and a detailed estimate of the expenditures of the succeeding year. 

4. The Board of Trustees, at the annual meeting in each year, shall make general 
appropriations for the ensuing fiscal year; but nothing contained herein shall prevent 
the Board of Trustees from making special appropriations at any meeting. 

5. The securities of the Institution and evidences of property, and funds invested 
and to be invested, shall be deposited in such safe depository or in the custody of 
such trust company and under such safeguards as the Trustees and Finance 
Committee shall designate; and the income available for expenditure of the 
Institution shall be deposited in such banks or depositories as may from time to time 
be designated by the Executive Committee. 

6. Any trust company entrusted with the custody of securities by the Finance 
Committee may, by resolution of the Board of Trustees, be made Fiscal Agent of 
the Institution, upon an agreed compensation, for the transaction of the business 
coming within the authority of the Finance Committee. 

Article VII 

AMENDMENT OF BY-LAWS 

i. These by-laws may be amended at any annual or special meeting of the Board 
of Trustees by a two-thirds vote of the members present, provided written notice 
of the proposed amendment shall have been served personally upon, or mailed to 
the usual address of, each member of the Board twenty days prior to the meeting. 

xviii 



ABSTRACT OF MINUTES OF THE FORTY-SEVENTH MEETING 

OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

The meeting was held in New York, N. Y., in the Board Room of the Carnegie 
Corporation of New York, on Friday, December 14, 1945. It was called to order at 
11:00 a.m. by the Chairman, Mr. Forbes. 

Upon roll call, the following Trustees responded: James F. Bell, Robert Woods 
Bliss, Lindsay Bradford, Frederic A. Delano, Homer L. Ferguson, W. Cameron 
Forbes, Walter S. Giflford, Herbert Hoover, Frank B. Jewett, Alfred L. Loomis, 
Roswell Miller, Henry S. Morgan, Seeley G. Mudd, Henning W. Prentis, Jr., 
Elihu Root, Jr., Henry R. Shepley, Richard P. Strong, Charles P. Taft, Juan T. 
Trippe, James W. Wadsworth, Frederic C. Walcott, and Lewis H. Weed. The 
President of the Institution, Vannevar Bush, was also in attendance. 

The minutes of the forty-sixth meeting were approved as printed and submitted 
to the members of the Board. 

Reports of the President, the Executive Committee, the Auditor, the Finance 
Committee, the Auditing Committee, and of Chairmen of Divisions, Directors 
of Departments, and Research Associates of the Institution were presented and 
considered. 

The Chairman announced the death of the President Emeritus, and upon motion 
it was 

Resolved, That the Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Institution of Washington hereby 
records its deep regret at the death, on October 30, 1945, of Dr. John Campbell Merriam,, 
President of the Institution from January 1, 1921 to December 31, 1938 and President 
Emeritus from January 1, 1939 until his death. Already distinguished as a brilliant student 
and notable contributor to his chosen field of paleontology and already recognized as a leader 
in organization of scientific programs, Dr. Merriam brought to the Institution qualities of 
mind and of humanity which resulted in profound advances in knowledge within the Insti- 
tution and more broadly throughout the whole realm of science. By repeated emphasis on 
biological phenomena, he became a rare philosophic interpreter of nature and natural re- 
sources in their effects upon human thought and human aspirations. He led the Institution 
into new channels of scientific endeavor; and by his sympathetic understanding of human 
relationships, by his discriminating selection of investigators of exceptional ability, by his 
kindly insistence upon cooperative effort, he molded the various divisions within the Institu- 
tion into an effective unit for furtherance of human knowledge. Dr. Merriam broadened 
and strengthened the concept of the Institution as an instrument of utmost value to society 
in the initiation and support of research. To the members of the Board of Trustees, Dr. 
Merriam was more than the wise leader and able investigator; he was friend and counselor. 
The members therefore record a profound personal regret at his death but rejoice that he 
has left so forceful and lasting an imprint upon the scientific endeavors of the Institution. 

The following appropriations for the year 1946 were authorized: 

Pension Fund $95,000 

Administration (including expenses of Investment Office and of Insurance) .... 109,472 

Publications (including expenses of Office of Publications and Public Relations) . 64,000 

Departmental Research Operations 1,062,366 

xix $1,330,838 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

Mr. Giflord was elected Chairman of the Board, Mr. Root was elected Vice- 
Chairman, and Mr. Delano was re-elected Secretary, each for the ensuing period of 
three years. 

Robert Woods Bliss, Henry R. Shepley, and Lewis H. Weed were re-elected 
members of the Executive Committee for a period of three years. 

Walter S. Giflford, Elihu Root, Jr., and Frederic C. Walcott were re-elected 
members of the Finance Committee for a period of three years.* 

Frederic A. Delano, Homer L. Ferguson, and James W. Wadsworth were re- 
elected members of the Auditing Committee for a period of three years. 

The meeting adjourned at 12:40 p.m. 

* At the meeting of the Executive Committee following the annual meeting of the Board, 
Mr. Gifford submitted his resignation as a member of the Finance Committee, and Henry S. 
Morgan was appointed to take his place until the next annual meeting. 



xx 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 
For the Year Ending October 31, 1945 

To the Trustees of the Carnegie Institution of Washington: 

Gentlemen : Article V, section 3 of the By-Laws provides that the Executive Com- 
mittee shall submit, at the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees, a report for 
publication; and Article VI, section 3 provides that the Executive Committee shall 
also submit, at the same time, a full statement of the finances and work of the 
Institution and a detailed estimate of the expenditures for the succeeding year. In 
accordance with these provisions, the Executive Committee herewith respectfully 
submits its report for the fiscal year ending October 31, 1945. 

During this year the Executive Committee held five meetings, printed reports of 
which have been mailed to each Trustee and constitute a part of this report. 

A statement of activities of the Institution is contained in the report of the Presi- 
dent, which has been considered and approved by the Executive Committee, and is 
submitted herewith. Requests for use of facilities and resources of the Institution in 
carrying on war research under contracts with the Government have resulted in full- 
time operation of many departments of the Institution in the national interest. During 
the past year active work has been completed on most of the Government contracts 
entered into by the Institution. Thirty-eight projects have been undertaken during 
the past five years in the interest of war activities, and all but ten of these projects, 
still requiring some months of further work, have been completed. These activities 
are covered by 140 contracts, orders, or amendments, by means of which a total 
amount of four and a quarter million dollars has been made available for reimburse- 
ment to the Institution for out-of-pocket expenses. The Institution's own contribution 
in performing these research tasks for the Government has consisted of loan of space 
and equipment, of service by members of the scientific and executive staffs without 
cost to the Government, and of allotments aggregating about f 100,000 to cover special 
needs and services. The contribution which the Institution has made to the Govern- 
ment in the form of services by members of its scientific and executive staffs would 
have added approximately a million dollars to Government contracts if the Govern- 
ment had paid for such services. Furthermore, there has been no charge for overhead 
expenses in connection with the Institution's own part of the work. 

The detailed estimate of expenditures for the succeeding year contained in the 
report of the President has been considered by the Executive Committee, which has 
approved the recommendations of the President in respect thereto and has provisionally 
approved the budget estimates based thereon and submitted therewith. Continued 
attention has been given both by the Executive Committee and by the Finance Com- 
mittee to the question of availability of funds for Institution activities in 1946, and 
budget recommendations are based upon the judgment of these committees with 
respect to financial policy in the post-war period. 

The Board of Trustees, at its meeting of December 15, 1944, appointed Price, Water- 
house and Company to audit the accounts of the Institution for the fiscal year ending 



xxi 



October 31, 1945. The report of the Auditor, including a balance sheet showing assets 
and liabilities of the Institution on October 31, 1945, is submitted as a part of the report 
of the Executive Committee. 

In addition to the report of the Auditor there is also submitted a financial statement 
for the fiscal year ending October 31, 1945, showing funds available for expenditure 
and amounts allotted by the Executive Committee, a customary statement of receipts 
and disbursements since the organization of the Institution on January 28, 1902, and a 
schedule of real estate and equipment at original cost. These statements together with 
the tables in the Auditor's report comprise a full statement of the finances of the 
Institution. 
No vacancy exists in the membership of the Board of Trustees. 
Tenure of office of the following officers of the Board of Trustees will expire at the 
annual meeting in December: Mr. Forbes, Chairman of the Board; Mr. Gifford, Vice- 
Chairman of the Board; and Mr. Delano, Secretary of the Board. Tenure of office of 
Messrs. Bliss, Shepley, and Weed as members of the Executive Committee; of Messrs. 
Gifford, Root, and Walcott as members of the Finance Committee; and of Messrs. 
Delano, Ferguson, and Wadsworth as members of the Auditing Committee will also 
expire at the annual meeting. 

W. Cameron Forbes, Chairman 

Vannevar Bush 

Robert Woods Bliss 

Frederic A. Delano 

Walter S. Gifford 

Henry R. Shepley 

Frederic C. Walcott 

Lewis H. Weed 

November 1, 1945 4 



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XXIV 



Real Estate and Equipment, Original Cost 

Administration {October 31, 1945) 

1530 P Street, N.W., Washington, D. C. 

Building, site, and equipment $847 , 746 . 01 

Division of Plant Biology {September 30, 1945) 
Stanford University, California {Headquarters) 

Buildings and grounds $74, 125. 72 

Laboratory 40,655.01 

Library 26,518.42 

Operating equipment 14 , 043 . 22 155 , 342 . 37 

Department of Embryology {September 30, 1945) 
Wolfe and Madison Streets, Baltimore, Maryland 

Library $4,498.38 

Laboratory 19,561.44 

Administration 7 , 989 . 55 32 , 049 . 37 

Department of Genetics {September 30, 1945) 
Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York 

Buildings, grounds, and field $293,071 .35 

Operating equipment 34 , 089 . 25 

Laboratory apparatus 38 , 352 . 99 

Library 54 , 568 . 64 

Archives 45,488.90 465,571.13 

Geophysical Laboratory {September 30, 1945) 
2801 Upton Street, N.W., Washington, D. C. 

Building, library, and operating appliances $292,267.05 

Laboratory apparatus 171, 304 . 96 

Shop equipment 21,103.00 484,675.01 

Division of Historical Research {September 30, 1945) 
10 Frisbie Place, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Operating equipment $28 , 797 . 96 

Library 15,020.90 43,818.86 

Nutrition Laboratory {September 30, 1945) 
29 Blackfan Street, Boston, Massachusetts 

Building, office, shop, and library $134,613.93 

Laboratory apparatus 31,828.84 166,442.77 

Mount Wilson Observatory {September 30, 1945) 
Pasadena, California 

Buildings and grounds $222,458.33 

Shop equipment 48 , 976 . 14 

Instruments 685 , 363 . 2 1 

Furniture and operating appliances 153 , 194 . 77 

Hooker 100-inch reflector 638 , 529 . 83 1 , 748 , 522 . 28 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism {September 30, 1945) 
5241 Broad Branch Road, N.W., Washington, D. C. 

Building, site, and office $257,838.42 

Survey equipment 94, 016. 62 

Instruments, laboratory, and shop equipment 473,429.85 825,284.89 



$4,769,452.69 
xxv 



REPORT OF AUDITORS 

To the Board of Trustees 
Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Washington, D. C. 

We have made an examination of the attached balance sheet of Carnegie Institution of 
Washington (and supporting schedule of securities owned) as of October 31, 1945 and the 
related statement of operating income and expenditures for the fiscal year then ended. In 
connection therewith, we obtained confirmations from the custodian, Guaranty Trust Com- 
pany of New York, as to the securities owned by the Institution and held in safekeeping 
at October 31, 1945 and from the depositaries as to the cash balances in banks at that date. 
The interest maturing during the fiscal year on bonds owned was accounted for, and the 
dividends received during the year on stocks owned were compared with published 
dividend records. With respect to a period of three months selected by us the recorded 
cash receipts were traced to deposits shown on the bank statements and paid checks and 
approved vouchers were inspected in support of the head office disbursements. We did 
not visit the branch offices of the Institution but we reviewed internal audit reports of the 
Bursar covering examinations of the branch records during the year and it appeared that 
the internal audits were satisfactorily conducted. We also inspected certified copies of 
the minutes of meetings of the Board of Trustees and the Executive Committee with 
respect to the appropriations and allotments for the year. 

The securities are stated at cost, amortized cost or value at date acquired. In accord- 
ance with a recommendation made in February 1940 by the Institution's Finance Com- 
mittee, premiums on bonds purchased subsequent to lanuary 1, 1940 are being amortized 
on a straight-line basis to the dates on which the bonds are first callable or payable at par. 
The amortization of such premiums applicable to the year ended October 31, 1945 
amounted to $5,955-59- Real estate and equipment are stated at cost, and books on hand 
for sale are carried at sales prices. In accordance with accepted practice no provision has 
been made for depreciation of property owned by the Institution. 

In accordance with established custom of the Institution, the budget appropriations are 
made for the calendar year, whereas the annual financial statements are prepared for the 
fiscal year ending October 31. In previous years the balance of estimated income 
applicable to November and December was included in the assets of the General Fund 
as at October 31 preceding and the unexpended appropriations and allotments for the same 
period were reflected in the current obligations in the balance sheet. Estimated income and 
approved appropriations and allotments for November and December 1945 are not reflected 
in the attached balance sheet as at October 31, 1945. 

In our opinion, with the foregoing explanations, the accompanying balance sheet and 
related statement of operating income and expenditures present fairly the position of 
Carnegie Institution of Washington at October 31, 1945 and the financial aspects of its 
operations for the year ended on that date. 

Price, Waterhouse & Co. 

Washington, D. C. 

November 26, 1945 



xxvi 





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XXV11 



General Fund 
Statement of Operating Income and Expenditures for the Fiscal Year Ended October 31, 1945 



Income: 

Interest and dividends on securities 




$1,368,018.87 
5,955.59 




Less — Amortization of bond premiums 












Sales of publications 


$1,362,063.28 

6,146.26 

13,000.00 

22,366.19 




Carnegie Corporation of New York — grants 






Other credits 




$1,403,575.73 








Expenditures: 

Pension Fund — annuity and insurance 


$123,879.57 

8,230.00 

43.12 

6,785.70 

776,318.47 

36,397.64 

13,158.43 

17,767.88 
119,381.05 




Carnegie Corporation Emergency Fund — grants . . 






Harriman Fund — commissions 






General Contingent Fund 






Departmental research operations: 

Salaries 


$627,463.92 

148,854.55 




Operating expenses 








Research projects of limited tenure: 

Salaries 


$21,281.90 
15,115.74 




Operating expenses 








General publication: 

Salaries 


$2,114.91 
11,043.52 




Expenditures 








Office of publications: 

Salaries 


$16,007.09 
1,760.79 




Operating expenses 








Administration expenses 












Less — Salaries and operating expenditures charged 
to previous appropriations 


$1,101,961.86 
173,837.84 


928,124.02 








Excess of income over expenditures 




$475,451.71 


Less — Credits to General Reserve Fund and other 
accounts . . 






183,924.70 










Unexpended and unallocated current income. . 


$291,527.01 











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XXXIV 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT 



OF THE 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING OCTOBER 31, 1945 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT 

OF THE 

CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

This report to the Trustees of the Car- search. Such research should continue; 

negie Institution of Washington, made in fact it is essential that until the world 

in accordance with the By-Laws, finds can develop better ways of ensuring the 

the Institution in a period of transition, safety of all peace-loving peoples, the na- 

Staff members are returning from war tion maintain this highly important aspect 

activities, and we look forward to peace, of its efforts for security. But there are 

The Institution can take satisfaction in other organizations which are more natu- 

the contribution it has made to the war rally fitted for the task of supplementing 

effort. Many members of its staff have the military research of the armed services 

carried heavy responsibilities, in uniform themselves, because their normal pro- 

and in the laboratories. Others whose pro- grams lie closer to application. The pri- 

fessional talents could not be brought mary responsibility of the Institution hence 

directly to wartime application have been is to return to that basic scientific re- 

equally unselfish in their participation as search which is its normal function, 

citizens in various forms of war work, and which now needs increased emphasis 

The facilities of the Institution have been after five years of drawing on scientific 

largely diverted to war research, with im- capital for the imperative task of making 

portant results. In fact, one of the most applications to war. For this reason the 

striking technical developments of the war, military research programs of the Institu- 

which had a decided influence on the out- tion are being closed out as rapidly as is 

come, had its origin in the Institution early consistent with the preservation of values 

in the conflict. Radar arose from many already attained. 

sources, but from none more clearly than With the return of peace the several 
from early work in the Department of departments and divisions can take a fresh 
Terrestrial Magnetism on reflections from start. The programs of many of them 
the ionosphere. Many of the staff, and of have been so severely interrupted that they 
the Trustees as well, have served in the are practically beginning anew. We can 
civilian scientific organizations concerned look ahead, choose the lines of research 
with war instrumentalities and war medi- in which the promise is greatest, and pro- 
cine, and the Administration Building has ceed. There need be no limitation to the 
become the gathering place for the scien- choice of programs, other than that dic- 
tists of the country during its use as the tated by the extent of our resources and 
focus of these activities. The effective re- the nature of our talents, as we evaluate 
lationships thus initiated will long con- where our contributions to human knowl- 
tinue on an informal basis. edge will be most fruitful. We should 

With the return of peace there does not choose deliberately and take proper time 

seem to be any obligation on the part of to do so, for the opportunity thus to choose 

the Institution to continue military re- may be rare, and it is none too easy to 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



alter a program once it is embarked upon. 
There is no need for continuing a pro- 
gram merely because it has been a past 
activity. Neither should we allow labels 
to constrain us unduly. Certainly what- 
ever we attempt should be such that every 
member of the staff can contribute sub- 
stantially to some portion of it, and derive 
satisfaction in doing so. It is also clear that 
the Institution should ordinarily not pur- 
sue those objectives which can be pursued 
equally well or better by other organiza- 
tions, for the Institution is unique in many 
ways. It has unique opportunities, and in 
general it should seek unique ends if it is 
fully to justify its existence and is to exert 
among research organizations of the coun- 
try the beneficent influence which its 
position should ensure. 

The programs of the several divisions 
should become formulated by the staffs 
of those divisions themselves. This con- 
dition is fundamental to the success of any 
undertaking in basic science. The Presi- 
dent and the Trustees, of course, have 
the duty to review and approve, for the 
programs should measure up to certain 
over-all criteria, and there is moreover the 
obligation to ensure that the programs of 
various divisions become so interrelated 
that they may lend support one to another. 
In fact, in advance of review, consultation 
is very much in order, and it is hoped that 
in the months ahead there will be close 
contact between the members of the staff 
and the committees of the Board concerned 
with the various disciplines, either in joint 
meetings or in frequent informal indi- 
vidual discussions. But the staffs of the 
divisions, under the leadership of their 
several directors, will and should take the 
burden of analysis, comparison, initiation, 
and formulation, with the greatest free- 
dom for the vision of individuals to be 
expanded and the aspirations of individuals 



to be weighed. Out of such deliberations 
emerge sound programs which groups will 
pursue with enthusiasm. 

Some of this will have to wait, for not 
all our absent members have yet returned. 
Moreover, we are weary, and brilliant plans 
are seldom formulated by tired men. It is 
well that there should be a respite, as the 
opportunity for vacation offers, before we 
turn fully to the making of plans. No 
time will be lost, for seldom does the time 
spent in contemplating a program of re- 
search before vigorously embarking upon 
it exceed what is wise and reasonable. 

In planning, moreover, it is necessary 
that we take due note of what is going 
on in scientific research in the country as a 
whole. The war has brought great changes 
in this regard, and even the organizational 
forms under which research will be con- 
ducted in the future in this country will 
differ from those in use before the war. 

The country is at last awake to the value 
of scientific research. It may indeed even 
be too much awake, for it was awakened 
rather violently, and there may hence be 
unwarranted distortions of view. There is 
certain to be plenty of emphasis on applied 
research in industry, governmental organi- 
zations, and universities and colleges, but 
it is not so certain that there will be suffi- 
cient emphasis on fundamental or pure 
research. Similarly there is bound to be 
emphasis on research in the physical sci- 
ences, because their applications have been 
spectacular, and on direct medical science 
for the same reason. It is not nearly so 
certain that every area where the scientific 
method can add to man's understanding 
of himself and his environment will be 
adequately explored. 

This situation will probably be exag- 
gerated because of the serious deficit which 
policies pursued during the war produced 
in the scientific manpower of the country. 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1945 

The country learned fully of the impor- unless they are also engaged in teaching 
tance of science, and of its application by those who will follow in their footsteps 
engineers and industrialists, after the war, and some day pass them on the road, and 
not before. Moreover, it did not grasp the one of the finest types of teaching is that 
fact that, in any rapidly altering techno- exemplified by the master surrounded by 
logical field, the young men are often the his disciples. There are many ways of 
only ones who fully comprehend some of finding such young men and of giving 
the ramifications. Two principles governed them opportunity to spend a few years 
our actions: one that every citizen should with us. But we shall be severely ham- 
be ready to sacrifice equally in the com- pered in the undertaking in the immediate 
mon cause, and the other that every man post-war years, for there will just not be 
should be used in the place where his enough young men of talent to go around, 
talents could contribute most fully to the The vista ahead in science is, however, 
common effort. These principles were not attractive indeed, if we can assume a peace- 
in balance. As a result, by taking alto- ful world in which the energies of scien- 
gether too many trained young scientists tists need no longer be diverted, almost 
and engineers out of the laboratories and entirely, to activities necessary for military 
industry, we very nearly wrecked that part security. This is not so much because 
of our war effort which consists in keeping new opportunities have been opened dur- 
the instrumentalities in the hands of our ing the war, for most of the war effort in 
fighting men substantially superior to those science consisted in applying results in 
of the enemy. We also sacrificed the fu- ways long familiar to scientific men. 
ture to immediate needs, more than did Rather it is because the great part which 
any of our allies or indeed our enemies, science and its application have played 
by halting our processes of advanced edu- ensures that, taking the country as a whole, 
cation, thus creating a lack of scientific there will be adequate support for scien- 
manpower from which we shall not re- tific effort in the future if the country 
cover for many years. We are a strange remains prosperous. It is also due to an- 
country. As this is written we are at peace, other factor. Many a scientist has now 
but we are still doing both these things. applied himself assiduously for five years 
The result is that, as the Institution turns to tasks often far from his inclinations, 
back to its normal functions, it will find assigned by the needs of the moment, and 
the path difficult in many ways. The lack requiring his full energies. Yet the specu- 
of a sufficient number of brilliant young lative mind has not been idle, even though 
men with a basic training in fundamental it has been temporarily inhibited from 
science will be particularly unfortunate, entering those inviting trails that have 
We need such men throughout the Insti- been glimpsed in the midst of harassing 
tution; their presence will be good for and confining duties. Every brilliant scien- 
them and also for us. I have discussed tist in the country's service probably has 
this point with many members of the staff one or more of these prospects which he has 
and I find uniform agreement. No re- promised himself he would pursue when 
search program which proceeds without the release came, and it has now come, 
the benefit of the impact of young minds We have had a partial moratorium on the 
can expect long to remain virile. Few in- creations of fundamental science, we have 
dividuals can retain their creativeness fully unwisely produced a deficit of scientific 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



manpower, but we undoubtedly have a 
new stock of dammed-up ideas. It will 
be interesting to watch what happens as 
the dam breaks. 

One further point should be made be- 
fore we turn to definite planning. There 
is some fear prevalent, and there is basis 
for the fear, that the present emphasis on 
science may result in an unbalance in this 
country and a neglect of other fields of 
intellectual effort. The Institution is in- 
deed directly interested in this matter, for 
since the extension of knowledge is not 
all by means of application of the scientific 
method, the field of the Institution has 
long included activities on the scientific 
borderland, or indeed in the humanities. 
Research has objectives that are broader 
than practical knowledge, immediate or 
potential, and involves those cultural as- 
pects of knowledge which respond to the 
innate curiosity of the race, and its ponder- 
ings in regard to its origins and possibly 
in regard to its destiny. 

From a more practical point of view as 
well, it is important that no unbalance 
occur. We have entered a new world. It 
is a terrifying world perhaps, as we view 
the power of new forces which can de- 
stroy, but then the world has always been 
terrifying in many aspects to those who 
have really regarded it face to face, rather 
than substituted contemplation of an ideal- 
ized model with some of the seamy aspects 
omitted. It is certainly, however, a world 
in which there is much need for coura- 
geous and intelligent thinking in every 
department of man's activities, not merely 
in the scientific field. It is a world in 
which young keen minds need to grapple 
with many phases of the common prob- 



lem of keeping progress uninterrupted by 
such cataclysms as have twice jarred it 
within a generation, or by other disasters, 
for there are others that do not come under 
the heading of war. There is a problem 
before us, therefore: Will science become 
overenthusiastic and will other depart- 
ments of intellectual endeavor suffer as a 



consequence 



? 



The answer to this problem will not 
come through holding science back, or 
through requiring of it some self-denying 
restraint. It has too much to do, the na- 
tional security and prosperity require its 
full efforts, and the vistas are much too 
attractive. The solution will not come 
from pulling down but from building up. 
Specifically, we need to educate fully in 
this country all the young brilliant minds 
that can be found, wherever they may 
be located and whatever their station. We 
have never done so nearly well enough. 
If we do there will be sufficient to man the 
various professions and intellectual pur- 
suits, and as young men start their careers 
the various callings should be clearly pre- 
sented so that none requiring recruits 
will be overlooked. We should not forget, 
for example, that political careers must be 
made fully attractive for sound thinkers 
if democracy is to function effectively in a 
world, of growing complexity. This may 
not be directly the Institution's affair, for 
it is not primarily an educational institu- 
tion, even though it has a function to per- 
form in advanced scientific education of 
its own younger staff; but it is certainly 
an important matter, and in one way or 
another the Institution can perhaps lend 
a hand. 



Finances 

The Institution has emerged from the dowment is in fact increased, because of 
war in sound financial condition. Its en- the generosity of the Carnegie Corpora- 

6 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1945 



tion. Its investments have been safely man- 
aged thus far through a very difficult 
period. 

It has conducted a large amount of war 
research for government under contract, 
on a basis where it contributed its facili- 
ties, its normal overhead, and the services 
of its regular staff, and was reimbursed 
only for out-of-pocket expenses for addi- 
tional staff, equipment, and overhead. 
This policy has of course cost something, 
for there have inevitably been expenses 
that were not in either category, but the 
direct cost has not been large. 

On the other hand, some of the amounts 
budgeted for support of departmental re- 
search programs have not been expended, 
on account of absence of staff members on 
war assignments with other organizations. 
These items have been reverted and placed 
in reserves where they will be available 
for the expenses of reconverting to normal 
activities. Though this expense will be 
substantial, for the equipment of the Insti- 
tution will need attention after five years, 
the money thus placed in the reserve fund 
will apparently be sufficient for the pur- 
pose. The expenditure of this reserve 
awaits the return of the staff and the 
formulation of programs for the future. 

It is difficult to foresee the future from 
a financial standpoint. In general it ap- 
pears that, if the financial affairs of the 
country remain in sound condition, so also 
will those of the Institution. The rate of 
income from endowment has dropped 



severely, but thus far this loss has been 
offset by additions to endowment, econo- 
mies in operation, and the termination of 
matured programs. Still, either a further 
decrease in rate of income or a substantial 
rise in the cost of living would bring 
severe stress. Of course, a real inflation 
would wreck the Institution completely as 
well as the country generally, but there is 
no way for us to guard against such an 
eventuality except by our influence as citi- 
zens on the general trends. 

If the pattern following World War I is 
repeated, we may expect a few years of 
abnormal costs of living and of operation, 
followed by a return to the long-time 
trends which preceded the war. If such a 
pattern repeats, we may well need to 
operate with a succession of deficit budgets 
and draw on our reserves, for we now 
have little margin in operations. This pro- 
cedure would not be disastrous, if the 
period is actually temporary, for the con- 
dition of our reserves is excellent. 

Entirely apart from the short-term 
trends, however, there is one point which 
needs our attention as soon as the financial 
outlook allows. The salary scale of the 
Institution is not, by and large, high 
enough in view of the position of the In- 
stitution among research organizations in 
the country. This disparity should be care- 
fully and thoroughly corrected, even if in 
order to rectify it we must forego oppor- 
tunities to enter new fields of research for 
some time. 



New Retirement Plan 

Restudy of the Institution's position with tive on January i, 1945. Specifications of 
respect to retirement provisions has re- the old plan have been modified to pro- 
suited in modification and restatement of vide increase in joint contributions toward 
our procedure for annuity and life insur- premiums on annuity contracts and to elim- 
ance, and adoption of a revised Retirement inate provision for supplementary annuity 
and Insurance Plan which became effec- except in so far as supplementary aid 



supplementary annuity load has been 
reached, and obligations of this character 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

may be required in the few cases in which izes changes now contemplated in social 

the new provision for minimum retiring security provisions, the Institution and its 

allowance becomes applicable. members may be called upon to partici- 

It is hoped that the minimum provisions pate, in which case further modification 

of the new plan will enable the average of our own Retirement and Insurance Plan 

male member to retire with a single life W1 \\ De in order. 

annuity of about 40 per cent of final salary. Annual appropriations for the Pension 
This is a reasonable goal, but present Fund have been su ffi cient in tne pas t to 
actuarial and financial conditions require cover the l nst i tution ' s contributions lo- 
an increase in annual contributions to ward payment o£ prem iums on annuity 
reach it. For new members the procedure and collective insurance contracts as well 
is compulsory, with the provision that en- as payments by the Institution in the £orm 

trance or those or advanced age will be r 1 1 • 1 1 

.. . , , & . or supplementary annuity authorized by 

conditioned by agreement with the Insti- 1 1 1 • 1 t-i ^ c i 

. ° , r ., the old retirement plan. Ine peak 01 the 
tution concerning the extent or contribu- 
tions which may be necessary to produce 

appropriate retirement benefits. 

TU 1 1 re v ^ will gradually diminish in the future. On 

Ine new plan also offers opportunity to b J 

present members to increase their contribu- the other hand ' there 1S shar P increase in 
tions to the minimum percentage required cost to the Instltutl ° n ° f contributions to- 
of new members. Many have taken ad- ward premium payments on annuity con- 
vantage of this offer, and with policies tracts > as authorized by specifications of 
which have prospect of low returns, such the new P lan - Jt is estimated that a net 
action has been particularly helpful. Fur- increase of about $20,000 in the annual ap- 
thermore, there is provision for extending propriation for the Pension Fund will be 
the coverage of collective insurance. In required if this Fund is maintained as a 
this connection it should be noted that, reservoir from which we shall continue to 
if the United States Government author- make payments as in the past. 

Retirements and Changes 

Inauguration of a plan for joint action Palomar equipment is completed, and in 
by the Institution and the California In- the reinforcing of this program by educa- 
stitute of Technology in the future opera- tional activities on the campus of the Cali- 
tion bf the great astronomical centers at fornia Institute. Graduate training lead- 
Mount Wilson and Palomar Mountain ing to the doctorate will be given under 
promises much positive accomplishment the auspices of the Institute by an astro- 
in this important field of research. The physics staff drawn from both the Institu- 
cordial informal cooperation which has tion and the Institute, 
existed between the Mount Wilson Ob- Thus the fortieth anniversary year of 
servatory and the California Institute since the Mount Wilson Observatory, witness- 
the inception of the project for building a ing the retirement on January 1, 1946, of 
200-inch telescope reaches maturity in the its distinguished Director, Dr. Walter S. 
formulation of a unit scientific program Adams, after more than two decades' serv- 
for the observational work of the two ob- ice, witnesses also the institution of a 
servatories, to take effect as soon as the plan calculated to extend in future the 

8 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1945 



contribution to knowledge which has made 
the observatory notable in the past. Dr. 
Ira S. Bowen, Professor of Physics at the 
California Institute of Technology, known 
for his work in spectroscopy and astro- 
physics, will succeed Dr. Adams as Direc- 
tor. Elected to the Astronomy Section of 
the National Academy of Sciences in 1936, 
Dr. Bowen was awarded the Draper Medal 
in 1942 in recognition of his discoveries in 
astronomical physics. 

The report of Dr. Thorne M. Carpenter 
as Director of the Nutrition Laboratory 
reviews in this Year Book an activity which 
during the past thirty-eight years has pro- 
duced results of the highest importance 
in advancing knowledge of the nutritive 
processes in man. The program of the 
Laboratory, which was organized in 1907, 
grew out of metabolism experiments sup- 
ported earlier by the Institution and out 
of needs for fundamental work in the 
general field of nutrition. The experi- 
mental studies were of pioneering value 
in dealing with fundamental laws govern- 
ing vital activity as expressed in the chem- 
ical and energy transformations in the 
animal body. Directed by Dr. Francis G. 
Benedict from 1907 to 1937 and by Dr. 
Carpenter thereafter, the Laboratory made 
memorable contributions to knowledge of 
the physiological chemistry of the human 
body, to the development of instruments 
and techniques, and to the accumulation 
of physiological data concerning vital ac- 
tivities of normal man and of special 



pathological cases as well. In recent years 
Dr. Carpenter and his small staff have 
effectively carried on programs of special 
war research. 

It is thus after a noteworthy career that 
the activities of the Laboratory are being 
brought to termination with Dr. Carpen- 
ter's retirement, in pursuance of the policy 
which research organizations like the In- 
stitution must follow — of relinquishing 
work in which they have carried the ini- 
tiative when the time comes that other 
organizations are prepared to continue it. 

Growing in part out of the general 
correspondence which preceded the ap- 
pointment of a new Director of the Office 
of Publications and Public Relations, and 
in part out of his study of the Institution's 
past publications and publication policies, 
basis has been laid for discussions by all 
interested members of the Institution's 
stafl designed to consolidate policy and to 
consider expansion of the program so as to 
aid increasing the intelligent nonscientific 
citizen's comprehension of science. Plans 
are in preparation for the rearrangement 
and rehabilitation of the stocks of Institu- 
tion publications, which have been dis- 
arranged because of unprecedented de- 
mands for space imposed by wartime uses 
of the Administration Building; better co- 
ordination of orders and shipping practices 
has already been achieved, and will be 
increased as present physical handicaps 
are removed. 



Research Activities 



Though the departments and divisions 
of the Institution have been to a great 
degree withheld by war research from 
vigorous pursuit of projects in their usual 
fields of interest, some regular research 
activities have been carried on. Since much 
of the Institution's investigation for war 



purposes bears directly on problems with 
which it is engaged in normal times, many 
findings have been made in war programs 
which will be directly useful as regular 
programs are resumed. 

At Mount Wilson, Dr. Walter S. Adams 
reports, the full observational program 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



with solar instruments and with the 100- 
inch telescope has been conducted. Fur- 
ther study has been made of the so-called 
irregular sunspots which do not undergo 
change in magnetic polarity at the start 
of a new cycle. In the literature, these 
have been characterized as "small unstable 
groups," but the Mount Wilson study 
shows them to be as large and as stable 
as the spots which shift in polarity with 
the new cycle. Present preliminary re- 
sults indicate, in fact, that their polarity 
is the only irregular feature of the so-called 
irregular spots. 

The cyclotron of the Department of 
Terrestrial Magnetism has been in almost 
continuous daily operation for cooperative 
studies with the Naval Medical Research 
Center and the United States Public 
Health Service. These agencies and the 
Department have each contributed work- 
ers of special skills to the research teams 
carrying on this work. 

The needs disclosed by experience as 
probable in any future research of the kind 
are discussed in detail in the thirteenth and 
final volume of "Scientific Results of 
Cruise VII of the Carnegie during 1928- 
1929 under Command of Captain J. P. 
Ault," which has been completed for pub- 
lication. Compilations of secular changes 
in the characteristics of the earth's mag- 
netic field, described in the Year Book 
report for 1944, have been completed. 

The volcano Paricutin in Mexico was 
visited by a representative of the Depart- 
ment of Terrestrial Magnetism for a pre- 
liminary survey for a program expected to 
be useful in the general problem of investi- 
gation of thunderstorms, and by a repre- 
sentative of the Geophysical Laboratory 
who went at the request of the Division 
of Geology and Geography of the Na- 
tional Research Council in order to obtain 
firsthand information upon which to ad- 



vise the National Research Council group 
set up to coordinate studies of the volcano. 

Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in 
the material has been found to be the 
source of the antibiotic properties of 
chlorellin, which was first isolated from 
cultures of the alga Chlorella in the Divi- 
sion of Plant Biology. As a result of this 
important discovery, Dr. Spoehr reports, 
other more direct sources of unsaturated 
fatty acids, such as corn, olive, and raisin 
oils, are now being utilized, and the oxida- 
tion reaction produced by exposure of them 
to air and light is under study. The 
Chlorella research, which of itself offered 
interesting possibilities in the development 
of antibiotic materials, thus has served as 
introduction to very promising fields. 
Since unsaturated fatty acids are available 
in such readily obtainable and relatively 
inexpensive source materials as vegetable 
oils, and since the mechanism of oxidation 
giving rise to antibiotic values is, though 
highly complex, susceptible of direct chem- 
ical study, the program is being stressed 
by the Division. 

This Division's program of develop- 
ment of improved range grasses to pro- 
duce more feed by better utilization of the 
soil and the growing season has resulted 
in the production of promising hybrids 
from which it is hoped to establish im- 
proved types. Testing of the more satis- 
factory hybrids — for example, one between 
Big bluegrass from eastern Washington 
and a hardy race of Kentucky bluegrass 
from Swedish Lapland — is being carried 
on at the Institution's mountain stations 
as well as at the central laboratory. Some 
are being delivered to the Soil Conser- 
vation Service for more extensive final 



testing. 



Though published research of the De- 
partment of Embryology during the year 
past has been relatively small, because of 



10 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1945 



the wartime scattering of workers, the 
main lines of the Department's work have 
been continued. The development of the 
Embryological Collection has progressed, 
instruments and techniques have been 
brought nearer final perfection, and other 
programs have been carried out in per- 
formance of the basic plan of research 
stated in Year Book 40. 

Successful development, under a War 
Production Board contract, of a strain of 
Penicillium yielding a high content of 
penicillin was accomplished during the 
year in the Department of Genetics. Mu- 
tants produced by X-ray irradiation were 
screened to pick out exceptional high yield- 
ers rather than to screen out low yielders, 
about 10 per cent of the samples being 
retained. Of the 504 selected strains sent 
to the University of Minnesota for further 
testing, one, yielding about twice as much 
penicillin as the strain from which it 
originated, is now used in production. 

The genetics of acquired bacterial re- 
sistance to drugs and other antibacterial 
agents is being studied in an extensive 



program started in June 1945. Solving of 
practical problems arising from bacterial 
resistance to therapeutic agents, and at- 
taining of fundamental knowledge of the 
mutational patterns of bacteria and the 
underlying physiological mechanisms, Dr. 
Demerec states to be the two purposes 
of the project. Work on resistance to 
penicillin, sulfonamides, inorganic salts, 
bacteriophages, and ultraviolet radiation 
is included. 

Interruption of the field work of the 
Division of Historical Research and dimi- 
nution of its staff by the war led to oppor- 
tunity, which has been thoroughly utilized, 
for the organization and writing up of the 
results of various investigational programs. 
Dr. Kidder reports that definitive publi- 
cation of several projects has thus been 
brought into immediate prospect. Recon- 
naissance investigations of several sites, for 
the collection of data, preparation of pre- 
liminary maps, and similar purposes, have 
been made during the year, in anticipa- 
tion of the opportunity to resume field 
operations. 



// 



REPORTS OF DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITIES 
AND COOPERATIVE STUDIES 

ASTRONOMY 

Mount Wilson Observatory 

TERRESTRIAL SCIENCES 

Geophysical Laboratory 

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 

Special Projects 

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 

Division of Plant Biology 

Department of Embryology 

Department of Genetics 

Nutrition Laboratory 

Special Projects 

HISTORICAL RESEARCH 

Division of Historical Research 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



Pasadena, California 
WALTER S. ADAMS, Director 



The present year is the fortieth anni- 
versary of the establishment of the Mount 
Wilson Observatory by the Institution. 
During this period progress in astronomy 
and especially in astrophysics has been 
extraordinary, in keeping with the great 
developments in atomic physics. In addi- 
tion, our knowledge of the universe has 
increased remarkably, and the develop- 
ment of methods for studying matter in 
its various forms throughout the depths of 
space has been successful almost beyond 
belief. 

The Observatory has contributed notably 
to many of these advances, particularly in 
the fields of solar and stellar physics, in 
that of cosmogony, and in the application 
of new methods and instruments to the 
solution of astronomical problems. Be- 
tween the discovery of magnetism in the 
sun in 1908 and the development of the 
observational basis for the theory of the 
expanding universe in more recent years 
lie a multitude of discoveries which have 
aided in the interpretation of the intricate 
and fascinating aspects of the physical 
world. The Observatory has fulfilled in 
large measure the hopes and expectations 
of its founder and first Director, Dr. Hale, 
and of the Institution which supported his 
plans and ideals so fully and generously. 

As the war reaches its end, scientific 
research will encounter many problems of 
readjustment, both material and psycho- 
logical. In some respects the present is the 
beginning of a new epoch which will call 
for a close study, selection, and revaluation 
of the problems of physical science. This 



is especially true of astronomy, to which 
the rapid development of new physical and 
optical methods and devices, and of great 
telescopes like the 200-inch reflector, will 
bring remarkable opportunities and corre- 
sponding responsibilities. It is with high 
anticipations for a future of great accom- 
plishment that the present Director sub- 
mits to the President and the Trustees of 
the Institution his last annual report of 
the activities of the Observatory. 

The part taken by the Observatory in 
the study of various problems relating to 
the war has been especially extensive dur- 
ing the past year. In addition to previous 
contracts entered into with the Office of 
Scientific Research and Development, two 
new contracts have been undertaken. One 
of these is directly with the Army Air 
Forces; the second, under the Applied 
Mathematics Panel of the OSRD, has re- 
quired a portion of the services of nearly 
the entire scientific staff. This contract has 
involved much statistical investigation. 

With a single exception, all the members 
of the staff who have been on leave of 
absence for war investigations are still ab- 
sent from the Observatory. As a result 
there has been some difficulty in carrying 
on the full observational program on 
Mount Wilson; but through the cordial 
cooperation of the remaining members of 
the staff it has been possible to maintain 
completely observations with the solar in- 
struments and the 100-inch telescope. A 
few interruptions have occurred in the 
work of the 60-inch reflector. 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



STAFF AND ORGANIZATION 



Research Division 

Solar Physics: Harold D. Babcock, Seth B. 
Nicholson, Joseph Hickox, Edison Hoge, 
Edison Pettit, Robert S. Richardson, Mary 
F. Coffeen, Elizabeth S. Mulders, Myrtle 
L. Richmond. 

Stellar Motions and Distances: Adriaan van 
Maanen, Ralph E. Wilson,* A. Louise 
Lowen. 

Stellar Photometry: Walter Baade, Mary 
Joyner Seares. 

Stellar Spectroscopy: Walter S. Adams, Wil- 
liam H. Christie,* Theodore Dunham, Jr.,* 
Milton L. Humason, Alfred H. Joy, Paul 
W. Merrill, Rudolph Minkowski, Roscoe 
F. Sanford, Gustaf Stromberg, Olin C. 
Wilson,* Ada M. Brayton, Sylvia Burd, 
Cora G. Burwell, Dorothy D. Locanthi,* A. 
Louise Lowen. 

Nebular Photography, Photometry, and Spec- 
troscopy: Edwin P. Hubble,* Walter Baade, 
Milton L. Humason, Rudolph Minkowski, 
Sylvia Burd. 

Physical Laboratory: Robert B. King.* 

Editorial Division: Paul W. Merrill, editor; 
Elizabeth Connor, assistant editor and 
librarian; Alice S. Beach, secretary and 
stenographer. 

Alfred H. Joy has continued as Secretary 
of the Observatory throughout the year. 

Research Associates 

Sir James Jeans, Dorking, England; Henry 
Norris Russell, Princeton University; Fred- 
erick H. Seares, Pasadena; Joel Stebbins, 
University of Wisconsin. 

Dr. Russell has been actively engaged in 
the analysis of the neutral iron spectrum in 
collaboration with Mrs. Sitterly, and his 
advice and experience have been of great 
value in the preparation of the extensive 
Multiplet Table by Mrs. Sitterly, and of 
the Infrared Solar Spectrum by Babcock 

* On leave of absence for investigations relat- 
ing to the war. 



and Mrs. Sitterly. The Fe i Table has been 
published and the other two catalogues are 
nearing completion. The solar material 
used in all three investigations has been 
provided from Mount Wilson. 

Dr. Seares with the aid of Miss Joyner 
has completed an extensive analysis of the 
basic magnitudes of southern stars meas- 
ured by Stoy at the Cape of Good Hope 
and has compared them with standards in 
the northern hemisphere. In addition, Dr. 
Seares and Miss Joyner have studied cer- 
tain statistical problems arising in the 
course of the analysis. 

The wave length of the strong infrared 
radiation in the night sky detected by Dr. 
Stebbins and Dr. Whitford several years 
ago has been measured by Stebbins with 
sufficient accuracy to enable Dr. Swings 
to establish its origin as molecular nitrogen. 
Dr. Stebbins has also completed photoelec- 
tric measurements of 238 stars of different 
spectral types in six regions of the spec- 
trum. The results are most interesting in 
their bearing on space reddening and the 
distribution in wave length of stellar radia- 
tion as compared with that of a black body. 

Temporary Associates 

Dr. S. A. Mitchell, Director of the 
Leander McCormick Observatory, spent 
about six weeks of the summer of 1944 in 
Pasadena, continuing his observations of 
radial velocities with the 60-inch telescope. 
Dr. John C. Duncan, Director of the 
Whitin Observatory, made numerous di- 
rect photographs of a variety of diffuse 
and planetary nebulae with the two reflec- 
tors during the summer of 1944 and com- 
pared some of the negatives with similar 
photographs made by him in 1921. Dr. P. 
Swings, professor at the University of 
Liege, has remained in Pasadena through- 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



out the year and has carried on active 
studies in stellar spectroscopy during a 
portion of his time. These have resulted 
in important identifications of forbidden 
and highly ionized lines in several stars of 
peculiar spectrum, in the identification al- 
ready mentioned of the strong infrared 
radiation at A10440 in the night sky with 
a band of molecular nitrogen, and in nu- 
merous other interesting results. 

Miss Suzanne van Dijke spent several of 
the summer and autumn months of 1944 
in Pasadena, continuing her investigation 
of the spectral differences between giant 
and dwarf stars. Mr. W. C. Miller, of 
Pasadena, has continued the observations 
of bright-line B-type stars which he began 
several years ago with the 10-inch tele- 
scope, and has supplemented them with 
spectrograms he has obtained with the 
60-inch reflector. 

Several rnembers of the Ballistic Re- 
search Laboratory of the Aberdeen Prov- 
ing Ground were at the Pasadena offices 
of the Observatory during the autumn of 
1944. A large measuring instrument was 
placed at their disposal and assistance was 
given in other ways. 

Instrument Design and Construction 

Design: Edgar C. Nichols, chief designer; 
Harold S. Kinney, draftsman. 



Optical Shop: Donald O. Hendrix, superin- 
tendent. 

Instrument Shop: Albert Mclntire, foreman; 
Elmer Prall, instrument maker; Fred 
Scherff, Oscar Swanson, Albert Labrow, 
Donald Yeager, machinists; Harry S. Fehr, 
cabinet maker. 

Maintenance and Operation 

Office: Anne McConnell, bookkeeper; Doro- 
thea Neuens, stenographer and telephone 
operator. 

Operation: Ashel N. Beebe, superintendent 
of construction; Sidney A. Jones (on leave 
of absence for military service) and Ken- 
neth de Huff, engineers; Thomas A. Nel- 
son, Floyd Day, Louis S. Graf, Hobart 
Wright, night assistants; Ernest W. Har- 
tong, truck driver and machinist helper; 
Anthony Wausnock, Mrs. Wausnock, and 
Mrs. Pauline Byers, stewards; Arnold T. 
Ratzlaff, Irving Angel, and Harry Sering, 
janitors. 

Several of those whose names are listed 
above have been with the Observatory but 
a part of the year. 

Numerous temporary additions were 
made during the year to the personnel of 
the optical and instrument shops and to 
the experimental laboratory outside of the 
Observatory buildings to provide for the 
government contracts undertaken by the 
Institution. 



OBSERVING CONDITIONS 



Because of interruptions in the observing 
schedule, the detailed table showing the 
monthly record of observations with the 
60-inch telescope is omitted. Solar photo- 
graphs were obtained on .316 days between 
July 1, 1944 and June 30, 1945, and the 
100-inch telescope was used on approxi- 
mately 240 nights. In general, observing 



conditions were below the average, as is 
frequently the case when the winter sea- 
son is abnormally cold. The total snowfall 
was 52 inches and the precipitation for the 
year 31.75 inches, 6.35 inches below the 
normal amount for Mount Wilson. More 
than one-half the snowfall came during the 
month of March. 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



SOLAR RESEARCH 



Solar Photography 



Solar photographs were made on 316 
days between July 1, 1944 and June 30, 
1945 by Hickox, Hoge, Nicholson, Pettit, 
and Richardson, as follows: 

Direct photographs 632 

Ha spectroheliograms of spot groups, 

60-foot focus 576 

Ha spectroheliograms, 18-foot focus. . 1,248 

K2 spectroheliograms, 7-foot focus. . . 10,700 

K2 spectroheliograms, 18-foot focus. . 1,220 

K prominences, 18-foot focus 1,080 

Sunspot Activity 

The magnetic classification and study of 
sunspots have been continued by Nichol- 
son and Mrs. Mulders. During the cal- 
endar year 1944, sunspot activity con- 
tinued to decrease. Observations were 
made on 320 days; 123 days were without 
spots, as compared with 46 in 1943. In the 
new cycle, the number of groups increased 
from 6 in 1943 to 52 in 1944: the number 
in the northern hemisphere increased from 
to 19; in the southern hemisphere, from 
6 to 33. In the waning cycle, the number 
decreased from 89 in 1943 to 20 in 1944: 
the number in the northern hemisphere 
decreased from 54 to 8; in the southern 
hemisphere from 35 to 12. 

The monthly means of the number of 
groups observed daily during the past two 
and one-half years are given in the accom- 
panying table. A curve of these monthly 
means smoothed by overlapping three 
months' means indicates that the sunspot 
minimum occurred about 1944.3. The 
minimum in 1933 was lower than that 
in 1944. The total number of spots has 
increased more rapidly since the minimum 
in 1944 than in the corresponding interval 
after the minimum in 1933. 



Month 



January. . . 
February. . 
March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. . . . 
September. 
October. . . 
November. 
December . 



Yearly average. 



Daily Number 



1943 



1.1 

2.0 
2.4 
2.1 
1.8 
1.1 
1.3 
2.2 
0.9 
0.8 
1.3 
1.5 



1.5 



1944 



0.3 
0.1 
1.1 
0.1 
0.2 
0.7 
0.6 
2.1 
1.1 
2.1 
1.3 
2.4 



1.0 



1945 



2.5 
1.1 

1.9 

2.8 
3.6 
3.8 



Sunspot Polarities 

This new cycle is the fifth in which the 
magnetic fields in sunspots have been ob- 
served. The magnetic polarities of the 
spots of each new cycle have been arranged 
oppositely to those of the preceding cycle. 
"Regular" groups of the new cycle in the 
northern hemisphere are those in which 
the preceding spot has S (south-seeking) 
polarity and the following spot N polarity; 
in the southern hemisphere the polarities 
are reversed. 

Magnetic polarities in each spot group 
have, so far as possible, been observed at 
least once. The classification of groups 
observed between July 1, 1944 and June 30, 
1945 * s indicated in the table on the follow- 
ing page. 

One of the most fundamental facts con- 
cerning the nature of sunspots is the 
change in their magnetic polarity with the 
new cycle. It cannot be said, however, that 
all spot groups have the new polarity, for 
about 2.5 per cent conform to the polarity 
of the previous cycle. Such spot groups 
are classified as "irregular." A catalogue 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 





Polarity 


Hemisphere 


Regular 


Irregular 


Unclassified 




Old cycle 


New cycle 


Old cycle 


New cycle 


Old cycle 


New cycle 


North 

South 


2 
10 


28 
62 




1 




1 


2 
3 


9 

22 


Whole sun 


12 


90 


1 


1 


5 


31 



has been made by Richardson of all spot 
groups of irregular polarity observed at 
Mount Wilson since systematic magnetic 
records were begun in 1917. The only 
mention of irregular spot groups in the 
literature is that they are "small unstable 
groups." Careful study fails to confirm 
this rather casual characterization. On the 
contrary, the irregular spot groups are 
fully as large and stable as the regular 
spots. In fact, several irregular groups 
have been naked-eye objects which en- 
dured for two and three revolutions. 

In addition to the statistical study, in- 
tensive investigation was made of a large, 
stable irregular spot which appeared re- 
cently in the southern hemisphere. This 
spot reached naked-eye proportions and 
endured for a second revolution. Photo- 
graphs were taken for Zeeman effect in 
and far outside the spot; also for Evershed 
effect, Wilson effect, and direction of hy- 
drogen vortex. The only unusual feature 
was that the direction of the hydrogen 
vortex was distinctly opposite to that pre- 
vailing in the southern hemisphere. Too 
much significance should not be attached 
to this circumstance, since about 20 per cent 
of all observable whirls fail to conform. 

The present preliminary results indi- 
cate that the only irregular feature about 
"irregular" spots is their polarity. As a 
possible explanation, it is suggested that a 
solar cycle never completely dies out, but 



consists of alternate strong and very weak 
cycles, the weak cycle corresponding to 
the so-called irregular groups. That is, if 
the number of spots all of the same po- 
larity were plotted for three cycles, the 
shape of the curve would consist of two 
large humps with a small one between 
of amplitude about 2.5 per cent of those 
on either side. In this sense, the irregular 
spots are really not "irregular" at all, but 
merely a feeble manifestation of the pre- 
vious strong disturbance. 

Prominences 

Although the minimum of prominence 
activity which accompanied the sunspot 
minimum during the year reduced con- 
siderably the opportunity for prominence 
study, several phenomena of importance 
have been observed by Pettit. 

An eruptive prominence was photo- 
graphed on July 2, 1944, which moved 
to a distance of 355,000 km from the 
chromosphere along a trajectory whose 
apparent angle with the extended solar 
radius was 51 °, one of the three highest 
inclinations observed in the catalogue of 
68 eruptive prominences. Eruptive promi- 
nences are seldom seen near sunspot mini- 
mum. One other was observed at the 
present minimum (April 16, 1944) and 
one each at three previous minima. 

A large interactive prominence extend- 
ing over 60 ° of the solar limb appeared 



8 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



at the beginning of January 1945. This 
was remarkable for being the first known 
instance in which a coronal cloud over a 
sunspot group took a direct part in an 
interactive prominence group. In previous 
cases material from the cloud had rained 
downward into the sunspot exclusively, 
but in this case a neighboring prominence 
drew the material to it with velocities in- 
creasing from 18 to 61 km/sec along a 
trajectory nearly parallel to the chromo- 
sphere. 

General Magnetic Field of the Sun 

Poor observing conditions have pre- 
vented some of the observing planned for 
the investigation of the general magnetic 
field, but one series of 28 plates in the 
green region has been obtained with the 
Lummer plate. 

Infrared Solar Spectrum 

Final identifications and excitation po- 
tentials, now being added by Mrs. Sitterly 
to the principal table of infrared data pre- 
pared at Mount Wilson by Babcock, make 
this table nearly ready for publication. 
Additions made at Mount Wilson during 
the year include: (1) numerous classifica- 
tions of weak lines according to origin, 
whether solar or terrestrial; (2) further 



instrumental checking and calibration of 
the visually estimated intensities of solar 
lines. Over a wide range of spectrum the 
estimates have required but small sys- 
tematic corrections, and their accidental 
deviations from uniformity average only 
about 1 intensity unit. 

Ultraviolet Solar Spectrum 

Measurements by Babcock show that, in 
the main, the scale of ultraviolet wave 
lengths given in the Revised Rowland 
Table requires systematic corrections of 
only 0.001 or 0.002 A to fit it to the present 
International scale. Below A3100, how- 
ever, the individual errors become greater, 
and Rowland's intensities are in some cases 
obviously wrong. The wave-length scale 
between A3 133 and A2995 has been rede- 
termined by reference to adopted standards 
in the blue region, and about 525 lines 
between A3060 and A2950 have been meas- 
ured in the usual way. Twenty-five addi- 
tional lines and other features of the 
spectrum were observed between A2950 
and A2914; these have been roughly meas- 
ured with a scale and magnifier. 

Estimates of intensity are consistent with 
laboratory data, and identifications are well 
advanced. As would be expected, singly 
ionized elements become more prominent 
than in the visible spectrum. 



LUNAR AND PLANETARY INVESTIGATIONS 



Co-Albedo of the Moon 

The albedo, A, of a planet has been 
defined as the ratio of the whole of the 
reflected light to the whole of the incident 
light. A similar definition applies to the 
ratio of the whole of the planetary heat 
emitted to the whole of the incident solar 
radiation; and, if A is measured radio- 
metrically, this quantity is 1 — A and is 
called the co-albedo. A calculation of 
1 — A by Pettit shows that the magnitude 



of the planetary heat from the full moon 
outside the atmosphere is —15.63, a value 
0.4 mag. numerically smaller than that 
obtained by direct measurement of plane- 
tary heat. Of this discrepancy, 0.26 mag. 
is accounted for by a rediscussion of the 
calibrations and the reductions to no at- 
mosphere. The co-albedo of the moon 
from the corrected measures of planetary 
heat is 0.93, and from the calculations of 
1 — A it is 0.90. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



Pluto and Jupiter's Ninth Satellite 6o-inch telescope. With the assistance of 

Several photographic observations of Miss Richmond the positions of both ob- 

Pluto and the ninth satellite of Jupiter jects have been measured and the results 

have been made by Nicholson with the published. 

STELLAR INVESTIGATIONS 



Parallaxes and Proper Motions 

Measurements of nine additional paral- 
lax fields, mainly of faint stars with large 
proper motion, have been completed by 
van Maanen. The most interesting of 
these is Ross 882, which, like the com- 
panion of Lalande 21258, appears to be a 
variable of very faint absolute magnitude. 
With a normal photographic magnitude 
of 13. 1 to 13.3, it appeared of magnitude 
1 1.8 on two photographs taken on March 
11, 1943. Its absolute magnitude, based 
upon a measured parallax of 0V146, has a 
minimum range of from +14.1 to +12.6. 
Its spectral type as determined by Joy is 
M4C A negative parallax was found for 
the Wolf-Rayet star C. du C. +i6°5i6, 
which has a radial velocity of +195 
km/sec. 

Five pairs of plates covering 0.8 square 
degree in the center of the Pleiades cluster, 
taken at the 80-foot focus of the 60-inch 
telescope and separated by an interval of 
about 25 years, have been measured by 
van Maanen. Of the 452 stars measured, 
71 are found from their proper motions 
to be probable members of the cluster. 
Nine others with motions of the same 
order are probably not members. One star 
of photographic magnitude 15.6 has a 
motion which indicates that it may be a 
member of the Hyades. 

Color Photometry and Standard 
Magnitudes 

Seares and Miss Joyner have seen 
through the press three of the four in- 
vestigations reported last year. Before the 
revised color indices of standard polar 



stars were printed, the results were ex- 
tended to include all the useful data now 
available. Other investigations are: 

(1) Reduction of the Cape basic magni- 
tudes by Stoy to the International sys- 
tem. These standards, of high internal ac- 
curacy, in the Harvard Regions at declina- 
tion — 45°, were connected with the north 
polar standards through Cape and Mount 
Wilson observations of the southern com- 
parison stars for Eros. The Mount Wilson 
data, obtained in 1930 for another purpose, 
have rather large accidental errors; but 
the magnitude scales and the mean zero 
points are in close agreement with Yerkes 
measures of the Eros stars. Further, the 
color indices are independent of magni- 
tude, and the zero-point correction to the 
spectrum-color relation is only 0.03 mag. 
Similar tests applied to the Cape magni- 
tudes also show a very satisfactory accord- 
ance. As a final check, the Eros stars 
should again be compared with the Pole, 
although it is believed that the present 
reduction is close to the truth. All together, 
the results provide a photometric connec- 
tion of the two hemispheres that should 
meet modern requirements. 

(2) In certain problems the squares of 
the errors of measurement appear in the 
coefficients of the normal equations. These 
terms do not cancel out, and when the 
percentage error is large, they affect seri- 
ously the solution for the unknowns. The 
method of removing this regression effect 
already reported for the case of a single 
unknown has been generalized to include 
any number of unknowns. 

(3) The difference in scale for the color 
temperatures of stars derived from the In- 



10 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



ternational color indices and from the Ci 
and C2 series of Stebbins and Whitford 
found in an earlier investigation was at- 
tributed to departures from black-body 
radiation. Proof is now available, with an 
indication that hydrogen-continuum ab- 
sorption is chiefly responsible. Approxi- 
mate corrections for the absorption, which 
it is hoped may be improved later, bring 
the scales into good agreement. With the 
zero point fixed at n,ooo° for A5 stars, the 
color temperature for giant Ko (HD sys- 
tem) is 3800 and for Ao i5,ooo°-i6,ooo°. 
These results are derived from the spectral 
interval 3400-5900 A. 

Photoelectric Photometry 

The strong infrared radiation in the 
night sky detected several years ago by 
Stebbins and Whitford has been shown 
by Swings to be caused by molecular nitro- 
gen. The wave length of 10440 A, deter- 
mined by measures with suitable filters, 
agrees with that of the (0,0) band of the 
first positive group of nitrogen. The ab- 
sence of other N 2 bands suggests that emis- 
sion of the (0,0) band involves conversion 
of the energy of dissociation D(N 2 ) into 
excitation in a three-body collision 

N + N + N 2 ->N + N 2 exc . 

Stebbins has completed the photoelectric 
measurements of 238 stars of different 
spectral types in six regions of the spectrum 
from A3500 to A 1 0000, and the results are 
ready for publication. The early-type stars 
from O to B3 show small dispersion in in- 
trinsic color, but many are strongly affected 
by space reddening. A dozen late-type 
giants in low galactic latitudes are also 
affected by such reddening. The most 
marked effect of absolute magnitude is 
near spectrum Ko, where the colors of 
dwarfs, ordinary giants, and supergiants 
are all different. 



The distribution of the radiation of dif- 
ferent stars over the large range of wave 
lengths agrees with the distribution for a 
black body at suitable temperatures, but 
until a zero point of the temperature scale 
has been fixed, such so-called color tem- 
peratures must be relative. The determina- 
tion of absolute stellar temperatures based 
upon a standard terrestrial source still re- 
mains one of the important problems of 
astronomy. 

The colors of most of the stars fit 
into a uniform series. One of the few 
anomalous cases is that of the bright stars 
of the Trapezium cluster of the Orion 
nebula, where the previous result of Baade 
and Minkowski is confirmed, namely, that 
the optical properties of the absorbing in- 
terstellar material are modified to cause 
the Trapezium stars to stand out from a 
larger cluster in that region. 

Comparison of the new colors with 
the International colors and the previous 
photoelectric colors of the North Polar 
Sequence give the ratios of the scales of 
color index. These ratios depend upon 
whether change of color is caused by 
change of spectral type or by change in 
the amount of space reddening for dif- 
ferent stars. 

Visual Magnitudes of Double Stars 

The measurement of the magnitudes of 
systems containing a bright star with a 
companion fainter than 11.0 was begun by 
Pettit in December 1944. The wedge 
photometer was adapted to the Cassegrain 
focus of the 60-inch reflector, where a 
magnification of 746 was obtained. A 
high-speed sector was used to reduce the 
light of the bright star, and, in combina- 
tion with the shade glasses of the artificial 
star and the wedge, provided a range of 
9 magnitudes in the instrument. 

Systems in which the separation is less 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



II 



than 3 seconds were given special atten- 
tion, many measures being made on 
doubles of slightly less than i second o£ 
arc separation. This work is limited to 
periods of good seeing, but even with this 
handicap 94 double-star measures were ob- 
tained, many of which include two sets of 
determinations. 

Visual Magnitude of Nova Puppis 

Nova Puppis was measured by Pettit on 
36 nights between October 15, 1944 and 



April 19, 1945. There was little net change 
in magnitude over this period. The mean 
magnitude October to January was 9.97, 
and January to April, 10.00. 

Visual Magnitude of a Orionis 

This star is passing through a minimum 
of light. Measures on 19 nights from 
February 21 to April 16, inclusive, give 
a mean magnitude of 1.15, which is just 
within the range usually given, 0.1 to 1.2 
magnitudes. 



STELLAR SPECTROSCOPY 



Taurus Cluster 

Since the 1943 report, 159 spectrograms 
of 120 stars in the region of the Taurus 
cluster have been obtained and measured 
by R. E. Wilson. Sixteen of these stars 
had not been previously observed. Radial 
velocities have now been determined for 
239 stars in this region. All but 10 of the 
velocities are based upon more than one 
spectrogram. Of the stars observed, 157 
are probably cluster members, 26 are doubt- 
ful, and the remainder definitely do not 
belong to the cluster. The survey cover- 
ing all suggested cluster members brighter 
than 10.5 visual magnitude will be com- 
pleted with the reobservation of some 25 
stars during the latter half of this year. 

Dwarf Stars 

Spectrographic observations of 140 stars 
with proper motions greater than 0Y35 
have been completed by Joy, and the 
radial velocities, spectral types, and spec- 
troscopic absolute magnitudes will soon 
be ready for publication. About 40 dwarf 
M-type stars having emission lines of hy- 
drogen and calcium (H and K) have been 
listed and observed spectroscopically. The 
radial velocities have been measured and 
studies of the spectra are under way. These 



stars are among the faintest known as re- 
gards intrinsic luminosity. 

Radial Velocity of Rigel 

Further observations by Sanford show 
that although the radial velocity of Rigel 
((3 Orionis) undoubtedly varies, no definite 
period seems to exist. The possibility of 
a period of less than one day, though not 
ruled out, seems unlikely. Velocities de- 
rived from the hydrogen and helium lines 
differ systematically from those of other 
lines. In some respects there seems to be 
a similarity in behavior between this star 
and a Cygni. 

Radial Velocity of a Orionis 

The recent minimum of light of a 
Orionis has afforded an opportunity to 
examine possible changes of spectrum 
with phase. Several spectrograms taken 
by Adams with the 114-inch camera of 
the coude spectrograph show no striking 
differences from the spectrum at maxi- 
mum, but some interesting changes in de- 
tail. Changes are especially marked in 
such lines as those of Mn 1 and Cr 1, which 
arise from the zero level of excitation. 
These lines appear as relatively sharp 
components superposed upon broad hazy 



12 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



lines which seem to shift back and forth ber of these plates, taken when the vari- 
beneath them. The sharp components able was relatively faint, required long ex- 
show no variation in radial velocity over a posure. More than half the plates, many 
period of eight years, whereas the diffuse of which extend far into the ultraviolet 
lines show a range of about 8 km/sec. and record a large number of lines, have 
With lower dispersion the lines would been measured, and a beginning has been 
blend and an intermediate value would be made on the reduction and discussion, 
observed. This may account for the some- The curious multiple structure of the 
what discordant results found by different bright hydrogen lines in the spectra of 
observers for this star and a few others certain red variable stars has puzzled as- 
of supergiant M type. tronomers for many years. New evidence 

that the minima in some of the lines corre- 

Variable Stars spond to dark lines of the reversing layer 

Studies of the spectra of numerous was supplied by a comparison of spectro- 

classes of variable stars have been made by g rams o£ ° Ceti > dispersion 3 A/mm, taken 

the stellar spectroscopic observers. These near the maximum of January 1945, with 

have included long-period variables of one o£ 3 Pe g asi > a non-emission M-type 

spectral types M and N, Cepheids, a few star whose absorption-line spectrum is 

short-period variables, and stars of the T much like that o£ ° Ceti - The close corre ' 

Tauri and SS Cygni classes of variability, spondence of details in several bright lines, 

Some of the stars had been investigated particularly in HQ and H\, with similar 

previously but have now been reobserved details at the same wave lengths in the 

with higher dispersion. spectrum of 3 Pegasi seems convincing. Six 

The results of a comprehensive study or eight minima within the bright lines 

by Joy of the spectroscopic behavior of a H ^ H ^ H ®> and H[ have been identified 

group of 11 variable stars resembling T with metallic lines. The conclusion is that 

Tauri in many respects have been col- the minima which cause the bright lines 

lected and prepared for publication. The t0 a PP ea r multiple are just a part of the 

physical properties of these stars suggest normal dark-line spectrum, and that the 

that they may form a new class char- hydrogen series is emitted as single, slightly 

acterized by irregular light-variations of widened lines at a level below the stratum 

three magnitudes or more, spectral types of of absorbing metallic gases. This is an 

dF5 to dG5 with emission lines resembling unusual inversion. 

the upper solar chromosphere, and associa- A series of six spectrograms of the short- 

tion with dark or bright nebulosity. period variable star RR Lyrae well dis- 

Observations for determining the period tributed in phase has been obtained by 

and radial-velocity curve of the SS Cygni- Sanford with the coude spectrograph. The 

type variable AE Aquarii have been con- spectrograms taken at maximum and mini- 

tinued. The velocity changes appear to be mum of light show that the amplitude of 

regular with a period of approximately the radial-velocity variation given by the 

0.7 day. The shape and intensities of the hydrogen lines is about 30 per cent, and 

bright lines show considerable variation. that by the H and K lines about 60 per 

During the past two years Merrill has cent, larger than that given by other 
obtained about 80 spectrograms of long- lines in the spectrum. These results con- 
period variable stars with the coude spec- firm those obtained previously with lower 
trograph (dispersion 10 A/mm). A num- dispersion. 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



13 



B-Type Stars 

Merrill has observed at intervals with 
the coude spectrograph certain Be-type 
stars with spectral lines which show anom- 
alous displacements, and Sanford has de- 
voted considerable time to observations of 
B-type stars in open clusters. 

Mr. W. C. Miller, in addition to making 
many instrumental tests of the 10-inch tele- 
scope, has obtained a number of excellent 
objective-prism spectrograms on which nu- 
merous bright-line objects, some previously 
unknown, are present. He has also ob- 
tained slit spectrograms of Be stars and 
other objects with the 60-inch telescope. 

CN Bands in N- and R-Type Stars 

An examination by Sanford of "carbon" 
stars of types N and R shows that in the 
cooler N-type stars the CN bands are weak 
in the. violet part of the spectrum and 
strong in the red, whereas in the hotter 
R-type stars the reverse is true. The N 
star Y Canum Venaticorum, for example, 
shows no violet CN spectrum, but very 
strong bands in the red. The laboratory 
investigations of CN bands by Dr. King 
and the theoretical study of the absorp- 
tion transition probabilities by Dr. Swings 
afford an adequate explanation of the 
stellar results. 

Peculiar Stars and Novae 

A cooperative study by Joy and Dr. 
Swings has led to numerous very interest- 
ing identifications of lines in the spectrum 
of RS Ophiuchi at the time of the appear- 
ance of the coronal lines. These include a 
strong line at A6827 due to \Kr 111] ; a line 
at A6914 due to \_A xi] and one at A5536 
of \_A x] ; and several lines due to \Fe vn], 
[F<?vi], [Xiv], [Gzvn], [Fvin], and 
other elements. This is the first identifica- 
tion of krypton in celestial spectra, and of 
forbidden argon xi in any object. 



A similar investigation by Sanford and 
Dr. Swings has led to the following identi- 
fications in Nova Puppis in the region 
A4585-A8600 : C iv, N v, O 1, Si 1, Si 11, 
[Xiv], [C«vii], Feu, [Ftfvi], [F^vn], 
and possible identifications of N iv, 
[M«vi], [F<?x], and [F<?xi]. 

On April 3, 1945 the recurring nova 
T Pyxidis, which had maxima in 1890, 
1902, and 1920, was found by Joy to be 
three magnitudes brighter than normally. 
Spectrograms indicated that the star had 
passed the maximum of an outburst sev- 
eral months previously. The spectrum was 
typical of novae at a late phase. The emis- 
sion lines were much wider than those 
of Nova Puppis 1942 or of the well known 
recurring nova RS Ophiuchi. Of especial 
interest is the identification in T Pyxidis 
of the coronal lines A5303 \Fe xiv] and 
A6374 [Fd'x], the former being the 
stronger of the two. Other identified 
lines of high excitation are those of 
AT in, [Ate 111], [Aterv], [Om], [F<?v], 
[F^vi], and [F^vn]. 

In the course of his examination of pe- 
culiar spectra, Dr. Swings has identified 
several lines in P Cygni with those of 
O 1 and C 11, and a line on Lick Observa- 
tory spectrograms of v\ Carinae as the 
principal forbidden line of Cr 11. An emis- 
sion line at A7155.1 found by Merrill in 
u Sagittarii is identified as a low-level 
[Fe 11] transition. From a study of high- 
dispersion spectrograms of (3 Coronae 
Borealis which extend to A3100, Dr. Swings 
concludes that no lines due to neutral or 
doubly ionized rare earths are present, 
although lines of the singly ionized earths 
are prominent. 

Interstellar Lines 

The investigation of complex interstellar 
H and K lines in the brighter O- and B- 
type spectra has been continued by Adams, 



14 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



and about 250 stars have been observed in 
the second order of the coude spectrograph 
on a scale of 2.9 A/mm. The lower disper- 
sion of the 32-inch Schmidt camera has 
been used for stars fainter than magnitude 
6.5. The most interesting result found is 
the rapid motion of some of the inter- 



stellar clouds in Sagittarius and Cygnus, 
amounting in some cases to as much as 
60 km/sec. 

Photographs of the interstellar D lines 
in the spectra of a few bright stars have 
been obtained by Merrill with the coude 
spectrograph on a scale of 6 A/mm. 



GALACTIC NEBULAE AND NOVAE 



Direct Photography 

Among direct photographs obtained by 
Dr. Duncan with the 100-inch telescope 
are two of the Trifid nebula, and one 
each of the diffuse nebula NGC 6357, the 
planetary nebula NGC 7293, and the dark 
nebula Barnard 86 Sagittarii. Photographs 
with the 60-inch telescope include those of 
diffuse nebulae M 8, M 16, and M 17. 
Some star clusters and the short-period 
variable star CY Aquarii were also ob- 
served. The photographs of the Trifid 
nebula and the 86 Sagittarii nebula were 
compared with similar photographs made 
by Dr. Duncan in 1921, but no change in 
the nebulae or the neighboring stars was 
detected. 

Spectra of Planetary Nebulae 

The survey of objects on objective-prism 
photographs which show Ha in emission 
with little or no continuous spectrum has 
been continued by Minkowski. Of 82 such 
objects investigated, only 8 have been 
found to be Be stars. Most of them are 
nebulae, 50 being planetaries and 15 dif- 
fuse nebulae. The remaining 9 objects are 
stars of peculiar types. 

The investigation of the spectra of these 
objects is still in progress, and it is too 
early to summarize the results. Some 
planetaries have been found which show 
only the H lines together with mere 
traces of forbidden lines. The relative in- 
tensity of the [Nn] lines varies widely; 
even in nebulae which are similar in other 
respects, they may be the strongest lines 



in the spectrum or negligibly faint. Such 
intensity variations may have to be ex- 
plained by variable nitrogen content. 

Many of the planetaries are very strongly 
reddened by space absorption. A system- 
atic survey, which can readily be extended 
to limits fainter than that of the available 
objective-prism plates, should permit in- 
vestigation both of space absorption at 
large distances and of the galactic dis- 
tribution of planetary nebulae. Of the 9 
peculiar stars, 3 are of type B with strong 
Fe 11 lines, 1 being a close duplicate of 
y\ Carinae. The other 6 are M-type stars 
with emission lines of high ionization, 1 
showing strong lines of [F^vi] and 
[F^vn]. In all these stars Ha has very 
high relative intensity; this explains the 
relatively large number of peculiar stars 
included in the material. 

Colors of Faint Cepheids in the 
Cygnus Cloud 

The photovisual scale in Selected Area 40, 
which had previously been used for inter- 
comparison of four distant Cepheids in the 
Cygnus cloud, has been established more 
accurately by an entirely new determina- 
tion of both scale and zero point under- 
taken by Baade in cooperation with Dr. 
Seares. To determine the absorption be- 
yond 10 kpc in the Cygnus cloud, nebular 
counts were made on a series of i-hour 
exposures taken at the 100-inch telescope. 
The area investigated on these plates is a 
narrow strip at longitude 41 ° between 
latitudes +4 and +15 . 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



15 



Shell around Nova Herculis 

The shell of this nova, which has been 
observed photographically by Baade at 
the Cassegrain focus of the 100-inch tele- 
scope, has continued its steady decrease 
in brightness. The decrease is especially 
marked in the emissions of A4959 and 
A5007 of [Oiii]. Interesting structural 
changes have taken place in the shell 
images of the [2V 11] lines A6548 and A6584 
and the [O 11] lines at A3727. The strong 
[Nn] emission along the minor axis of 
the shell has broken up into three distinct 



condensations, two at the ends of the 
minor axis and one at its center. In the 
[O 11] image, which until 1944 presented 
the appearance of an amorphous elliptical 
disk, the ring structure suddenly emerged 
between 1944 and 1945. The [On] ring 
has two gaps at the ends of the minor 
axis where the strong \_N 11] condensa- 
tions are located. Since the same gaps 
occur in the [O 111] ring, it would appear 
that forbidden oxygen emissions are sup- 
pressed where the [iV 11] emissions are 
unusually strong. 



EXTRAGALACTIC NEBULAE 

The successful resolution of the inner absolute magnitudes of these variables are 
part of the Andromeda nebula and of the not seriously in error, they should be 
early-type members of the local group of observable (at least those with periods 
galaxies mentioned briefly in the last report shorter than 200 days) with the present 
has brought within our grasp the solution technique. So far the search has been 
of a number of important problems. The restricted to M 32 and NGC 205. In both, 
technical difficulties encountered in pre- a considerable number of faint variables 
cise observations of this sort are many, have been found. Observations in the next 
since the optical power of the 100-inch two seasons should make it possible to de- 
telescope has to be utilized to its extreme cide whether these stars are the elusive 
limits. Progress should be easier in the long-period variables, 
near future, however, because of certain Nights on which the definition was not 
new photographic emulsions now being sufficiently good for the resolution of M 32 
developed at the Eastman Kodak Re- and NGC 205 were used for a search 
search Laboratories through the generous for emission nebulae in M31. Emission 
cooperation of Dr. Mees. The new plates patches in M31, which were first noted 
are sensitized for a region of the near on red exposures taken in 1944, present a 
infrared which is free from strong night- problem. Invisible on ordinary blue-sensi- 
sky emissions. Thus far, an increase in tive plates, they are outstanding features 
speed by a factor of 2 over the emulsions when photographed in Ha light; they 
previously used has been achieved, but range in size from giants about 100 parsecs 
there is good reason to expect that a gain in diameter to small specks just distin- 
of a full magnitude will be realized before guishable from stars. Only a spectroscopic 
long. Several nights in the spring of 1945 investigation can decide whether their 
were devoted by Baade to tests of the weakness in the blue is caused by selective 
experimental emulsions sent by the East- absorption alone, or whether some other 
man Research Laboratory. factor is involved. In any event, the gen- 

During the year under review, the main erally accepted statement that emission 

part of the program was a search for patches are a common feature only in 

long-period variables in other members of late-type spirals and irregular systems 

the local group. If the recently derived needs radical revision. 



i6 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Cepheids in the Sextans System 

The investigation of the Cepheids in 
this important dwarf system has been con- 
tinued by Baade. Because the nebula can 
be observed only during the unfavorable 
winter months, the necessary plates are 
being accumulated very slowly. 



Nebular Velocities 
Velocities of 63 



extragalactic 



nebulae 

have been observed and measured by 
Humason during the year. The number 
of extragalactic nebulae with velocities de- 



termined at Mount Wilson now totals 433. 
It is hoped that this number can be in- 
creased to 500 during the coming year, 
after which time the results will be pub- 
lished and discussed. 

A redetermination of the radial velocities 
of the members of the local group of 
galaxies, with the highest possible disper- 
sion for each object, is under way. Pre- 
liminary solutions with the data already 
available indicate that the new velocities 
will furnish a well determined value of the 
galactic rotation. 



LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS 



Night-Sky Radiation 

A brief reference has already been made 
to the identification by Dr. Swings of 
the intense infrared radiation in the night 
sky observed by Stebbins and Whitford. 
The radiation is the (0,0) band of the first 
positive system of A/2. Failure to observe 
other strong N 2 bands indicates a mecha- 
nism which enhances the (0,0) band rela- 
tively to the other vibrational transitions. 
Such a mechanism has been suggested by 
Dr. Swings, in which during the night N2 
molecules are brought into the zero vibra- 
tional level through three-body recombi- 
nations. The presence of a fairly large 
number of nitrogen atoms in the upper 
atmosphere is implied. 



Violet and Red Bands of CN 

Reference was made in last year's re- 
port to the laboratory investigations by 
Dr. A. S. King of the relative intensities 
of the CAT" bands. Dr. Swings has studied 
the ratio of the absorption transition proba- 
bilities between the violet and the red 
systems, and obtains an estimated ratio 
of 87 to 1. This would explain the weak- 
ness of the red system in absorption in 
the laboratory. 

Some astrophysical conclusions are that 
red bands of CN should not be expected 
in cometary spectra; that no line of the red 
system should appear in interstellar absorp- 
tion; and that in carbon stars with weak 
violet bands of CN there is less continuous 
absorption in the red than in the violet. 



MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION 



During the year, as in the past three 
years, the work of the instrument shop 
has been very largely upon apparatus for 
military use. About 16 per cent of its 
time has been given to Observatory work, 
mainly for maintenance and repairs. Very 
little new equipment has been added. In 
the optical shop and the department of 



design and drafting the situation has been 
similar to that in the instrument shop. 

Albert Mclntire has been in charge of 
the instrument shop, Donald O. Hendrix 
of the optical shop, and Edgar C. Nichols 
has carried out the design of nearly all the 
apparatus which has been constructed. 
These three departments of the Observa- 



MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY 



17 



tory have had to meet the problems of a 
great variety of instruments of difficult de- 
sign and frequently of unusually high pre- 
cision, and have been most successful in 
solving them. 

On Mount Wilson, A, N. Beebe, super- 
intendent of construction, has carried on 
necessary repairs and has cared for the 
difficulties of transportation during the 



winter months. He has also provided for 
such construction in Pasadena as has been 
required by the government work in prog- 
ress. Kenneth de Huff, engineer, has main- 
tained the extensive equipment on Mount 
Wilson necessary to the operation of the 
instruments, and in addition has been able 
to give considerable time to work in the 
instrument shop. 



THE LIBRARY 



During the past year the library has 
added 299 volumes, making a total of 
15,608 in the collection. Of the volumes 
acquired, a large proportion are from Dr. 
Hale's library, described in last year's re- 
port; 48 volumes were purchased; but only 
47 were bound because of difficult condi- 
tions at the bindery due to the war. The 



number of periodicals and serials received 
is still small; 27 of these are gifts or ex- 
changes, including publications from sev- 
eral research organizations in Sweden and 
Switzerland. Distribution of the Observa- 
tory publications (since 1942 sent only to 
the Americas) will be resumed when con- 
ditions permit. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Adams, Walter S. Survey of the year's work 
at Mount Wilson. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 
56, pp. 213-219 (1944). 

The spectrum of a Orionis. Pubs. 

A. S. P., vol. 57, pp. 95-96 (1945). 

Baade, W. The resolution of Messier 32, NGC 
205, and the central region of the Androm- 
eda nebula. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 100, 
pp. 137-146 (1944); Mt. W. Contr., No. 696. 

NGC 147 and NGC 185, two new mem- 
bers of the local group of galaxies. Astro- 
phys. Jour., vol. 100, pp. 147-150 (1944); 
Mt. W. Contr., No. 697. 

The globular clusters NGC 5634 and 



NGC 6229. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 102, pp. 

17-25 (1945); Mt. W. Contr., No. 706. 
Babcock, Harold D. (Review) The velocity of 

light, by N. E. Dorsey. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 

101, pp. 262-263 (1945). 
H. F. Newall, F. R. S., 1 857-1944. Pubs. 

A. S. P., vol. 56, pp. 146-148 (1944). 
and Charlotte E. Moore. Series lines of 



magnesium in the solar spectrum. Astro- 
phys. Jour., vol. 101, pp. 374-376 (1945). 
Brayton, Ada M. Corrections to the Katalog 
und Ephemeriden veranderlicher Sterne, edi- 
tions for 1939 and 1940. Astron. Jour., vol. 
51, p. 64 (1944). 



Connor, Elizabeth. Mme. Lepaute, an eight- 
eenth-century computer. A. S. P. Leaflet, No. 
189. 8 pp. (1944). 

Hickox, Joseph O. The solar telescopes on 
Mount Wilson. A. S. P. Leaflet, No. 197. 
8 pp. (1945). 

Humason, Milton L. Supernova in NGC 
5195. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 57, pp. 174-175 

(i945)- 
Joy, Alfred H. Observations of T Pyxidis in 
1945. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 57, pp. 171-174 

(i945)- 

The velocity of light. A. S. P. Leaflet, 

No. 195. 8 pp. (1945). 

Joyner, Mary C. See Seares, Frederick H. 

King, Arthur S., and P. Swings. Comparative 
study of the red and violet systems of 
cyanogen bands. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 101, 
pp. 6-14 (1945); Mt. W. Contr., No. 700. 

Merrill, Paul W. Level of hydrogen emission 
in the atmospheres of Me variable stars. 
Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 57, pp. 178-179 (1945). 

Moore, Charlotte E. See Babcock, Harold D. 

Mulders, Elizabeth Sternberg. Sunspot activity 
during 1944. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 57, pp. 42- 

45 (i945)- 

See Nicholson, Seth B. 



i8 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Nicholson, Seth B. A tornado prominence, 
June 19, 1944. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 56, pp. 
162-164 (1944). 

(Review) Five-figure logarithm tables, 

published for the Ministry of Supply by 
H. M. Stationery Office. Pubs. A. S. P., 
vol. 57, pp. 107-108 (1945). 

and Elizabeth Sternberg Mulders. Solar 



and magnetic data, April, 1944, to March, 
1945. Terr. Mag., vol. 49, pp. 209-210, 
277-278 (1944); vol. 50, pp. 73-74, 149-150 

(i945). 

Pettit, Edison. Effect of temperature on the 

wave length of a transmission band of 
the interference polarizing monochromator. 
Astrophys. Jour., vol. 100, pp. 128-131 
(1944); Mt. W. Contr., No. 694. 

The co-albedo of the moon. Astrophys. 

Jour., vol. 102, pp. 14-16 (1945); Mt. W. 
Contr., No. 705. 

Visual magnitudes of Nova Puppis 1942. 

Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 57, pp. 55, 179-180 

(i945)- _ 

An interactive prominence. Pubs. A. S. 

P., vol. 57, pp. 97-99 (1945). 

(Review) Telescopes and accessories, by 

George Z. Dimitroff and James G. Baker. 
Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 57, pp. 106-107 (1945). 

Photometry of a Orionis. Pubs. A. S. P., 

vol. 57, pp. 175-176 (1945). 

Visual magnitude of T Pyxidis. Pubs. 



A. S. P., vol. 57, p. 177 (i945). 

Richardson, Robert S. Solar flares versus bright 

chromospheric eruptions: a question of 

terminology. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 56, pp. 156- 

158 (1944). 

Occurrence of solar flares where no 

sunspot group was observed. Pubs. A. S. P., 
vol. 56, pp. 161-162 (1944). 

The total solar eclipse of July 9, 1945. 

Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 57, pp. 87-92 (1945). 

Who's who in the moon. A. S. P. 

Leaflet, No. 193. 8 pp. (1945). 

Results of an investigation to detect an 



inter-solar cloud of charged particles during 
magnetic storms. Amer. Geophys. Union 
Trans, of 1944, pt. 4, pp. 558-560 (1945). 

Richmond, Myrtle L. Ephemeris of Pluto. 
Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 56, pp. 164-165 (1944). 

Sanford, Roscoe F. Velocity changes in long- 
period variables of spectral class Ne. Pubs. 
A. S. P., vol. 56, pp. 237-238 (1944)- 



— The award of the Bruce Gold Medal to 
Edward Arthur Milne. Pubs. A. S. P., 
vol. 57, pp. 65-68 (1945). 

— Death of Meade L. 



Zimmer. Pubs. 

A. S. P., vol. 57, p. 103 (1945). 
Seares, Frederick H. Regression lines and the 

functional relation. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 

100, pp. 255-263 (1944); Mt. W. Contr., 

No. 698. 
and Mary C. Joyner. Relation between 

color index and effective wave length from 

the observations of Hertzsprung and Van- 

derlinden. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 100, pp. 

264-278 (1944); Mt. W. Contr., No. 699. 
Revised standards of color index 

for polar stars. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 101, 

pp. 15-35 (1945); Mt. W. Contr., No. 701. 
Note on departures from black- 



body conditions in stars. Astrophys. Jour, 
vol. 101, pp. 36-38 (1945); Mt. W. Contr., 
No. 702. 
Stebbins, Joel. Six-color photometry of stars. 
II. Light-curves of 8 Cephei. Astrophys. 
Jour., vol. 101, pp. 47-55 (1945); Mt. W. 
Contr., No. 704. 

A. E. Whitford, and P. Swings. A 

strong infrared radiation from molecular 
nitrogen in the night sky. Astrophys. Jour., 
vol. 101, pp. 39-46 (1945); Mt. W. Contr., 
No. 703. 

Stromberg, Gustaf. The autonomous field. Jour. 

Franklin Inst., vol. 239, pp. 27-40 (1945). 
Swings, P. Doubly ionized rare earths in a 

Canum Venaticorum. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 

100, pp. 132-136 (1944) ; Mt. W. Contr., 

No. 695. 

See King, Arthur S.; Stebbins, Joel. 

Summary of Mount Wilson magnetic observa- 
tions of sunspots for May, 1944, to April, 
1945. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 56, pp. 165-167, 
204-205, 246-247 (1944); vol. 57, pp. 50-52, 
101-102, 180-181 (1945). 

van Maanen, Adriaan. Investigations on proper 
motion. XXIV. Further measures in the 
Pleiades cluster. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 102, 
pp. 26-31 (1945); Mt. W. Contr., No. 707. 

Whitford, A. E. See Stebbins, Joel. 

Wilson, Ralph E. The motions of the Magel- 
lanic clouds. Pubs. A. S. P., vol. 56, pp. 203- 
204 (1944)- 



GEOPHYSICAL LABORATORY 

Washington, District of Columbia 
L. H. ADAMS, Director 

During the year ending June 1945 the of Geology and Geography of the National 

Geophysical Laboratory has continued in Research Council, however, one of our 

essentially the same program of war work staff members made a brief trip to the 

that was carried forward during the pre- newly formed volcano Paricutin in Mexico 

ceding three years. One government con- for the purpose of obtaining firsthand 

tract under the auspices of the National knowledge of that volcano and of being 

Defense Research Committee was brought thereby enabled to advise the National 

to a conclusion, except for final report Research Council group that had been 

writing, at the end of June; but the work set up to coordinate the volcano studies, 

under a larger contract had not diminished At the time this report was written, it 

in volume on that date. Two additional became evident that the experimental work 

members of the regular scientific staff were for NDRC at the Geophysical Laboratory 

given leaves of absence without pay for the could properly terminate in October, and 

purpose of taking positions with war agen- that the additional obligations to that 

cies, but as before a considerable number agency in connection with its final report- 

of persons employed on a temporary basis ing would be fulfilled by the end of Janu- 

have supplemented the efforts of the regu- ary; after which the Laboratory will be 



lar staff in carrying out the various investi- 
gations, the results of which have found 
specific application to military needs. 



in a position to turn its attention again 
toward fundamental research in earth sci- 
ences. Comprehensive plans will be made 



Closely related to the work under NDRC for a future program; also, at an early 
supervision have been a variety of services date, unpublished results of studies inter- 
performed directly for the Army and the rupted in 1941 will be assembled. During 
Navy. the past year, it was found possible to 
It has not yet been deemed practicable to prepare one short paper (described below) 
resume any considerable part of our normal for presentation at a scientific meeting and 
activities. Upon request from the Division subsequent publication. 



SUMMARY OF PUBLISHED WORK 



(1083) Relations of lamellae and crystallography 
of quartz and fabric directions in some 
deformed rocks. Earl Ingerson and O. F. 
Tuttle. Amer. Geophys. Union, Trans. 
1945, pt. I, pp. 95-105 (1945). 

Measurements of quartz lamellae in meta- 
morphic rocks of the Washington, D. C, 
area and new measurements from the Ajibik 
quartzite confirm previous generalizations as 
to the relations of the lamellae to the c-axis 
of quartz and to the fabric axes of the rocks. 



A more detailed statistical study than has 
been made previously yields interesting and 
significant results. This study is carried out 
by dividing each fabric diagram of lamellae 
into four zones according to the angles that 
the c-axes of the quartz make with the B 
fabric axis, and tabulating measurements for 
each zone. 

The tabulations show that the lamellae are 
not controlled by definite crystallographic 
planes or zones in the quartz structure. They 



19 



20 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



are apparently controlled almost entirely by 
the stress pattern which determined the 
(quartz) fabric axes for the rock. Since the 
orientation of the c-axes is also at least in 
part controlled by this pattern, there is an 
indirect relation between lamellae and the 
structure of the quartz. 

Lamellae can be important in geologic in- 
terpretation in determining not only the 
B-axis, but also direction of motion, if the 
lamellae and c-axes of the same grains are 



plotted. Lamellae can also serve in certain 
cases as an index of intensity of deformation. 

(1084) Annual Report for 1944-1945. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Ingerson, E., and O. F. Tuttle. Relations of 
lamellae and crystallography of quartz and 
fabric directions in some deformed rocks. 
Amer. Geophys. Union, Trans. 1945, pt. I, 
pp. 95-105 (1945)- 






DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 

Washington, District of Columbia 
JOHN A. FLEMING, Director 

SUMMARY 

The long-sustained effort required for sation amounting to something over 
waging a war of world-wide extent con- 500, in addition to use, without charge, 
tinued unabated through the report-year of laboratories, scientific equipment, ma- 
(July 1, 1944, to June 30, 1945) and ren- chine-tools, and site. On July 1, 1945, obli- 
dered impossible the execution of anything gations with the War and Navy Depart- 
like the normal program of the Depart- ments and the Maritime Commission were 
ment of Terrestrial Magnetism. Military still in effect, involving work of high 
and naval operations have greatly inter- postwar priority. It may be sometime in 
fered with geophysical investigations re- 1946, therefore, before all contracts are 
quiring international cooperation, of which completed and the full normal program of 
terrestrial magnetism and electricity are research can be resumed, 
good examples. It has not been possible The contractual obligations required 
to equip expeditions for field-work in for- over 90 per cent of the services of the 
eign lands and on the oceans, to provide available full-time and part-time regular 
the much needed data for secular-variation staff of 81 in Washington and at the ob- 
studies. Nevertheless, although practically servatories. One hundred and fifty-four 
all of the Department's staff have turned temporary employees (including physicists, 
attention to the solution of problems con- engineers, mathematicians, computers, ma- 
nected with the war, considerable progress chinists, clerks, and guards) were neces- 
has been made along certain lines. More- S ary, and the peak number of persons at 
over, much important work, the results of tne Department during the year was thus 
which are not yet publishable, has been 2 ^ Besides these, 12 of our regular and 
brought to a successful conclusion. 2 Q f our temporary personnel were on leave 

Operations relating to national defense of absence eithe r in the armed services or 

continued to make use of observational, in governmenta i war agencies; of these, 1 

theoretical, and instrumental material, and returned to duty at the Department on 

of experience of members of our staff, ac- January ^ ^ Many o£ the temporary 

cumulated during more than forty years. 1 • 1 -i ui u 

-11- * personnel were again made available by 

These have involved since August 1040, . . . j • j- -j 1 

. b y ^ various universities and individual organi- 
under thirty individual contracts (at actual , , £ 
. \ . . 1 1 x . , zations through generous granting or. 
cost and without overhead charge) with , r , 
i r^m r o • • r t> i 1 t^ leaves or absence, 
the Office or Scientific Research and De- 
velopment, National Defense Research ^ x/ , A 
„ r . . , • 1 * Review of Years Activities 
Committee, various bureaus in the Army 

and the Navy, and the Maritime Com- Geomagnetic investigations. The volu- 

mission, a total expenditure of slightly over minous tables required to correct magnetic 

$2,006,000. The Institution has contributed observations for secular changes, for the 

services of its regular scientific personnel natural magnetic variations and disturb- 

in the Department, an aggregate compen- ances, and for cosmic variations were 



21 



22 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



extended to include the year 1944. The 
reductions of field-observations to the four 
epochs 1912.5, 1922.5, 1932.5, and 1942.5 
were completed for over 10,000 stations 
on land and sea. Isoporic charts of the 
world for declination and horizontal in- 
tensity for these four epochs were com- 
pleted, and others for the five remaining 
elements or components were well under 
way. Forty-five isomagnetic charts of the 
declination and horizontal and vertical 
intensities with indications of anomalies 
were completed for the area of the west- 
ern Pacific and were printed. Further 
useful tests for adjusting isomagnetic 
charts to mutual consistency were evolved. 

Calculations were made for continuation 
of magnetic fields on a plane or a sphere 
to adjacent regions of space. 

Isolines of equal daily and hourly per- 
centage-frequency of occurrence of visually 
observed aurora were mapped for the 
Southern Hemisphere. The extent and 
frequency of expansions of the auroral 
zone during magnetic storms are being 
studied, using geomagnetic as well as 
auroral data. 

Cosmic relations. Further analyses of 
cosmic data were made with regard to 
solar, geomagnetic, ionospheric, and au- 
roral correlations. The operational value 
of previous conclusions regarding the 
effects of ionospheric and geomagnetic 
disturbances on conditions of radio trans- 
mission and reception was confirmed. 

Provision for the maintenance and 
operation of the recording cosmic-ray 
meters at Cheltenham (Maryland), Huan- 
cayo (Peru), Godhavn (Greenland), 
Christchurch (New Zealand), and Teo- 
loyucan (Mexico) was continued, with 
only minor interruptions, in spite of diffi- 
culties occasioned by the war. Analyses 
of the resulting data must await re- 
turn of personnel from war activity. By 



1949 the records will include at least a 
complete sunspot-cycle for all five stations 
— ample for statistical analyses concerning 
seasonal effects in different localities, solar- 
day and lunar-day variations, and geomag- 
netic and other possible correlations. 

The Department continued to act as a 
clearing house for observations of sunspots 
by many observers of the American Asso- 
ciation of Variable Star Observers, pend- 
ing re-establishment of communication 
with the international center at Zurich, 
Switzerland. 

Terrestrial electricity. Following some 
improvements in CIW ionization-meters, 
particular attention was directed to effects 
of secondary radiation, "volume-contami- 
nation," and "wall-contamination." 

An important program was begun on 
adaptation of electronic circuits to atmos- 
pheric-electric instruments in place of elec- 
trometers. This has resulted in improve- 
ments in investigation of rapidly varying 
fields associated with thunderstorms and 
in observations under difficult operating 
conditions, for example, on airplanes in 
storm regions. 

Tests showed that the diminution in the 
rate of ionization which occurs when 
people occupy a room is due to a diminu- 
tion in the radon and thoron content of 
the air. It is not yet determined, however, 
why this occurs. Automatic records of rate 
of ionization, for investigation of diurnal- 
variation and annual changes, were ob- 
tained for almost the entire year. For 
equilibrium-conditions the alpha-ray ioni- 
zation inside a room was found to be 
about double the gamma-ray ionization. 
This ratio is about 50 per cent greater 
than that obtained from estimates by Eve 
for outside air-conditions. 

The small-ion content of the air was 
found to vary directly as the rate of ioniza- 
tion, becoming zero when the ionization 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



23 



is zero. Results indicate that the recombi- 
nation-coefficient between small and large 
ions may vary with the rate of ionization. 
The alpha-particle stopping power of cello- 
phane was found to be much greater than 
that anticipated from calculation. 

The probable error of a single observa- 
tion in measurements of ion-content and 
air-conductivity at sea was determined, 
from analysis of results obtained during 
the last three cruises of the Carnegie, to 
be about 12 per cent. The average error 
for each instrument also appears to be 
systematic and of such a nature as to give 
too low a value for the element measured, 
perhaps not over 1 per cent in mean 
values. 

Research on seasonal changes in the 
diurnal variation of earth-currents and the 
geomagnetic field from 12 years of record 
at Tucson (Arizona) was completed. The 
changes were found to be consistent with 
effects attributable to recognized current- 
systems in the ionosphere. Two anomalous 
features disclosed, in addition to the regu- 
lar seasonal changes, were explained as 
probably due, the one to space-variation 
in the conductivity of the ionosphere, and 
the other to erratic shifts in the latitudes of 
current-centers. 

Ionosphere. Activities of the Ionospheric 
Section were devoted almost exclusively to 
military applications. Additional impor- 
tant contributions to improvement in radio- 
communication circuits resulted from the 
continued accumulation of ionospheric 
data at Huancayo, Watheroo, and College, 
and the five other sites outside the conti- 
nental United States. Arrangements were 
well under way by the end of June for 
two more strategically placed stations. 

The active program of research and de- 
velopment and the instruction of observing 
teams were continued at the Kensington 
Laboratory and at several field-stations. 
These resulted in design and construction 



of improved and simplified manually 
operated ionospheric equipment. 

Seasonal features of sporadic-!: already 
established for the Northern Hemisphere 
were confirmed for the Southern Hemi- 
sphere. Tests for recurrence-tendency 
with the 27-day period of solar rotation did 
not show positive correlation. 

Further attention was devoted to post- 
war observational program and items of 
research (see Year Book No. 43). Most 
important are (1) completion of the pro- 
gram at Huancayo and Watheroo to cover 
a full sunspot-cycle, (2) extended analyses 
of accumulated data, and (3) new projects 
directed toward specific problems which 
promise positive solutions in a reasonable 
length of time. 

Nuclear physics. The 60-inch cyclotron 
was in almost continuous daily operation, 
without any major breakdown and with 
few minor changes, and with almost 
automatic operation. A new ion-source 
was developed giving 80 to 90 hours of 
operation. 

In the emergency the cyclotron was 
almost wholly used in bombardments for 
special researches of the Naval Medical 
Research Center and the United States 
Public Health Service. The research-pro- 
gram utilizing the cyclotron and the 
5,000,000-volt static generator for nuclear 
physics must be postponed until some- 
time during 1946 to meet immediate post- 
war needs for radioactivated products for 
chemotherapeutic and similar research. 
Special bombardments were also made for 
the National Defense Research Committee, 
the National Bureau of Standards, and the 
Department of Agriculture. 

A method was developed for making a 
stable colloidal preparation of metallic an- 
timony which is free from other forms of 
antimony. 

Observatory- and field -wor\. The com- 
plete geomagnetic, atmospheric-electric, 



2 4 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



ionospheric, seismic, and meteorological 
programs were maintained at the Wath- 
eroo, Huancayo, and College magnetic 
observatories. Special studies relating to 
geomagnetic, atmospheric-electric, and ion- 
ospheric problems were made by the staffs 
at each observatory. The atmospheric- 
electric program in cooperation with the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 
at its Tucson Magnetic Observatory was 
continued. The Department cooperated, 
through loan of instruments and other- 
wise, with eight observatories abroad. 

Maintenance of international magnetic 
standards at the Cheltenham Magnetic 
Observatory of the United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey was effected through 
the Division of Geomagnetism and Seis- 
mology of the Survey. 

Though no field-work other than that 
at the observatories could be undertaken, 
it was possible to assist various govern- 
ments, through loans of magnetic instru- 
ments, in undertaking new magnetic sur- 
veys and obtaining repeat-observations at 
established stations. 

Miscellaneous. The report-year included 
the fiftieth anniversary of the establish- 
ment of the Journal of Terrestrial Magnet- 
ism and Atmospheric Electricity. That 
journal was founded by Dr. L. A. Bauer, 
first Director of the Department, and has 
been conducted since 1932 by his successor. 



In it have been published many of the 
original papers of members of our staff. 
It has been a potent factor in the promo- 
tion and diffusion of geomagnetic and geo- 
electric knowledge and progress, not only 
in the United States, but throughout the 
world as well. 

The continued services of three of the 
retired staff — J. W. Green and W. F. 
Wallis during the whole year and A. Smith 
until December 29, 1944 — have been most 
useful in the emergency. 

Dr. Harry Marcus Weston Edmonds, 
who retired in 1930 after 20 years of ac- 
tivity in the Department, died in his 
eighty-second year at Berkeley, California, 
April 4, 1945. He was surgeon and mag- 
netician of the Carnegie for several years, 
and in command of the vessel from De- 
cember 1917 to June 1918. He did arduous 
field-work in Canada and constructed and 
equipped the Huancayo (Peru) Magnetic 
Observatory. He represented the Depart- 
ment in its cooperation at the Apia Ob- 
servatory during part of the transition pe- 
riod after World War I. His record is one 
of unselfish devotion and high efficiency 
in a long life of scientific service. 

Once more the necessarily brief detailed 
accounts in this report of our activities 
illustrate the team work and professional 
partnership so singularly necessary in the 
scientific provinces of the Department. 



INVESTIGATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL WORK 
TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



Those of the staff at Washington chiefly 
concerned with geomagnetic research were 
Fleming, J. W. Green, Hendrix, Johnston, 
Miss Lange, McNish, Scott, Sherman, 
Vestine, Wallis, and Wells, with Bern- 
stein, Mrs. E. G. Crow, Davids, Shapley, 
and Zimmer (until his death February 5, 
1945) of the temporary staff. McNish gave 
his full time to war problems related par- 



ticularly to applications of geomagnetism. 
The others named gave the greater part 
of their time to matters related directly 
or indirectly to the war effort. 

Geomagnetic Anomalies 

Vestine and Davids developed analyti- 
cal and computational procedures for the 
analysis and interpretation of geomagnetic 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



25 



anomalies. These relate particularly to 
techniques of geophysical prospecting by 
magnetic and gravitational methods. Re- 
lations among the surface-components of 
field and their gradients were compiled, 
and techniques of analysis using models, 
Fourier series, Fourier-Bessel series, power 
series, and surface integrals described. 
These methods do not permit unique loca- 
tion of the sources of field from magnetic 
data alone, but under favorable conditions 
permit useful inferences regarding sub- 
surface structure, of advantage in pros- 
pecting for certain minerals and petroleum. 
Application of the results to illustrative 
examples is being undertaken. 

Geomagnetic Disturbances and Cosmic 
Relations 

The geographic incidence of aurora and 
magnetic disturbance in the Southern 
Hemisphere was studied, using observa- 
tions at about 40 auroral stations and 13 
magnetic observatories. The position of 
the southern auroral zone was estimated 
from geomagnetic data and compared 
with the results of observations of aurora. 
Tentative isochasms were drawn for 
aurora observed in absence of cloud, re- 
sults being corrected also for the influ- 
ence of sunlight on observing conditions, 
and they appear closely to resemble corre- 
sponding isochasms for the Northern 
Hemisphere. 

The geomagnetic disturbance daily var- 
iation (Sd) was derived for stations in 
southern auroral regions. Little evidence 
was found of important differences in the 
average characteristics of geomagnetic dis- 
turbance as between south and north polar 
regions, but more observations are neces- 
sary, particularly at the auroral zone, where 
as yet no observatory has operated, before 
a definite conclusion can be reached. 

Lines of equal average hourly percent- 



age-frequency of aurora were mapped for 
the Northern Hemisphere for several posi- 
tions of the Sun relative to the Earth. The 
region of highest average hourly percent- 
age-frequency coincides with the region 
of most concentrated electric current-flow 
estimated for the average of 40 magnetic 
bays of the Polar Year 1 932-1 933. 

Vestine and Miss Lange are deriving 
the average position of the northern auroral 
zone for the various years of the sunspot- 
cycle. The statistical frequencies of the 
magnitudes of daily departures of the 
auroral zone north and south from its 
average position are being compiled, using 
measurements of geomagnetic disturbance 
at stations in high latitudes. 

Permanent Field 

Davids and Bernstein continued studies 
and tests for ensuring greater mutual con- 
sistency among isomagnetic charts. Pro- 
fessor James H. Taylor, of George Wash- 
ington University, completed theoretical 
examination of the problem of adjusting 
isomagnetic charts to mutual consistency, 
the definition of the normal geomagnetic 
field, and intrinsic properties of mapping 
contours. 

Current compilations of magnitude of 
major short-period magnetic fluctuations 
have been made for results measured at 
Ivigtut (Greenland) and College (Alaska). 

Tables are under construction to permit 
analysis and continuation of surface mag- 
netic fields over a sphere, using the method 
of surface integrals previously reported. 

At least 90 per cent of Vestine's time 
was spent on war contracts of the De- 
partment, with the Director's supervision 
and advice. The main activities may be 
listed as follows: (1) Continuation of 
work of the previous two years in super- 
vising, with assistance of Miss Isabelle 
Lange, temporary professional and asso- 



26 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



ciate workers. Many of these activities 
were along lines ordinarily normal to the 
investigations of the Department, so that 
this work remains of enduring value in 
time of peace. These activities were greatly 
facilitated by the cooperation and assistance 
of many others of the Department's staff, 
and especially by the following: Johnston 
and Scott, who generously gave of their 
time in providing geomagnetic data; Sea- 
ton, with Malich of the temporary staff, 
and Corp, who made measurements of geo- 
magnetic fluctuations at College (Alaska) 
and Ivigtut (Greenland), respectively; and 
Harradon, who translated numerous for- 
eign passages in publications and who 
together with Dove made available almost 
daily the geomagnetic data in the library. 
Green and Wallis made particularly valu- 



able revisions of data on land and sea, 
especially in preparing final summaries of 
data as corrected to International Mag- 
netic Standard. Hendrix and Harrison, 
with Doepke of the temporary staff, drew 
the necessary graphs, maps, and diagrams, 
and Capello and Dove typed and prepared 
manuscripts. 

Sherman, Scott, and Vestine installed a 
visually recording magnetograph in the 
field at Sterling, Virginia. 

In supervision of work, Vestine and 
Miss Lange had the valuable assistance of 
the computing supervisors Cooper, La- 
porte, Meier, Saltarelli, J. W. Smith, and 
E. J. Snyder, of the temporary staff. Be- 
tween 40 and 50 others contributed in 
temporary technical and computing ca- 
pacities. 



TERRESTRIAL ELECTRICITY 



War research in the Section of Ter- 
restrial Electricity continued on a slightly 
reduced scale from that of the three pre- 
vious years. Nearly all of Sherman's time 
was spent on war projects. Torreson re- 
mained on leave of absence with the 
Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns 
Hopkins University for the Office of 
Scientific Research and Development and 
United States Navy through December 
1944, and returned to the Department 
January 1, 1945. He then began editing, 
compiling, organizing, and preparing ma- 
terial relating to the atmospheric-electric 
work done at sea on the Carnegie in 1928 
and 1929, for the volume Oceanography 
III in the series "Scientific Results of Cruise 
VII of the Carnegie during 1928-1929." 
About one-quarter of Rooney's time was 
given to war research problems and the 
remainder to Section routine and research. 
Gish and Wait devoted most of their time 
to atmospheric-electric research but gave 
some time to consultations and investiga- 
tions related to the war effort. 



Atmospheric Electricity 

Development of instruments and meth- 
ods. Some minor modifications and im- 
provements were made in the ionization- 
meters (Gish and Sherman) developed 
for the investigations of Professor V. F. 
Hess. Considerable study (Gish) was 
directed to the interpretation of the results 
obtained by Hess, with particular attention 
to the effects of secondary radiation, "vol- 
ume-contamination," and "wall-contamina- 
tion." The method of Hess involves the 
use of three ionization-chambers of iden- 
tical shape but with different ratios of 
area to volume, so that the effects of wall- 
radiation can be segregated and elimi- 
nated from the measured values. Exami- 
nation of the data obtained with the three 
chambers under different conditions with 
respect to the freshness of the nitrogen 
they contain, the amount of contamina- 
tion probable on the walls, and the type 
of direct radiation to which they are ex- 
posed, leads to the following conclusions: 
(1) The effect of soft secondary radiations 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



27 



or of some equivalent is definitely notice- 
able. (2) Immediately after the chambers 
are filled with fresh filtered nitrogen, 
radioactive contamination of the nitrogen, 
or something producing a like effect, is 
prominent for several days. At such times 
there is little or no evidence of contamina- 
tion on the walls, presumably because any 
which existed previously has been removed 
or greatly reduced in the process of re- 
filling. (3) Following refilling, the "vol- 
ume-contamination" decreases as the radio- 
active material in the nitrogen diffuses 
and is absorbed in a thin film on the 
walls of the chambers. (4) After a period 
of from 10 to 20 days a condition of 
equilibrium is reached in which the "vol- 
ume-contamination" is practically negli- 
gible. (5) The "volume-contamination" 
and the "wall-contamination" are appar- 
ently of very nearly the same density in 
all three chambers. Hence the funda- 
mental idea underlying Hess's method 
can be expected to result in satisfactory 
data once the nitrogen has aged in the 
chambers. 

A further theoretical study of the effects 
of secondary radiation in ionization-cham- 
bers was made (Gish), based on a dis- 
crepancy by a factor of 3 in the "Eve's 
value" for a Kolhorster penetrating-radia- 
tion meter, as reported by Kolhorster in 
1928 and redetermined by Sherman in 
1942. Assuming that the capacitance of 
the meter was determined originally by 
comparing the rate of discharge of the 
meter with that of a standard instrument 
without allowance for difference in the 
secondary radiation in the two, the dis- 
crepancy can be completely explained if 
the secondary radiation in the meter under 
test was much greater than that in the 
standard and afterward decreased with 
time in much the same way as the "vol- 
ume-contamination" does in the Gish-Hess 
chambers. The validity of this explanation 



is supported by the fact that the inner 
surfaces of the meter were electroplated 
with zinc and that the photoelectric effect 
of a fresh surface of zinc is much greater 
than that of a surface aged in air. 

Adaptation of electronic circuits to 
atmospheric-electric instruments. An im- 
portant instrumental program begun dur- 
ing the year was the further adaptation of 
electronic circuits to atmospheric-electric 
instruments in place of electrometers. The 
advantages of electronic equipment lie in 
greater flexibility and power of resolution, 
ruggedness, and convenience in record- 
ing. A satisfactory amplifier of high gain, 
stability, and ruggedness was completed 
(Sherman) and used successfully in air- 
conductivity measurements over a wide 
range of conductivity-values and difficult 
operating conditions. Experimental work 
on amplifiers for the determination of 
other atmospheric-electric quantities such 
as field-strength was also begun and shows 
promise, particularly in the investigation 
of the intense and rapidly varying fields 
associated with thunderstorms. 

Phenomena of thunderstorms. Toward 
the end of the report-year various con- 
ferences relating to ways and means of 
investigating phenomena of thunderstorms 
were held with representatives of the 
United States Weather Bureau by Gish, 
Wait, Torreson, Rooney, and Sherman. 
These point toward an extensive future 
program in which staff members of the 
Department should find opportunity for 
extending contributions in the field of at- 
mospheric electricity. 

As a result, tentative plans were made 
(Gish) for the investigation of electrostatic 
phenomena at the Mexican volcano Pari- 
cutin. In cooperation with the United 
States Paricutin Committee and the United 
States Weather Bureau, Gish made a field- 
trip to the site in June 1945 to undertake 
a preliminary survey, including simple 



28 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



measurements of electric field-strength, 
with a view to establishing a program for 
more comprehensive measurements later 
in the year. The work at Paricutin may be 
expected to be valuable in developing in- 
struments and technique for investigation 
of thunderstorms. 

Rate of ionization inside a room. The 
apparent response of the ionization of the 
air to the presence of people has pre- 
viously been reported (see Year Book No. 
38). Additional information (Wait) was 
obtained during the year. The ionization 
by two chambers having different wall- 
thicknesses was compared; one chamber 
with relatively thick walls excluded the 
ionization due to alpha particles, while 
the other had no covering and conse- 
quently included the alpha-ray ionization. 
Only the alpha-ray ionization is affected 
when people first come into the room. It 
is only after a lag of several hours that 
the beta- and gamma-ray ionizations show 
response. The results are consistent with 
the idea that the presence of people acts, 
in some manner not yet understood, to 
reduce the amount of radon and thoron 
present in the air. The effect is too large 
to be accounted for on the basis of the 
retention of radon and thoron in the lungs 
of the people occupying the room. 

Comparison of the rate of ionization 
due to gamma rays with that due to alpha 
rays. The use of the two chambers also 
provided a comparison (Wait) of the rate 
of ionization by gamma and alpha rays 
inside a closed room. For equilibrium- 
conditions the alpha-ray ionization was 
approximately double that due to gamma 
rays for the particular conditions of the 
experiment. This ratio is about 50 per 
cent greater than that estimated by Eve for 
out-of-doors conditions. 

Annual variation in the rate of ioniza- 
tion of air in a room. A large annual var- 
iation in the rate of ionization in one of 



the rooms of the Department's laboratory 
is apparent from the records of this ele- 
ment during the year (Wait). A maxi- 
mum value occurs in summer and a mini- 
mum in winter. The average value during 
the summer is about double the average 
value during the winter. This variation 
is probably due to the combination of two 
factors. One factor is the increased rate of 
exhalation of soil-gases during the summer 
over that during the winter season. The 
other factor is the increased number of 
condensation-nuclei in the air during the 
winter months over that during the sum- 
mer months. It has been found from 
test that the ionization responds to the 
presence of smoke and other pollution- 
products in the air. The rate of ionization 
decreases as the amount of pollution in 
the air increases. 

Relation between small-ion and large- 
ion content of the air and the rate of 
ionization. From simultaneous measure- 
ments (Wait) on the small-ion and large- 
ion content of the air and the rate of 
ionization of the air inside a room, a rela- 
tion among the various elements has been 
obtained. The small-ion content of the air 
is found to vary directly as the ionization, 
that is, a plot of ion-content and ionization 
gives a straight-line relation. If the plot is 
extrapolated back to zero ion-content, the 
line passes also through the zero-value of 
ionization, thus indicating that the re- 
sidual ionization of the chamber is small. 
A plot of the reciprocal of the small-ion 
content and the large-ion content is like- 
wise a straight line. When extrapolated 
back to zero-value of the reciprocal of 
small-ion content, the large-ion content is 
not zero, but is equal to 1250 ions per cc. 
The ratio of ionization to the product of 
small- and large-ion contents is not con- 
stant, but is highest when the ionization 
is highest and lowest when the ionization 
is lowest. This ratio, theoretically, is a 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



2 9 



measure of the average rate at which the 
small ion combines with a large ion. 

Alpha-ray stopping power of cellophane. 
The stopping power of ordinary commer- 
cial cellophane for alpha particles was 
found (Wait) to be about 70 per cent as 
great as that of aluminum, assuming equal 
thickness. According to calculation the 
stopping power is only about one-seventh 
as great. There appears, therefore, con- 
siderable disparity between the calculated 
and the observed stopping power of 
cellophane. 

Errors in measuring the ion-content and 
the conductivity of the air. From an an- 
alysis of the data on "mobility of the 
small ions" in the regular observational 
program aboard the Carnegie, information 
was obtained concerning the errors of ob- 
servation in connection with the measure- 
ment of the ion-content and the conduc- 
tivity of the air during the various cruises. 
It appears that, on the average, there was 
a systematic error, both elements being 
measured too low. The probable error 
of a single observation was around 12 to 
13 per cent on all cruises, and that of the 
mean generally amounted to 1 per cent 
or less. 

Geoelectricity 

Reduction of the earth-current records 
from Watheroo and Huancayo was kept 
current (Rooney) and a final summary of 
the records from Tucson, covering a com- 
plete sunspot-cycle, was published (Terr. 
Mag., vol. 49, pp. 147-157, 1944). 

Seasonal changes in diurnal variation 
at Tucson. Rooney 's study of the seasonal 
changes in diurnal variation at Tucson was 
completed and prepared for publication. 
The seasonal changes both in earth-cur- 
rents and in the magnetic field at Tucson 
are of unusual interest because of the 
location of the Observatory in the transi- 
tion-belt, where the type as well as the 



magnitude of the variations changes mark- 
edly during the year. For the most part, 
the changes observed are consistent with 
the effects attributable to the recognized 
movements of the current-systems in the 
ionosphere northward and southward with 
the Sun. Two anomalous features, not so 
simply explained, are found in the earth- 
current records in addition to the regular 
seasonal change. The first starts just about 
at the winter solstice, becomes most pro- 
nounced early in January, and disappears 
by the end of that month. It consists of a 
marked increase in activity, appearing as a 
large increase in the amplitude of both 
components without any change in the 
phase-relation between them. During the 
12 years of recording at Tucson the am- 
plitude of variation in January was nearly 
twice as great as the average amplitude in 
December and February, and only 3 times 
out of 12 was it less than 50 per cent 
greater. Comparing earth-current and 
magnetic records for the 5-year period 
1932-1936, a very closely parallel anomaly 
is found in the latter. In January the total 
magnetic field, F, also increases to a value 
well above its mean winter level, with the 
variations of the northward (X), eastward 
(Y), and vertical (Z) components of the 
magnetic field, like the two earth-current 
components, all showing the same propor- 
tional increase and no change in the phase- 
relations between them. Moreover, the 
parallelism is specific and not merely sta- 
tistical. During the winters of 1933- 
1934 and 1935-1936 the winter anomaly 
was unusually pronounced in the flow of 
earth-currents and equally strongly marked 
in the magnetic variations. The interven- 
ing winter, 1 934-1 935, was one of two in 
which the anomalous increase in activity 
was small in earth-current flow, and the 
magnetic data were also conspicuously less 
affected. This close parallelism effectively 
rules out structural features of the region 



30 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



as the cause of the anomaly and points 
to a space-variation in the conductivity 
of the ionosphere as the most probable 
explanation. This space-variation must, 
moreover, be local rather than zonal in 
character; otherwise all stations at the 
same approximate latitude would show 
similar anomalies. The records from Chel- 
tenham do show a slight trace of a similar 
increase in activity in January, but those 
from other stations do not. 

The second departure from regularity 
in the variations at Tucson occurs in 
March. It is less pronounced than the 
winter anomaly and also less consistent 
in its recurrence. At this time of the year 
the northward component of earth-current 
flow is little modified and follows its 
normal trend toward increasing amplitude 
with increasing altitude of the Sun. The 
eastward component, on the other hand, 
becomes very small and erratic. Here 
again the parallelism with the magnetic 
variations is striking. As should be ex- 
pected, the curve of variation in Y, like 
that in the northward earth-current com- 
ponent, is nearly normal, whereas that 



for X, like the eastward earth-current 
vector, is reduced almost to the point of 
disappearance. A simple explanation of 
the anomaly during March can be given 
by assuming that during March the center 
of the northern current-circulation in the 
ionosphere shifts to the north of its gen- 
eral springtime position and follows a 
desultory course which provides an aver- 
age passage just over, or slightly south of, 
Tucson. This explanation ignores the 
cause of such erratic behavior of the iono- 
spheric currents and the question why 
they behave that way only in March. 
There is, however, other evidence that 
erratic shifts in the latitudes of these cur- 
rent-centers do take place at certain places, 
such, for instance, as those adduced by 
Hasegawa from his studies of the day-to- 
day changes in diurnal variation at stations 
in and near Japan. An examination of the 
magnetic records from a number of other 
stations situated at latitudes not greatly 
different from that of Tucson showed no 
traces of this anomaly. Hence it is prob- 
ably quite local. 



THE IONOSPHERE AND ITS RELATIONS TO GEOMAGNETISM 



Observations 

Existing stations in the coordinated pro- 
gram of the Ionospheric Section for iono- 
spheric research were continued and one 
new station was installed in the Pacific 
area. In addition to the established instal- 
lations of the Department at Huancayo 
(Peru), Watheroo (Western Australia), 
and College (Alaska), five other overseas 
ionospheric observatories are being operat- 
ed. All these stations continued to provide 
ionospheric data, using automatic record- 
ers giving essentially complete records for 
24 hours each day with the exception of 
brief interruptions for adjustment or 
maintenance of equipment. 



The automatic ionospheric recorders of 
DTM design and construction have been 
in continuous operation at Huancayo 
Magnetic Observatory since 1937 and at 
Watheroo Magnetic Observatory since 
1938. Performance of these instruments 
continues to be satisfactory although they 
have more than completed their normal 
expectancy of useful service. At the 
Huancayo Magnetic Observatory the new 
ionospheric laboratory was constructed, 
with additional facilities for field-intensity 
recorders. 

Organization of the solar observational 
program for the purpose of short-term 
forecasting of ionospheric and magnetic 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



31 



disturbances continues essentially as in the 
previous years. Daily reports of solar ob- 
servations are received from United States 
Naval Observatory, Mount Wilson Observ- 
atory, Harvard College Observatory at 
Climax (Colorado), and the McMath- 
Hulbert Observatory. In addition to the 
above, frequent reports from other groups 
continue to be helpful in studying the 
progress of solar activity. 

Research and Development 

An active program of research and de- 
velopment was maintained at the Kensing- 
ton Ionospheric Laboratory and at the 
several field-stations. Activities of the Ken- 
sington Laboratory were directed toward 
development and construction of improved 
and simplified manually operated iono- 
spheric equipment with a considerably ex- 
tended frequency-range. Development at 
the field-stations included improvements to 
existing equipment with appropriate modi- 
fications to assure uninterrupted registra- 
tion of ionospheric characteristics. 

Construction of four additional field- 
intensity recorders was completed; and 
these were installed at the Huancayo Mag- 
netic Observatory. Subsequent to the in- 
stallation, certain specific tests were con- 
ducted to determine the effectiveness of 
fringe-type E-layer reflections and F 2 
scatter signals in supporting radio-wave 
propagation. 



members and of representatives of the In- 
terservice Radio Propagation Laboratory 
(IRPL) and the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington, controls activities of the IRPL 
and the CIW as regards radio-wave propa- 
gation matters. 

During the year two complete teams of 
Signal Corps personnel were trained for 
overseas assignment and training of a 
third team was started. Facilities of the 
Kensington Ionospheric Laboratory and 
the Department were also devoted to a 
program of equipment-development spon- 
sored by the Radio Propagation Section 
of the United States Army Signal Corps. 
Sergeant Peter G. Sulzer was principally 
responsible for the development of a man- 
ual ionospheric recorder using a 12-inch 
cathode-ray tube. In addition, a promising 
version of an automatic recorder was con- 
structed; satisfactory preliminary tests on 
this unit indicate that it may provide the 
basic design for equipment which will ul- 
timately replace existing automatic iono- 
spheric recorders. 

Particularly close liaison was maintained 
with the Australian and Canadian Radio 
Wave Propagation Committees. A com- 
plete manually operated recorder was con- 
structed and loaned to the Canadian group 
for expansion of its observational program. 
Canadian and Chinese representatives were 
trained to operate ionospheric equipment 
and to interpret results. 



Cooperative Activities 

Fleming and Wells maintained active 
participation in the Wave Propagation 
Committee of the Joint Communications 
Board, and continued to cooperate in a 
consulting capacity with authorized Army 
and Navy representatives in matters con- 
cerning the ionosphere, geomagnetic ac- 
tivity, and radio-wave propagation. The 
Committee, composed of Army and Navy 



Reports and Papers 

A paper on "Sporadic-E ionization at 
Watheroo Magnetic Observatory" was pre- 
sented by Wells at the May meeting of the 
American Geophysical Union. The paper 
was based on analyses of ionospheric 
records for June 1938 to December 1941. 
Seasonal features of sporadic-E already 
established for the Northern Hemisphere 
were confirmed for the Southern Hemi- 



32 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



sphere with maximum occurrence in local 
summer months. Annual trends show in- 
creasing values during 1938 to 1941, sug- 
gestive of an inverse relation to solar ac- 
tivity. Tests for recurrence-tendencies of 
sporadic-^ with the 27-day solar rotation 
period did not show any positive cor- 
relation. 

Postwar Plans 

Postwar activities of the Ionospheric Sec- 
tion must be preceded by a period of at 
least several months to readjust personnel 
from highly specialized war activities to 
the broader fields of peacetime research. 
During this period attention must be given 
to assimilation of progress made by other 
groups or agencies in ionospheric and 
related fields of research. 

The general plan for ionospheric re- 
search should include both observational 
activities at the Huancayo and Watheroo 
magnetic observatories and definite investi- 
gational projects. Certain equipment, for 
example the automatic multifrequency 
apparatus — designed and constructed in 
1935 and 1936 — needs to be replaced in 
view of new and improved techniques 
developed since 1940. Because of the im- 
pending probable loss of our Kensington 
Ionospheric Station on account of building 
operations close by and the resulting radio 
disturbances, a new field-station and site of 
sufficient area to ensure protection against 
encroachment of other interests will be 
necessary. 

The present observational program at 
both Huancayo and Watheroo should be 
maintained through 1950 so that registra- 
tion of ionospheric characteristics at each 
observatory may be complete for a sun- 
spot-cycle. Subsequent to 1950, control- 
observations of a simplified nature will be 
sufficient to fulfill civilian and military 
requirements for ionospheric data from 
these locations. 

Important items of postwar research are 



(1) extended analyses of accumulated data 
and (2) new projects directed toward 
specific problems for which positive solu- 
tions may be expected in a reasonable 
length of time. There are many short- 
term projects of a fundamental character 
which merit immediate prosecution and 
do not involve additional long-term ob- 
servational programs. Six specific projects 
of this kind were listed in the Depart- 
ment's report in Year Book No. 43 (p. 34) . 

Personnel. Wells spent several months 
in Australia on a war mission. During 
this assignment he visited the Watheroo 
Magnetic Observatory and conferred with 
Observer-in-Charge Parkinson and mem- 
bers of the stafL Seaton, of the College 
Observatory, spent several weeks during 
February 1945 at Washington in special 
conferences. He has also been active in 
connection with the proposed Geophysical 
Institute for the University of Alaska at 
College. Ledig and Jones, of the Huan- 
cayo Magnetic Observatory, spent several 
months at the Department on a rotation 
plan, for conferences and instructions re- 
garding instrumental improvements and 
new techniques for interpretation of iono- 
spheric records. 

Activities of temporary staff members 
were as follows: Hluchan returned from 
his Arctic assignment in October 1944, 
and subsequently installed the new field- 
intensity recorders at the Huancayo Mag- 
netic Observatory. Max returned from his 
overseas assignment and has accepted other 
employment. Peavey returned from his 
Arctic assignment and was subsequently 
reassigned to a Pacific station. Goldman 
returned from his overseas station to accept 
assignment as observer-in-charge of an 
Arctic station. Ventre made a brief trip 
to the Department for certain urgent re- 
pairs to equipment. Huebsch, after con- 
tributing materially to development work 
at Kensington, was assigned to a new 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



33 



Pacific station. The services of Watts in 
the Pacific area have been particularly 
helpful in the establishing of new stations 
and in the training of personnel. Easley 
accepted a second year's assignment to an 
isolated Arctic station, thereby providing 
an extremely valuable continuity of per- 
sonnel which greatly facilitated the per- 
formance of this station. Settle was re- 
turned from his Arctic station by special 
plane as a result of inability to adjust 
himself to conditions of Arctic life. Mur- 
ray, W. G. Johnson, and Sullivan con- 
tinued in their overseas assignments and 
maintained continuity of observations in 
spite of occasional handicaps due to both 
instrumental failure and effects of environ- 
ment. Halpin and Stansbury returned 
from College after completion of their 
tour of duty and will establish another 



new station in the Pacific area. Schmieder 
assisted in developmental work at the 
Kensington Laboratory prior to his assign- 
ment to the College station. Other mem- 
bers of the College staff, including Wolff, 
Malich, Kowalak, Rolfe, Wilder, Bliss, and 
E. F. George, contributed materially to the 
successful program throughout the year. 
Gammon was trained in the use of iono- 
spheric equipment and interpretation of 
records; he is soon to take an overseas 
assignment. D. E. George was engaged 
at the Kensington Ionospheric Laboratory. 
Shapley worked primarily on the short- 
term forecasting program and assisted in 
the training of personnel. Miss Hodder 
aided Shapley in the successful forecasting 
program. Miss Follin engaged in special 
investigational work and Miss Puffer in 
secretarial work of the Section. 



MAGNETISM AND ATOMIC PHYSICS 

Cowie had charge of the 6o-inch cyclo- minor changes was fortunate because it 
tron with the assistance of Ksanda, P. made available long and dependable bom- 
Johnson, Buynitzky, and Mendousse. (Dr. bardments for special purposes. 
Mendousse, captain in the French Army, Most of the operation was devoted to 
continued to be made available through researches in which this Department col- 
the courtesy of the French Military Mission laborated with the Navy, Army, and Pub- 
in Washington.) These five men kept the lie Health Service. The staff, laboratories, 
cyclotron in operation throughout the and equipment of the Department, coupled 
report-year. with the scientific and medical personnel 

Tuve, Hafstad, Roberts, Green, and of the above groups and their facilities, 

Heydenburg of the nuclear-physics group made possible the organization of well 

were engaged full time during the report- equipped research teams. This is very im- 

year on war-research activities or in the portant because no one man can meet 

Services. the requirements for a clinician, chemist, 

As in the past year, lack of personnel physicist, pathologist, and biologist, or do 

prevented further improvements to, and justice to an investigation requiring the 

operation of, the large static generator in knowledge of such specialists. The assign- 

the Atomic-Physics Observatory and the ment of specialists in each field by the 



small one in the Experiment Building. 

Cyclotron 

The fact that the cyclotron was in al- 
most continuous daily operation without more interesting results obtained can now 
any major breakdowns and with few be reviewed. 
6 



collaborating agencies permitted rapid and 
efficient organization of a team in which 
each individual became responsible for a 
fraction of the work done. Some of the 



34 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

The Division of Zoology of the United (6) White rats, when treated with 

States Public Health Service attempted to either arsenic or antimony, showed quite 

correlate, by means of radioactive-tracer anomalous tissue distribution. In fact, 

techniques, the localization of heavy metals these laboratory animals retained in the 

in the body and their chemotherapeutic blood for several days most of the arsenic 

activity. Filariasis, schistosomiasis, and and antimony injected intravenously as 

other diseases in which the heavy metals sodium arsenite or as tartar emetic, in 

serve as chemotherapeutic agents were contrast with the rapid elimination by 

studied. Drs. Frederick J. Brady (Acting chicks, cotton rats, dogs, rabbits, guinea 

Chief of the Zoology Laboratory), Alfred pigs, and hamsters. This is rather signifi- 

H. Lawton, and A. T. Ness took part in cant, since the white rat has been the 

this research, some of the results of which standard laboratory animal for arsenic 

are as follows: chemotherapy studies for many years. 

(i) The blood and tissue distribution Two papers on the results were pub- 
of antimony was determined following lished (see bibliography at end of report) 
single-dose administration of radioactive and another is in press under the title 
trivalent compounds of antimony to dogs "The distribution of radioactive arsenic 
naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis. following intraperitoneal injection of so- 
(2) The specific uptake of the antimony dium arsenite into cotton rats infected with 
by the adult worm and the subsequent Litomosoides carinii," by Alfred H. Law- 
elimination of the microfilarids from the ton, A. T. Ness, Frederick }. Brady, and 
blood-stream were established. Dean B. Cowie. 

(3) An unexpected high concentration Drs. J. M. Steele, R. E. Smith, and 
in the thyroid of the dogs followed single- R. E. Eakin, of the Naval Medical Re- 
dose treatment with the compounds of search Institute, initiated a vigorous pro- 
antimony. This organ, 24 or 36 hours after gram of antimony research. The medical 
injection, appears to have a concentration and military importance of antimony 
greater than any tissue except the liver, therapy and the problems which are rising 
In two cases, 7 day^s after a single treat- from its use justify the priority given 
ment with tartar emetic, the thyroid was this element. The pharmacological investi- 
tive highest of all tissues in the dogs. gations of antimony reported above deal 

(4) After 12 injections of antimony over entirely with trivalent and pentavalent 
14 days, the thyroid was highest in anti- compounds. This Navy group, therefore, 
mony concentration of all the 36 tissues is investigating antimony in its two other 
studied. Attempts are being made to see valency states, —3 and 0. Stibine was 
if this thyroid concentration is related to found to be therapeutically effective against 
toxicity or to chemotherapeutic effect. malarial parasites in chick erythrocytes, 

(5) Cotton rats naturally infected with and the antimony distribution following 
Litomosoides carinii and treated with stibine therapy was determined using 
single doses of radioactive arsenic (sodium radioactive antimony. The significant 
arsenite) showed a specific arsenic uptake finding of the study was the unusually 
by the adult filarids similar to the anti- high antimony content of the red blood 
mony uptake by the Dirofilaria immitis. cells immediately following stibine therapy. 
The thyroid in these arsenic-treated ani- Studies were made on the chemical fate 
mals showed no large arsenic concen- of stibine in the body. In vitro experi- 
tration. ments with blood and blood fractions in- 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



35 



dicate that: (a) stibine, during the gaseous 
exchange in the lung, is taken up almost 
entirely by the red cells; (b) stibine is 
almost instantaneously decomposed, anti- 
mony being trapped within the red cells 
in the colloidal form as metallic antimony; 
(c) this extremely rapid decomposition 
of stibine in the red blood cells is catalyzed 
by hemoglobin; and (d) this catalytic 
action of hemoglobin is apparently unique, 
inasmuch as no other biological agent has 
been found which will cause this rapid 
reaction. The reaction is independent of 
the oxygen tension or the presence of oxi- 
dizing agents. The conclusion from these 
findings is that stibine itself is not the 
therapeutically active agent, but that it 
serves as a method of producing a high 
concentration of metallic antimony within 
the red cells. It is believed possible to 
establish beyond all doubt the identity of 
hemoglobin as the stibine-decomposition 
catalyst, and determine the quantitative 
relations of this phenomenon. 

A method was developed for making a 
stable colloidal preparation of metallic 
antimony which is entirely free from 
other forms of antimony. A nonradioac- 
tive preparation was made for therapeutic 
testing against the extra-erythrocytic stage 
of a malaria parasite in the chicks. Radio- 
active samples are being prepared which 
will be used for in vitro and in vivo dis- 
tribution and metabolism studies. 

A series of hamsters infected with Schis- 
tosoma mansoni and their normal controls 
were injected with radioactive tartar emetic 
and the antimony distribution was meas- 
ured as a function of time in the blood, 
tissues, and parasites. Significantly it was 
found that there was a marked accumula- 
tion in the liver and thyroid. The adult 
flukes also showed this specific uptake. 
The orders of rank of tissue and parasite 
concentration at 48 hours confirmed in 
exact detail the findings of the United 



States Public Health Service on the 36- 
hour dogs infected with Diro filar ia im- 
mitis. No outstanding differences were 
found between the controls and the in- 
fected hamsters. The marked and pro- 
gressive accumulation by the liver and the 
thyroid perhaps indicates that toxicity of 
antimony may be related to these findings. 

Jane Strane, Ensign, Robert Englert, 
HA i/c, Louis P. Cecchini, PhM 3/c, and 
Morton Harfenist, PhM 3/c, assigned from 
the Naval Medical Research Institute to 
the Department, have greatly assisted in 
the progress of the antimony research. 
C. J. Spear, PhM i/c, R. L. Evans, PhM 
2/c, L. H. Gordon, PhM 2/c, and F. N. 
Gillespie, PhM 2/c, assisted both at the 
Department and at the Naval Medical 
Research Institute. 

Ksanda assisted in many of the radio- 
active measurements of biological samples 
in the above cooperative research projects. 
Buynitsky and Ksanda provided any im- 
provements in the cyclotron that were 
found necessary during the year and main- 
tained a supply of ion-source filaments and 
additional target and ion-source assemblies. 
P. A. Johnson, with Mendousse and 
Cecchini, developed new probe-targets 
which permit large beams with maxi- 
mum cooling. This work is important 
for the operation of cyclotrons, since large 
yields from probe-target bombardments 
are thereby made possible. Antimony, 
phosphorus, arsenic, and tellurium are 
some of the newer targets worked on. 
Johnson was responsible for the numerous 
target-holders and the daily target-supply. 
Buynitsky was in sole charge of the opera- 
tion of the cyclotron. Since the instru- 
ment has been running so efficiently with 
little or no trouble, almost automatic opera- 
tion has resulted. 

A new ion-source was developed per- 
mitting 80 to 90 hours of operation. Large, 
steady beams are possible with this source, 



36 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



which has a direct-current filament supply B. Cowie. "The distribution of radio- 

(motor-generator) and a constant-current active antimony in hamsters infected with 

network for the arc-current. A paper by Schistosoma mansoni with particular ref- 

Cowie and Ksanda describing this ion- erence to accumulation by the thyroid," 

source is in press. by R. E. Smith, Dean B. Cowie, Robert E. 

Among other organizations which uti- Eakin, and C. H. Hill, 

lized the facilities of the cyclotron were Lectures relating to the collaborative 

the National Defense Research Committee, use of the cyclotron in the several investi- 

the Army, the National Bureau of Stand- gations were presented as follows: On 

ards, and the Department of Agriculture, localization of trivalent radioactive anti- 

The administrative officers of the Naval niony following intravenous administra- 

Medical Research Center and of the Public tion (see bibliography at end of report), 

Health Service, by their encouragement at Fortieth Annual Meeting of American 

and assistance, have contributed much to Society of Tropical Medicine, St. Louis, 

the success of these collaborative re- Missouri, November 1944. On the cyclo- 

searches tron ano - art ificial radioactivity, by Dean 

B. Cowie, before Biochemistry Seminar, 

Miscellaneous National Institute of Health, Bethesda, 

Maryland, March 1945. On use of radio- 
Besides the reports which are noted act i ve substances in biology with special 
above, two Bureau of Medicine of the Navy reference to uptake of antimony by Diro- 
reports were prepared as follows : "Quanti- filaria immitis, by F. J. Brady, D. B. Cowie, 
tative analysis of antimony evaluation of and A. H. Lawton, at Helminthological 
Maren's modification of Webster's rho- Society, Washington, D. C, April 1945. 
damine-B method by means of radioanti- As in 1944, the Annual Conference on 
mony," by Lois F. Hallman, Lieutenant Theoretical Physics was not held because 
(jg); Cyrus J. Spear, PhM i/c; and Dean of limitations of time and travel. 

FIELD-WORK AND REDUCTIONS 
LAND MAGNETIC SURVEY 

The manuscript of a new volume (VIII) pleted. The results in intensity in par- 

of the Researches of the Department of ticular have been considerably improved 

Terrestrial Magnetism was revised to in- by removing the effects of various geo- 

clude results of recent cooperative sur- magnetic fluctuations from the data of ob- 

veys in 1944 and the finally compiled mag- servatories and at stations on land and sea 

netic data obtained aboard the Carnegie used in estimating secular change. The 

during 1 928-1 929 on the last cruise of that results were plotted on large-scale Mercator 

vessel. It is hoped this volume may be and polar projections for the four epochs 

published in 1946. 1912.5, 1922.5, 1932.5, and 1942.5. 

The compilations of world-wide secular Isoporic charts for declination and hori- 

changes in declination (D), horizontal zontal intensity for the four epochs were 

intensity (H), inclination (/), vertical in- completed, except for minor modifications 

tensity (Z), total intensity (F), north near the principal magnetic dip-poles based 

intensity (X), and east intensity (Y) on theoretical study now under way. 

described in last year's report were com- These new charts show substantial im- 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



37 



provements over previous estimates of 
secular change made in many regions. 
There remains, however, some uncertainty 
regarding the magnitude of secular change 
in certain polar and oceanic areas — a defect 
that can be effectively remedied only by 
future measurements in these areas. The 
sparsely stationed areas have been bridged, 
with a degree of success difficult to assess, 
by using the line-integral and curl-tests of 
potential theory. In this way the D- and 
H-isoporics have been drawn so that they 
are mutually consistent for the first time 
to a good degree of approximation, mainly 
by suitable adjustments of contours over 
oceanic and polar areas. Care was also 
taken to draw the contours in conformity 
with singularities present in field — a fea- 
ture neglected in previous charts, as 
pointed out recently by Chapman. Good 
use has also been made of the opportunity 
to compare the new charts with one an- 
other at adjacent ten-year epochs in arriv- 
ing at the final estimated contour-lines 
for each epoch in secular change. 

Noteworthy features are the existence 
of large positive foci in D- and H-isoporics 
for the South Polar region, and the great 
and remarkable changes both in magni- 
tude and in pattern which have appeared 
in many regions during the relatively short 
time-interval of only 40 years in the Earth's 
history. 

Isoporic charts for the remaining com- 
ponents are in construction and will be 
adjusted, in so far as is deemed advisable, 
to mutual consistency with the D- and 
H-isoporic charts. 

Isomagnetic charts of D, H, and Z for 
the Western Pacific area were completed, 
including magnetic anomalies observed or 
estimated in cooperation with the United 
States Geological Survey. The isomagnetic 
world-chart for declination, in 17 sections, 
is nearing completion. 

Loan was maintained, as in the past, 



of field-instruments and equipment to 
seven observatories in surveys in South 
America, South Australia, Northern Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand, British East Africa, 
Belgian Congo, South Africa, and the 
United States, as well as to other organi- 
zations. International magnetic standards 
and corrections thereto were maintained in 
cooperation with the United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey at the Cheltenham 
Magnetic Observatory. 

Tables of departures in geomagnetic 
field used in estimating secular change 
were extended to December 31, 1944. 

Field-Operations and Cooperative 
Surveys 

Africa. Dr. A. Walter, Director of the 
British East African Meteorological Service, 
continued observations in Tanganyika Terri- 
tory using CIW magnetometer and induc- 
tor 13. 

Dr. A. Ogg, of the Magnetic Branch of 
the Trigonometrical Survey of the Union of 
South Africa, Hermanus Observatory, contin- 
ued frequent and valuable observations using 
CIW magnetometer-inductor 17. In June 
1945 CIW magnetometer-inductor 17 was 
transferred to G. Heinrichs for use as stand- 
ard instrument at the Elisabethville Magnetic 
Observatory in the Belgian Congo. 

Australia. Chief Geophysicist J. M. Rayner 
and L. A. Richardson continued valuable and 
extensive surveys in Australia as a cooperative 
endeavor of the Aerial, Geological, and Geo- 
physical Survey of Northern Australia, De- 
partment of Supply and Development, Can- 
berra, and the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism. During June to December 1944, 
34 stations were occupied in South Australia, 
Western Australia, New South Wales, and 
Northern Territory. In this work assistance 
was rendered by Observer-in-Charge W. C. 
Parkinson of the Watheroo Magnetic Ob- 
servatory, and W. D. Parkinson of the Ob- 
servatory accompanied Mr. Richardson on a 
field-trip September 29 to November 17, 1944. 
The results of the survey, with earlier data 



3» 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



obtained by the Department, were used to 
construct a fine series of maps of declination 
covering Australasia. 

CIW magnetometer 6 and dip-circle 226 
were continued on loan to Astronomer G. F. 
Dodwell for use in measurements in South 
Australia. 

New Zealand. Director H. F. Baird of the 
New Zealand Magnetic Survey, New Zealand 
Department of Scientific and Industrial Re- 
search, continued the active and valuable 
survey-program in New Zealand using CIW 
magnetometer-inductor 27. 

North, Central, and South America. CIW 



magnetometer 26 was used by the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey in exten- 
sive resurveys in the Western Hemisphere, 
financed by the United States Department of 
State. 

CIW universal magnetometer 19 was 
loaned to the United States Lake Survey 
Commission at Detroit, Michigan, for use 
in determining magnetic declination. 

Major S. Graceras, Chief of the Division 
of Geodesy, Military Geographic Institute, 
Uruguay, is using CIW magnetometer-in- 
ductor 28 in a survey of 60 field-stations in 
Uruguay. 



OBSERVATORY-WORK 



The activities of the Section of Ob- 
servatory-Work continued under the direc- 
tion of Johnston, assisted by Scott and 
Miss Balsam. By far the greater part of 
the time during this report-year was de- 
voted to work relating to the war. Wait 
continued investigations relating to at- 
mospheric electricity. Torreson (from Jan- 
uary 1 to June 30, 1945), with the assistance 
of Mrs. R. M. Crow, was engaged in 
preparation of manuscript reporting the 
atmospheric-electric results obtained on 
Cruise VII of the Carnegie. McNish con- 
tinued to be occupied with war-research 
work. The various members composing 
the staffs at the observatories are mentioned 
under the heading "Operations at observ- 
atories." 

The magnetic, earth-current, and iono- 
spheric programs were continued at the 
Watheroo, Huancayo, and College observ- 
atories. The observations were analyzed 
upon receipt at the Washington office. 
Weekly summaries of magnetic and iono- 
spheric data, predictions of maximum 
usable frequencies for various distances, 
and current forecasts of conditions affect- 
ing radio communications were supplied 
various bureaus and organizations of the 
government. 



Continuous photographic records of the 
three magnetic elements and the heights 
of the ionosphere by means of fixed and 
automatic multifrequency transmissions 
were obtained at Watheroo, Huancayo, 
and College. Atmospheric potential-gra- 
dient, positive and negative conductivity 
of the atmosphere, earth-currents, solar 
observations by means of a Hale spectro- 
helioscope, and meteorological values were 
recorded at Watheroo and Huancayo. The 
cosmic-ray meter and the three-component 
seismograph continued in operation at 
Huancayo. During the spring of 1945, 
signal-intensity equipment was installed at 
Huancayo. 

The reductions of magnetic data and 
computations in connection with the analy- 
sis of magnetic results from Watheroo, 
Huancayo, and College observatories were 
carried forward. The values of the mag- 
netic elements for these three observatories 
for 1944 were completed and made avail- 
able to numerous interested organizations. 
The mean annual values of the magnetic 
elements for all days of 1943 and 1944 for 
Watheroo and Huancayo are shown in 
table 1; those for College, Alaska, are 
given under "Operations at observatories." 

The collection of data from a network 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



39 



of world magnetic observatories for use 
as a criterion of geomagnetic activity was 
continued as in previous years. Those 
observatories cooperating supply indices of 
activity (range from o, very quiet, to 9, 
extremely disturbed) for each three-hour 
period during the Greenwich day. Reports 
of activity-indices were received from 29, 
28, 27, and 27 magnetic observatories for 
the years 1941 to 1944, respectively. 



tabulated all the X-indices received from 
world observatories for the three years 
1941-1943. The mean indices were com- 
puted and tabulated. Final summaries 
were prepared for each of the years. A 
short paper entitled "Mean K-indices from 
twenty-seven magnetic observatories and 
preliminary international character-figures 
for 1943" was prepared for the Journal of 
Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric 



TABLE 1 

Annual values of the magnetic elements at the Watheroo and Huancayo magnetic 
observatories as based on magnetograms for all days, i943 and i944 



Year 



Decli- 
nation, 
D 



Incli- 
nation, 
I 





Intensity-components 




Hori- 




North- 


East- 




zontal, 


Total, 


south, 


west, 


Vertical, 


H 


F 


X 


Y 


Z 


(7) 


(7) 


(7) 


(7) 


(7) 



Local 
mag- 
netic 

CON- 
STANT, 

G 



Watheroo Magnetic Observatory 



1943 

1944 


3° 04:4 W 
3 01.1 W 


64° 25:4 S 
64 25.2 S 


24718 
24745 


57254 
57310 


24682 
24711 


-1325 
-1303 


-51643 
-51693 


35745 
35782 



Huancayo Magnetic Observatory 



1943 

1944 


6 40.0 E 
6 34.8 E 


2 11.5 N 
2 10.3 N 


29400 
29367 


29422 
29388 


29201 
29174 


3413 
3365 


1125 
1114 


29405 
29372 






Reports of ^-indices from seven Ameri- 
can-operated observatories, as also those 
from College (Alaska), Toolangi (Vic- 
toria, Australia), and Godhavn and Ivigtut 
(Greenland), were compiled and circu- 
lated weekly. Fifty-two issues of "Report 
of geomagnetic activity" (DTMCIW nos. 
389-440) were prepared and furnished to 
organizations and individuals requiring 
this information. 

Summary of magnetic activity for 1944 
was completed, including graphing of 
American magnetic character-figures and 
mean i£-indices. 

Johnston, with Miss Balsam's assistance, 



Electricity, The regular quarterly reports 
of American character-figures and K-in- 
dices were prepared for publication. The 
five international quiet and disturbed days 
were selected for the months of 1944. 

The compilation of annual values at 
geomagnetic observatories of the world 
for publication in the form of a thesaurus 
was continued by Fleming and Scott. 

Cooperative work in magnetism and at- 
mospheric electricity was continued with 
various magnetic observatories. Interna- 
tional magnetic standards were maintained 
at the Cheltenham Magnetic Observatory. 
The Department cooperated with the 



4 o 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Danish government in operating the God- 
havn and Ivigtut magnetic observatories 
in Greenland. 

Scott made a complete field-station at 
the Radio Station of the National Bureau 
of Standards, near Sterling, Virginia, dur- 
ing November 1944. He also assisted Ves- 
tine and Sherman in the adjustment and 
operation of the CIW visual-recording 
//-variometer installed there in the field- 
intensity building. CIW universal mag- 
netometer 19 was standardized at the 
Cheltenham Magnetic Observatory. 

In May 1945, Johnston and Scott, with 
Dalke of the temporary staff, made a pre- 
liminary magnetic survey of conditions in 
and near the "Quiet house" during con- 
struction of the Magnetic Laboratories of 
the Naval Ordnance Laboratory at White 
Oak, Maryland. 

Operations at Observatories 

Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, Wath- 
eroo, Western Australia. The Watheroo 
Magnetic Observatory is situated in latitude 
30 19^1 south and longitude 115 52^6 east 
of Greenwich, 244 meters (800 feet) above 
sea-level. 

The Eschenhagen magnetograph was in 
continuous operation. Only 6 hours of trace 
was lost during the calendar year 1944 — this 
due to a failure of the recording lamp. The 
scale-value of the horizontal-intensity variom- 
eter was controlled, as in previous years, by 
monthly determinations using the magnetic 
method. Scale-value determinations of the 
vertical-intensity variometer were made daily 
by the electrical method. 

The la Cour rapid-running magnetograph 
was also operated throughout the year, 
monthly determinations of scale-values of 
both horizontal and vertical intensities being 
made by the electrical method. The monthly 
scale-values for the year 1944 for both Eschen- 
hagen and la Cour magnetographs are shown 
in table 2. The determinations of scale-values 
for declination were: Eschenhagen variom- 



eter on October 31, 1944, 1^032 per mm; la 
Cour variometer on November 15, 1944, 
1 '044 per mm. 

Weekly determinations of the base-line 
values of the Eschenhagen variometers were 
made in the absolute observatory using CIW 
magnetometer 7 and CIW earth-inductor 2. 
A redetermination of the moment of inertia 
of magnet 7L and suspension was made 

TABLE 2 

Scale-values of magnetographs, Watheroo 
Magnetic Observatory, 1944 





Scale-values in y/um 


Month 


Eschenhagen 


la Cour 




H 

(reduced 
to base- 
line) 


z 

(means 
of daily 
values) 


H 


z 


January. . . 
February . . 
March 

April 

May 

June. 

July 

August .... 
September . 

October 

November . 
December. . 


2.43 
2.41 
2.43 
2.41 
2.43 
2.42 
2.43 
2.43 
2.43 
2.42 
2.43 
2.43 


3.15 

3.06 

3.09 

2.96 

2.94 

3.06 

3.13 

3.16 

3.04 

3.18* 

3.48 

3.53 


4.69 

4.52 
4.48 
4.64 
4.49 
4.55 
4.75 
4.89 
4.78 
4.59 
4.59 
4.60 


3.27 
3.25 
3.52 
3.39 
3.68 
3.70 
3.85 
3.78 
3.76 
3.52 
3.41 
3.52 



* Mean value of several base-line shifts. 

during July 1944. During September 1944 
complete intercomparisons were made be- 
tween the observatory standard absolute in- 
struments and CIW magnetometer-inductor 
18, which has been extensively used by L. A. 
Richardson, of the Mineral Resources Survey 
of Australia. Mr. Richardson also made a 
magnetic survey of the vicinity of the Ob- 
servatory, and the results disclosed a remark- 
ably uniform distribution. 

The preliminary mean values of the mag- 
netic elements for all days of 1944, as deduced 
from the Eschenhagen magnetograms, refer- 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



41 



ring the elements to the north-seeking end 
of the needle and reckoning east declination 
and north inclination as positive, indicate an- 
nual changes as follows: declination, +3^3; 
horizontal intensity, + 27 gammas; inclina- 
tion, -fo'2 (see table 1 for annual mean 
values). 

As a criterion of geomagnetic activity, 
three-hour-range /^-indices, on a scale of to 



9, were assigned from the Eschenhagen mag- 
netograms and transmitted daily to Mount 
Stromlo, weekly to Washington, and monthly 
to the Radio Research Board, Sydney. Table 
3 shows the mean monthly ^-indices for 1944 
for the three-hour periods. 

Six magnetic storms were recorded during 
1944, and table 4 gives the essential details of 
these disturbances. 



TABLE 3 

Monthly mean for three-hour-range ^-indices, Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, 1944 









Greenwich 


MEAN HOURS 






Mean 


Month 


















FOR 




00-03 


03-06 


06-09 


09-12 


12-15 


15-18 


18-21 


21-24 


MONTH 


January. . . . 


1.8 


1.8 


1.9 


2.1 


2.9 


2.7 


2.4 


1.9 


2.2 


February . . . 


1.5 


1.6 


1.9 


1.9 


2.5 


2.2 


1.9 


1.7 


1.9 


March 


2.1 


2.0 


2.4 


2.8 


2.8 


2.6 


2.5 


2.2 


2.4 


April 


1.6 


1.9 


2.2 


2.4 


2.4 


2.3 


2.2 


1.6 


2.1 


May 


1.4 


1.6 


1.6 


2.0 


1.9 


1.8 • 


1.9 


1.5 


1.7 


June 


1.3 


1.7 


1.9 


1.8 


1.9 


2.1 


1.7 


1.8 


1.8 


July 


1.3 


1.6 


1.7 


1.8 


1.6 


1.7 


1.7 


1.4 


1.6 


August 


1.7 


1.9 


1.9 


2.1 


2.1 


2.0 


1.9 


1.6 


1.9 


September. . 


1.9 


2.0 


2.0 


2.1 


2.1 


1.9 


1.9 


1.8 


2.0 


October. . . . 


1.8 


1.6 


1.6 


2.0 


1.4 


2.3 


2.1 


1.5 


1.8 


November. . 


1.4 


1.3 


1.5 


1.7 


1.8 


1.6 


1.4 


1.4 


1.5 


December . . 


2.4 


2.5 


2.4 


2.4 


2.3 


2.7 


2.3 


2.3 


2.4 


Year 


1.7 


1.8 


1.9 


2.1 


2.1 


2.2 


2.0 


1.7 


1.9 



TABLE 4 

Details of magnetic disturbances recorded 

at Watheroo Magnetic Observatory 

during 1944 



Date 



February 7-8 

March 26-27 

April 2 

May 1 

September 30. . . 
December 15-18* 



Ranges 



H 

(7) 



113 
154 
320 
115 

77 
263 



D 

(') 



20 
20 
27 
15 
11 
32 



z 

(7) 



147 

114 

>184 

92 

88 

>197 



* Aurora observed. 



The continuous registration of earth-poten- 
tials using a system of electrodes, which has 
been described in previous reports, was car- 
ried on throughout the year. Loss of trace 
from instrumental causes was small although 
magnetic storms and damage to aerial lines 
necessitated the rejection of some days in the 
tabulations. Scalings and reductions are cur- 
rent and the diurnal-variation curves of the 
four lines give consistent results. Many poles 
supporting the lines were replaced by sub- 
stantial white-gum poles and the wires were 
tightened. The batteries used for the balanc- 
ing current in the recorder were installed in 
the lobby of the Atmospheric-Electric Ob- 
servatory in March 1944 and are charged 
from the direct-current instrument line. The 



4 2 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



conducting lines were regularly patrolled and 
defects promptly remedied. 

Air-potentials were continuously recorded 
throughout the year and the results tabulated 
and reduced. Standardization observations, 
for the reduction of the values from the 
recorder to volts per meter, were made on 
January 24, August 7, and December 11, 
1944. Some trouble during May 1944 in 
the insulation of the collector was reme- 



tion, the only breaks in registration being oc- 
casioned by maintenance, calibration-checks, 
minor repairs, and adjustments to the appa- 
ratus. Various replacements of wearing parts 
were made as required. An alarm circuit, 
connected to the interphone system, was in- 
stalled in September 1944 and gives warning 
of any instrumental failure which causes a 
shutdown of the equipment. Minor repairs 
to the antenna systems were made whenever 



TABLE 5 

Preliminary monthly mean values of atmospheric-electric elements, 
Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, 1944 



Month 



Potential-gradient 



No. 

selected 

days 



Reduction- 
factor 



Value* 
(V/m) 



Air-conductivity, unit 10 4 ESU 



No. 

selected 

days 



X_ 



(X++X-) 



(X+/X-) 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November. 

December 

Totals and means 



1.24 



4 
7 
21 
16 
24 
15 
25 
25 
25 
16 
18 



1.12 



114 

120 

94 

73 
77 
62 
82 
85 
89 
92 
100 
100 



10 

8 
13 
24 
24 
26 
24 
29 
20 
27 
25 
26 



1.23 
1.32 

1.70 
1.87 
2.12 
2.60 
2.20 
2.08 
1.91 
1.79 
1.62 
1.46 



1.25 
1.22 
1.58 
1.78 
1.96 
2.38 
1.77 
1.64 
1.43 
1.48 
1.35 
1.35 



2.48 
2.54 
3.28 
3.65 
4.08 
4.98 
3.97 
3.72 
3.34 
3.27 
2.97 
2.81 



204 



1.18 



91 



256 



1.82 



1.60 



3.42 



0.98 
1.08 
1.08 
1.05 
1.08 
1.09 
1.24 
1.27 
1.34 
1.21 
1.20 
1.08 



1.14 



* Using reduction-factor 1.10 as previously determined, because value observed in January is poor. 



died. Weekly calibrations of the recording 
electrometer were made. Table 5 gives the 
monthly mean air-potentials for 1944 in volts 
per meter, using a reduction-factor of 1.10. 

Positive and negative air-conductivities were 
continuously recorded throughout the year 
and weekly calibrations made. Adjustment 
of the apparatus was made as required, and 
scalings and reductions are current. Table 5 
gives the monthly mean values of positive and 
negative conductivities, their sums, and ratios. 

The automatic multifrequency ionospheric 
recording apparatus was in continuous opera- 



necessary, and all halyards were replaced by 
new weatherproof ed rope in October 1944. 
Daily reports of hourly ionospheric conditions 
were transmitted to Mount Stromlo through 
the Department of Air, and copies of monthly 
mean hourly values were sent to the Depart- 
ment of Air, the Radio Research Board at 
Sydney, the Department of Scientific and 
Industrial Development of New Zealand, His 
Majesty's Australian Navy, and Washington. 
Photographic copies of ionospheric tabulations 
were also supplied to various organizations. 
Table 6 gives the mean hourly values of 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



43 



ionospheric data for the calendar year 1944, 
and table 7 shows the monthly mean values 
for the same period. It will be noted from 
tables 6 and 7 that changes were made during 
the year in the elements tabulated; this was 
in accordance with the decisions reached at 
the International Radio Propagation Confer- 



logical data were regularly supplied to the 
Commonwealth Weather Bureau in Mel- 
bourne. A daily journal of weather was kept. 
The reduction of the meteorological data is 
reasonably current. The year 1944 was very 
deficient in rainfall, the total being about 4 
inches below the average. Table 8 shows the 



TABLE 6 

Preliminary mean hourly values of ionospheric data, 
Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, 1944 



120° 

east meridian h 
time 

(h) ( 


min 7 max 

Z? ^Z7 

c 1 r 2 

km) (km) 


7 min 
F2 

(km) 


f 

J E 

(Mc/sec) 


a 


Ic/sec) (Mc/sec) (]\ 


L 
A C/ 


MUF* 

3500 
in 

km 

''sec) (Mc/sec) 


MUFf 
3000 
km 

(Mc/sec) 


J Es 

(Mc/sec) 


00 


327 
318 
311 
305 
301 
294 
280 
270 
278 
295 
219 304 

212 315 

213 310 

214 312 
219 306 
221 298 

287 
280 
280 
293 
307 
319 
325 
329 


253 

248 
242 
240 
239 
236 
237 
247 
280 
307 
318 
319 
310 
308 
300 
287 
273 
255 
230 
229 
234 
246 
250 
255 


2.03 
2.52 
2.80 
2.97 
3.03 
3.05 
3.04 
3.01 
2.89 
2.58 
2.16 


1 
1 

1 


3.65 

3.61 

3.51 

3.39 

3.26 

3.14 

3.39 

4.41 

5.04 1 

5.43 < 
1.19 5.63 ( 
1.25 6.07 1 
1.27 6.38 ( 
1.25 6.53 ( 
1.19 6.57- 1 
1.04 6.46 < 

6.18 ( 

5.72 

5.03 

4.41 

4.11 

3.87 

3.75 

3.69 


3.7 
3.7 
3i 
3.9 
3.5 
IS 
).£ 
3.5 
3.7 


9.8 
9.8 
9.8 
9.7 
9.7 
9.0 
9.6 
13.2 

15.1 
9 16.0 
>8 17.0 
»1 17.3 
»1 18.0 
»1 18.3 
8 18.9 

1 19.1 
4 18.7 

17.6 
14.7 
12.3 
11.2 
10.3 
9.7 
9.6 


11.3 

11.2 
11.2 

10.6 
10.1 
10.4 
12.2 
15.0 
16.8 
17.6 
18.6 
19.0 
20.3 
21.1 
21.0 
20.6 
20.1 
19.0 
17.2 
14.7 
13.2 
12.3 
11.9 
11.6 


3.1 


01 


3.2 


02 


3.2 


03 


3.2 


04 


3.0 


05 


2.8 


06 


3.0 


07 


3.7 


08 


3.6 


09 

10 : 


3.8 
3.9 


11 : 


4.1 


12 : 


4.2 


13 : 

14 : 


4.1 
4.1 


15 : 


3.8 


16 

17 


3.6 
3.3 


18 


3.1 


19 


2.9 


20 

21 

22 

23 


2.9 

2.8 
2.8 
3.0 



* January to June only. f July to December only. 



ence held at Washington in May 1944. Scal- 
ings and reductions are maintained strictly 
current. 

The full program of observation and auto- 
matic recording of the meteorological ele- 
ments was maintained. Coded reports on 
weather were prepared and transmitted thrice 
daily to the RAAF forecasting station in 
Perth, and monthly summaries of meteoro- 



monthly rainfall at the Observatory during 
1944. 

The continued manpower shortage limited 
the amount of repair, maintenance, and im- 
provement work on buildings and site; how- 
ever, all urgently necessary repairs and main- 
tenance work were done. 

W. C. Parkinson continued as Observer-in- 
Charge and W. D. Parkinson as part-time 



44 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



TABLE 7 

Preliminary mean monthly values of ionospheric data, 
Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, 1944 



Month 


"t 


7 max 


7 min 
h F, 


h u J 

r 1. 


7 max 
r 2 


7 min 
Ft 


f E 


fc 


fp. 


/ . 

J mm 


MUF 
3500 
km 


MUF 
3000 

km 


*Es 




(km) 


(km) 


(km) 


(km) 


(km) 


(km) 


(Mc/sec) 


(Mc/sec) 


(Mc/sec) 


(Mc/sec) 


(Mc/sec) 


(Mc/sec) 


(Mc/sec) 


January. . . 


326 


215 


218 


423 


312 


294 


2.84 


4.11 


4.66 


0.71 


13.0 






February. . 


331 


217 


218 


403 


309 


282 


2.76 


4.01 


4.62 


0.69 


13.3 








March 


313 


226 


218 


400 


304 


266 


2.60 


4.10 


4.99 


0.75 


14.6 








April 


300 


233 


220 


381 


288 


246 


2.39 


3.93 


4.80 


0.76 


14.5 








May 


293 


236 


224 


366 


280 


239 


2.52 


3.99 


4.21 


0.71 


13.0 








June 


294 


230 


226 


365 


283 


240 


2.41 


3.93 


4.12 


0.77 


12.7 








July 


297 


223 


220 


362 


275 


239 


2.41 


3.89 


3.85 


0.79 




12.8 


3.0 


August. . . . 






213 




289 


253 


2.59 


4.01 


4.31 


0.79 






14.0 


2.9 


September. 






215 




297 


258 


2.49 


4.10 


4.75 


0.87 






15.2 


2.9 


October. . . 






217 




318 


276 


2.67 


4.27 


5.17 


0.87 






15.9 


3.2 


November . 






218 




316 


275 


2.82 


4.33 


5.71 


0.88 






17.4 


3.8 


December . 






226 




340 


302 


2.95 


4.34 


5.59 


0.90 






16.3 


4.3 



TABLE 8 

Rainfall at Watheroo Magnetic Observatory 
during 1944 



Month 



January. . . 
February. . 
March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. . . . 
September 
October. . . 
November 
December . 

Totals. . 



Monthly 
total 
(in.) 



0.01 
0.00 
0.48 
0.34 
2.49 
1.40 
4.37 
1.94 
0.58 
0.14 
0.17 
0.36 



12.28 



No. 
days 



1 



2 

4 

11 

10 

15 

10 

12 

3 

4 

6 



78 



Average 

for 27 years 

(in.) 



0.36 
0.52 
1.04 
0.90 
2.20 
3.30 
2.91 
2.18 
1.25 
0.80 
0.30 
0.41 



16.17 



Junior Observer. A. Parkes was appointed as 
Junior Observer in May 1945. The services 
of one technical assistant and one clerk were 
made available by the Royal Australian Air 
Force. Two mechanics and a yardman were 
employed for the greater part of the report- 
year. 



Grateful acknowledgment is made to the 
Department of Air for assistance with per- 
sonnel and for courtesy in undertaking the 
transmission of records and data between 
Melbourne and Washington; the Common- 
wealth Department of Trade and Customs 
continued assistance in according free entry of 
supplies and equipment. 

All members of the staff were enthusiastic 
and efficient, in spite of great difficulties, in 
coping with the ever increasing volume of 
work, and they have successfully completed 
another year's accumulation of valuable geo- 
physical data. 

Huancayo Magnetic Observatory. The 
Huancayo Magnetic Observatory is situated 
in the central valley of the Peruvian Andes 
about 8^ miles west of the town of Huancayo 
at an altitude of 3350 meters (11,000 feet) 
above sea-level, and in latitude 12 ° 02^7 south 
and longitude 75 ° 20^4 west of Greenwich. 

Automatic recording equipment functioned 
throughout the year to produce continuous 
records of the following geophysical phe- 
nomena: (1) horizontal intensity, vertical 
intensity, and declination of the Earth's 
magnetic field; (2) atmospheric potential- 
gradient; (3) positive and negative conduc- 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



45 



tivity of the air; (4) earth-current voltages 
between four pairs of geographically oriented 
earthed electrodes; (5) cosmic-ray radiation; 
(6) seismic movements in the east-west, 
north-south, and vertical directions; (7) 
heights and densities of the ionospheric re- 
gions in the Earth's upper atmosphere; and 
(8) barometric pressure, temperature and 
humidity of the air, velocity and direction 
of wind, and hours of sunshine. In addition, 
field-intensities were recorded during the last 



the annual changes from 1943.5 to I 944-5 as 
determined from the magnetograms for all 
days, referring the elements to the north- 
seeking end of the needle and reckoning 
east declination and north inclination as 
positive, are: declination, — 5^2; horizontal 
intensity, —33 gammas; vertical intensity, 
— 11 gammas; inclination, — 1'2 (see table 
1 for mean annual values). Table 9 sum- 
marizes the mean monthly scale-values for the 
magnetographs. 



TABLE 9 

Scale-values of magnetographs, Huancayo Magnetic Observatory, 1944 



Month 



ESCHENHAGEN 



D 

(7mm) 



H 

(reduced 
to base- 
line) 
(■y/mm) 



Z 

(means 
of daily 
values) 
Oy/mm) 



LA COUR 



H 

(7/mm) 



Z 

(7/mm) 



January. . 
February . 
March . . . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. . . 
September 
October. . 
November 
December . 



0.988 
0.984 
0.986 
0.984 
0.986 
0.992 
0.985 
0.982 
0.984 
0.983 
0.982 
0.984 



1.98 
1.96 
1.97 
1.97 
1.97 
1.96 
1.96 
1.95 
1.95 
1.96 
1.95 
1.95 



4.15 

4.06* 

4.07 

4.09 

4.13 

4.14 

4.26* 

4.38 

4.31* 

4.31 

4.35 

4.34 



6.15 
6.23 
6.10 
6.17 
6.39 
6.12 
6.28 
6.26 
6.26 
5.68 
6.06 
5.62 



8.20 
8.34 
8.48 
7.92 
7.54 
7.77 
7.87 
7.46 
7.46 
7.92 
7.85 
8.00 



* Mean value over several base-line shifts. 

two and a half months of the report-year 
for four selected high-frequency radio sta- 
tions far distant from the Observatory. 

Daily observations were made of the ac- 
tivity in the Sun's atmosphere (with the 
Hale spectrohelioscope), of nuclei-counts in 
the air, barometric pressure, humidity of the 
air, and maximum and minimum tempera- 
tures of the air. 

Scale-value and base-line observations for 
the Eschenhagen magnetographs were made 
regularly as in other years, and monthly scale- 
values observed for the la Cour rapid-run 
magnetograph. The preliminary values for 



Weekly calibration-observations were made 
for records of potential-gradient and atmos- 
pheric conductivity; the potential-gradient 
reduction-factor was determined quarterly by 
comparisons with potentials measured on a 
near-by standardization plot. The preliminary 
mean values of the atmospheric-electric ele- 
ments are shown in table 10. 

Rainfall for the year was 32.00 inches, 
about 3 inches over the 23-year average of 
29.21 inches. The maximum temperature 
for the year was 24?4 C in November 1944, 
and the maximum monthly mean was 2i?9i 
C, also in November 1944. The minimum 



4 6 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



TABLE 10 

Preliminary monthly mean values of atmospheric-electric elements, 
Huancayo Magnetic Observatory, 1944 



Month 



No. 

SELECTED 
DAYS 



Potential-gradient 



Reduction- 
factor 



Value* 
(V/m) 



Air-conductivity, unit 10 4 ESU 



X+ 



(X++X-) 



(X+/X-) 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Totals and means 



1.14 



1.22 



1.16 



1.16 



52.2 
46.8 
73.4 
54.1 
55.8 
44.9 
45.1 
55.8 
42.3 
59.6 
53.6 
42.5 



3.72 
3.58 
3.36 
3.27 
3.95 
4.28 
3.62 
2.37 
3.87 
4.04 
4.44 
4.15 



3.53 
3.69 
2.84 
3.12 
4.08 
4.37 
4.14 
2.57 
4.44 
4.20 
4.75 
4.96 



7.25 
7.27 
6.20 
6.39 
8.03 
8.65 
7.76 
4.94 
8.31 
8.24 
9.19 
9.11 



57 



1.17 



52.2 



3.72 



3.89 



7.61 



1.05 
0.97 
1.18 
1.05 
0.97 
0.98 
0.87 
0.92 
0.87 
0.96 
0.93 
0.84 



0.97 



* Using reduction-factor 1.15. 



TABLE 11 



Monthly mean meteorological elements, Huancayo Magnetic Observatory, 
i944, and corresponding 23-year monthly means, i922-i944 



Month 



Total rainfall 



1944 

(in.) 



23 years 
(in.) 



Maximum 
temperatures 



1944 

(°C) 



23 years 
(°C) 



Minimum 
temperatures 



1944 
(°C) 



23 years 
(°C) 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Totals and means 



7.30 
5.44 
5.38 
1.96 
0.90 
0.06 
0.01 
0.02 
1.61 
3.43 
1.45 
4.44 



32.00 



4.97 
4.28 
4.46 
2.07 
1.16 
0.40 
0.30 
0.68 
2.08 
2.51 
2.76 
3.54 



29.21 



17.74 
16.83 
17.17 
18.43 
18.81 
19.25 
19.09 
20.13 
19.18 
19.83 
21.91 
18.71 



18.65 
18.23 
18.17 
18.86 
19.34 
19.01 
18.93 
19.57 
19.58 
20.18 
20.61 
19.70 



18.92 



19.24 



5.82 
5.99 
5.75 
4.38 
2.23 
■1.42 
■0.27 
1.30 
3.12 
5.70 
4.10 
5.47 



3.51 



6.96 
6.96 
6.46 
5.01 
3.02 
1.76 
0.67 
2.57 
5.18 
5.80 
5.94 
6.38 



4.73 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



47 



for the year was — 8?6 C in June 1944, and 
the lowest monthly mean minimum was 
— if 42 C in June (an all-time low for 
monthly mean minima in 23 years). In table 
11 are shown the monthly rainfall, monthly 
mean minimum, and monthly mean maxi- 
mum temperatures for the calendar year 



mic disturbances was reported in this manner. 
All monthly magnetic, ionospheric, and 
(recently) field-intensity data were completed 
in the first or second day of the following 
month and sent by air express to the Depart- 
ment in Washington. Monthly resumes of 
meteorological data were supplied to the 



TABLE 12 

Preliminary mean hourly values of ionospheric data, 
Huancayo Magnetic Observatory, 1944 



75° west 

meridian 

time 

(h) 



h 



Fi 

(km) 



h 



Fi 

(km) 



h 



Fi 
(km) 



h 



mm 
F 2 

(km) 



f 

(Mc/sec) 



f 
J Fi 

(Mc/sec) 



f. 



F 2 

(Mc/sec) 



/ . 


fl 


mm 


J Es 


(Mc/sec) 


(Mc/sec) 


0.82 




1.01 


2.8 


1.21 


3.5 


1.43 


4.7 


1.62 


5.5 


1.75 


5.3 


1.86 


5.3 


1.88 


5.2 


1.87 


5.4 


1.81 


5.0 


1.67 


4.9 


1.45 


4.4 


1.22 


3.2 


1.01 


3.6 


0.94 





MUFJ 
3000 
km 

(Mc/sec) 



00 
01 
02 
03 
04 
05 
06 
07 
08 
09 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 



243 
233 
217 
207 
202 
200 
201 
201 
211 
235 
205 



226 
215 
208 
205 
201 
201 
199 
199 
200 
207 



293 
285 
283 
281 
281 
285 
283 
290 
332 
375 
400 
404 
404 
398 
383 
374 
333 
340 
350 
356 
344 
323 
307 
300 



259 
254 
253 
256 
260 
267 
249 
247 
302 
336 
356 
378 
385 
373 
356 
333 
285 
252 
257 
277 
276 
266 
262 
263 



0.84 
1.53 
2.41 
2.87 
3.19 
3.38 
3.43 
3.47 
3.50 
3.32 
3.03 
2.72 
2.23 
1.28 



3.94 
4.23 
4.37 
4.43 
4.46 
4.47 
4.44 
4.37 
4.25 
4.11 



5.02 
4.56 
3.92 
3.28 
2.77 
2.38 
4.05 
6.21 
7.18 
7.53 
7.28 
7.11 
7.13 
7.29 
7.54 
7.85 
7.97 
7.98 
7.84 
7.27 
6.88 
6.57 
6.20 
5.63 



15.45 
14.33 
13.05 
11.06 
9.48 
8.01 
14.56 
20.81 
22.35 
21.00 
19.63 
18.93 
18.68 
19.01 
19.83 
20.75 
21.38 
21.88 
22.36 
20.96 
19.93 
19.71 
19.01 
17.11 



* January to June only. f July to December only (median values). % July to December only. 



1944, as compared with the means for 23 
years. 

Scaling of traces and reduction of data 
were kept current and no effort was spared 
to keep all instrumental equipment in repair 
and proper adjustment for the production of 
dependable records. The weekly broadcasts 
of magnetic and seismological data were 
made throughout the year; a total of 26 seis- 



Direccion General de Comunicaciones y 
Meteorologia Aeronautica in Lima and to the 
Huancayo military authorities, and in addi- 
tion a number of special compilations of 
meteorological and magnetic data were sup- 
plied to local and other institutions and 
persons upon request. 

The ionospheric data obtained during 1944 
are summarized in tables 12 and 13. 



4» 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



The new Ionospheric Laboratory, which 
was begun in May 1944, was completed in 
November and the ionospheric equipment 
removed from its former position to the new 
building. The new Laboratory houses the 
radio field-intensity equipment, whose instal- 
lation was begun in February 1945. New 
alternating-current converters for these equip- 
ments were installed in the power-plant and 
an underground conduit was laid for power- 
lines to the building. The necessary antenna 



hauled, checked, and adjusted the seismo- 
logical equipment, with the assistance of 
members of the Observatory's staff. During 
April 26-28, Observer William Wiles of the 
Magnetic Section of the United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, accompanied by Com- 
mander O. L. Rivera of the Peruvian Hydro- 
graphic Office and Colonel Pedro A. Delgado 
of the Geographical Institute of the Peruvian 
Army, made a study of the correlation be- 
tween diurnal-variation observations made at 



TABLE 13 

Preliminary mean monthly values of ionospheric data, 
Huancayo Magnetic Observatory, 1944 



Month 


itnax 


7 min 


7 max 
F2 


7 min 

•T2 


f° 
J E 


f 
J Fi 


h. 


/ . 

mtn 


*Es 


MUF 
3000 
km 




(km) 


(km) 


(km) 


(km) 


(Mc/sec) 


(Mc/sec) 


(Mc/sec) 


(Mc/sec) 


(Mc/sec) 


(Mc/sec) 


January. . . . 


220 


208 


362 


311 


2.67 


4.32 


6.15 


1.34 


t 


t 


February. . . 


214 


204 


331 


289 


2.66 


4.28 


6.19 


1.46 






March 


222 


213 


343 


282 


2.59 


4.36 


7.28 


1.46 






April 


216 


206 


329 


274 


2.45 


4.32 


6.55 


1.29 






May 


214 


206 


322 


285 


2.39 


4.16 


5.27 


1.15 






June 


210 


201 


327 


293 


2.50 


4.12 


4.87 


1.16 






July 


* 


201 


* 


299 


2.53 


4.09 


4.81 


1.22 


4.50 


14.01 


August 




201 




298 


2.32 


4.27 


5.49 


1.81 


4.80 


15.84 


September . 




204 




285 


2.41 


4.39 


6.36 


1.74 


4.45 


18.34 


October. . . . 




205 




282 


2.52 


4.55 


7.32 


1.75 


5.50 


20.79 


November. . 




206 




295 


2.42 


4.55 


7.56 


1.86 


4.65 


21.24 


December. . 




208 




311 


2.56 


4.63 


7.19 


1.75 


5.40 


20.35 


Means or 






















medians 


216 


205 


336 


292 


2.50 


4.34 


6.25 


1.50 


4.88 


18.43 



* Discontinued June 30, 1944. t Begun July 1, 1944; values of /g g are medians. 



poles were erected and antennas installed for 
the field-intensity equipment. 

S. Hluchan, of the temporary staff, was in 
residence at the Observatory, to assist in the 
installation and adjustment of the field-inten- 
sity recorders, from March 25 to June 11, 
1945; he successfully completed a heavy sched- 
ule of installation, operational tests, and ob- 
servations. F. P. Ulrich, Chief of the seis- 
mological field-survey of the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, was at the Ob- 
servatory between April 7 and 10 with two 
Peruvian observers from Lima. He over- 



stations in the north of Peru and records at 
the Observatory on the days of field-obser- 
vation. 

No changes in the staff took place during 
the year. Paul G. Ledig continued as Ob- 
server-in-Charge, except for absence on official 
business and vacation in the United States 
for over three months early in 1945; Mark W. 
Jones was in charge during the period of his 
absence. Jones left early in June for three 
months on official business and vacation in 
the United States. A. A. Giesecke, Jr., and 
E. J. Chernosky continued as resident ob- 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



49 



servers, and T. Astete, V. Murga, and E. 
Melgar as clerical assistants. The efficient and 
wholehearted assistance given by all these 
men made possible the heavy program of 
scientific work as well as the construction 
of the new Laboratory and the installation 
in it of the ionospheric and field-intensity 
equipment. 

Grateful appreciation is hereby expressed 
for the continuing assistance of the United 
States Embassy in obtaining free entry for 
shipments of equipment and supplies, and in 
providing priorities for monthly air-express 
shipments of data. It is also a pleasure to 
acknowledge with thanks the many courtesies 
extended to the Observatory and its personnel 
by the Peruvian government and its officials, 
as well as by many Peruvian individuals who 
have gone out of their way to show their 
friendliness. 

College Observatory, Alaska. The College 
Observatory is located at the University of 
Alaska in the zone of maximum auroral 
activity, about 5 miles by road west of Fair- 
banks, in latitude 64 ° 51^4 north, longitude 
147 49/3 west, at about 381 meters (1250 
feet) above sea-level. It is operated by the 
Department in cooperation with the Uni- 
versity of Alaska. 

During July 1, 1944 to June 30, 1945, con- 
tinuous records were maintained as follows: 
(1) three geomagnetic elements of declina- 
tion, horizontal intensity, and vertical inten- 
sity; (2) rate of change of geomagnetic 
horizontal intensity; (3) height- and pene- 
tration-frequencies of the ionospheric regions; 
(4) electric field-strength of radio waves from 
selected high-frequency broadcasting stations 
in the United States, England, and Japan; (5) 
direction of arrival and instantaneous field- 
strength of high-frequency radio signals. Dur- 
ing all or part of the year seismographs were 
operated for the United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey and also solar-radiation meas- 
uring instruments for the United States 
Weather Bureau. Preliminary analyses of 
seismograms were completed at College; 
these and records of solar radiation were 
transmitted to the respective bureaus. 



Adequate control-observations and stand- 
ardizations for all instruments were main- 
tained to assure reliability of the resulting 
data. 

The la Cour magnetograph functioned 
without interruption. Reductions of the 
records were kept current. At weekly inter- 
vals A^-index figures were telegraphed to the 
Washington office, and the reductions were 
forwarded monthly. Scale-values have dif- 
fered little since installation, those for the 
year 1944 being 5'2/mm for declination, 
i8.3y/mm for horizontal intensity, and 
27.oy/mm for vertical intensity. The pre- 
liminary mean values for all days of the 
year 1944, as deduced from the magneto- 
grams for all days, referring the elements to 
the north-seeking end of the needle and 
reckoning east declination and north inclina- 
tion as positive, are: declination, +29 46^1; 
horizontal intensity, 12587-/; vertical intensity, 

+ 553957- 

Ionospheric observations were made con- 
tinuously and summaries of the results were 
cabled. Reductions and calibrations were kept 
current and transmitted monthly. Informa- 
tion on local propagation-conditions was 
furnished the Cold Weather Test Group at 
Ladd Field for use in evaluation of perform- 
ance of emergency transmitters. Certain 
changes in interpretation of ionospheric 
records and in method of statistical reduc- 
tion were made as a result of the International 
Radio Propagation Conference. 

The ionospheric investigations during the 
year emphasized the desirability of continu- 
ing this work over at least one sunspot-cycle. 
Further attacks were made upon the relation 
between magnetic, auroral, and signal-inten- 
sity changes and ionospheric phenomena. It 
was demonstrated that fade-outs and sporadic 
E-layer phenomena occurred with greater 
intensity during periods of large magnetic 
disturbance, but that neither fade-outs nor 
sporadic E-layer ionization led the other in 
phase with onset of disturbance. 

Seasonal and semiannual changes in 
height of maximum electron-density were 
found to occur systematically especially in F 2 - 



50 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



and ivlayers, in agreement with correspond- 
ing changes at Huancayo and Watheroo. 

Observations of direction of arrival of high- 
frequency radio signals were made by means 
of a Navy model spaced-loop direction-finder 
initially at hourly intervals and later at half- 
hourly intervals. Observations were made 
and recorded manually and transmitted at 
weekly intervals to Washington for analysis. 
Several aircraft were located and assisted to 
safe landings before the installation at Ladd 
Field in December of the Air Corps direction- 
finder unit. Preliminary analysis of some of 
the observations was undertaken at the Ob- 
servatory as time permitted. The direction- 
finder conference in Washington, in Feb- 
ruary 1945, was attended by Seaton, and 
results of the work were discussed. 

Direction-finder research clearly showed 
that a simple statistical approach to the prob- 
lem of error-prediction is inadequate. By 
means of contours proportional to equal ion- 
densities from world-wide ionospheric data, 
success of 70 per cent was achieved in pre- 
diction of mean direction of wave-deviation. 
These predictions were made on the basis of 
calculated horizontal refraction from gra- 
dient-vectors developed from ionization-con- 
tours. Approaches to solution of the problem 
from the standpoint of ionospheric tilt are 
being undertaken. 

Operation of the horizontal-intensity flux- 
meter was essentially continuous until May 
1945, when the buried coil-system again 
failed, apparently because of leakage of water 
into the coils resulting in low-resistance 
grounding of the conductors together with 
generation of local potentials by chemical ac- 
tion. The instrument, therefore, is out of serv- 
ice until repairs can be completed. Reports 
giving summaries of instrumental constants 
and reduction of the four largest variations 
for each month were transmitted at the end 
of each month. 

The four signal-intensity recorders func- 
tioned without interruption. At the close of 
the year Station GSD, in England, was still 
being recorded, completing a four-year series 
of measurements. During the year Station 
WWV, Washington, D. C, was substituted 



for German and American stations and gave 
satisfactory results except for occasional inter- 
ference. San Francisco, KGEX/KGEI, has 
been recorded for a year, thus furnishing a 
moderately long series of continuous meas- 
urements on this location. The remaining 
recorder has been used principally for east 
coast United States stations, but the results are 
not satisfactory because of adverse beam- 
directions at the transmitters. Measurements 
of field-strength of emergency transmitters 
were carried out for the Cold Weather Test 
Group at Ladd Field. Reductions to tabular 
quantities were kept current at the Observa- 
tory and forwarded at monthly intervals to 
the Department. 

The recording with the automatic auroral 
camera was discontinued pending repairs at 
Washington during the season of 1944— 1945. 
Analysis of the second half of the observa- 
tional series obtained in the 1943— 1944 season 
was completed. 

The second part of the auroral studies 
for the season of 1 943-1 944 was completed, 
and in general substantiated the results of the 
first part. There is clearly a lack of detailed 
correspondence between ionospheric phe- 
nomena and visible zenith-aurora, although 
the gross correlation continued to be present. 
Beyond doubt, more refined methods of in- 
vestigation are indicated for future study of 
the problem. 

During the year the University of Alaska 
has continued its splendid cooperation with 
the Department, making available three 
laboratories and two offices in its main build- 
ing as well as areas of the campus for addi- 
tional installations. The University furnishes 
in addition heat, light, water, and general 
facilities, all without charge. Living quarters 
and garage space are made available at 
nominal charges to personnel. The active 
interest and support of President Bunnell 
and the Board of Regents has been of great 
benefit to successful prosecution of our work. 

Some time was spent in forwarding the 
University's plan for establishment of a Geo- 
physical Institute at the University to provide 
facilities for postwar research in the Arctic. 
If the plans for the Geophysical Institute 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



51 



develop, provision will be made for inclusion 
of much of the present research-program 
being undertaken by the Department. 

Cooperation with Other Observatories 

Cheltenham Magnetic Observatory, United 
States. The cooperative program with the 
Cheltenham Observatory of the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey was continued, 
using CIW instruments for absolute stand- 



Apia Observatory, Western Samoa. In the 
geomagnetic program CIW magnetometer 9 
and CIW Schulze earth-inductor 2 were used 
for absolute observations, /v-indices were 
supplied. 

Hermanns Magnetic Observatory, South 
Africa. Dr. A. Ogg continued the use of 
CIW magnetometer-inductor 17 for absolute 
observations until early June, when the in- 
strument was transferred, after comparisons, 



TABLE 14 

Preliminary monthly mean values of atmospheric-electric elements, 
Tucson Magnetic Observatory, 1944 



Month 



Potential-gradient 



No. 

selected 

days 



Value* 
(V/m) 



Air-conductivity, unit 10 4 ESU 



All 

complete 

days 



X_ 



(X++X_) 



(X+A-) 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Totals and means 



26 
21 

23 
20 
22 
20 
20 
15 
16 
20 
15 
22 



62.2 
58.9 
72.7 
50.0 
59.9 
56.0 
51.0 
48.7 
51.2 
46.6 
60.8 
61.8 



23 
27 
30 
28 
31 
30 
27 
22 
23 
27 
29 
31 



2.17 
2.23 
1.98 
2.45 
2.52 
2.59 
2.47 
2.34 
2.45 
2.56 
2.07 
2.02 



1.93 
2.14 
1.84 
2.43 
2.45 
2.65 
2.35 
2.16 
2.27 
2.32 
1.77 
1.74 



4.10 
4.37 
3.82 
4.88 
4.97 
5.24 
4.82 
4.50 
4.72 
4.88 
3.84 
3.76 



1.12 
1.04 
1.08 
1.01 
1.03 
0.98 
1.05 
1.08 
1.08 
1.10 
1.17 
1.16 



240 



56.6 



328 



2.32 



2.17 



4.49 



1.08 



* Using reduction-factor 1.24. 

ards in horizontal intensity and inclination. 
Automatic daily records of cosmic-ray inten- 
sity were continued with the CIW precision 
meter, through the courtesy of Observer-in- 
Charge J. Hershberger. 

Tucson Magnetic Observatory, United 
States. Through cooperation with the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey, registra- 
tions of atmospheric potential-gradient and of 
positive and negative air-conductivities were 
obtained, with the assistance of Observer-in- 
Charge J. H. Nelson. Table 14 summarizes 
the monthly and annual values of the at- 
mospheric-electric elements. 



to the Elisabethville Magnetic Observatory 
in the Belgian Congo for use as standard 
there. 

Godhavn Observatory, Greenland. K. 
Thiesen continued the magnetic and cosmic- 
ray programs, ^-indices and magnetic reduc- 
tions were received currently through the 
courtesy of the Secretary of State, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Ivigtut Magnetic Observatory, Greenland. 
Despite the hardships entailed in the opera- 
tion of a magnetic observatory under severe 
climatic conditions, since the Observatory 
must necessarily be located at some distance 



52 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



from the mine- workings, S. O. Corp, Man- 
ager of the Ivigtut Cryolite Mines, obtained 
complete magnetic records. The company 
generously donated facilities, electric power, 
and services of personnel. X-indices of geo- 
magnetic activity were reported weekly 
through the cooperation of the United States 
Army Communication Services. 

Christchurch Observatory, New Zealand. 
Director H. F. Baird continued the operation 



of the CIW cosmic-ray meter. X-indices were 
regularly supplied. 

Royal Alfred Observatory, Mauritius. CIW 
marine-inductor 4 continued on loan for de- 
termination of inclination at the Royal Alfred 
Observatory. 

Teoloyucan Observatory, Mexico. Dr. J. 
Gallo, Director of the National Astronomical 
Observatory of Mexico, continued operation 
of the CIW cosmic-ray meter. 



PUBLICATIONS ON THE "CARNEGIE" DATA 



It was decided to publish, as a final 
volume in the series "Scientific Results of 
Cruise VII of the Carnegie during 1928- 
1929, under Command of Captain J. P. 
Ault," various discussions of the equip- 
ment and operating program of the 
Carnegie, and summaries of results and 
of difficulties encountered and needs of 
future work. Thus the complete series 
will consist of 13 volumes, including 
Biology I to V, Meteorology I and II, 
Oceanography IA, IB, and II to IV, and 
Chemistry I. The printing of Oceanog- 
raphy IB was completed, but delivery was 
not possible within the report-year be- 
cause of delays in binding caused by the 
emergency. 

The master-copies for offset printing of 
Oceanography III and IV were 75 per 
cent completed on June 30, 1945. Oceanog- 
raphy III is devoted to atmospheric-electric 
data obtained aboard the Carnegie, and dis- 
cussions thereof. The several sections, 
following a preface by Fleming, are: 
Significance of atmospheric-electric ob- 
servations at sea, by Gish; Instruments, 
observational procedure, and constants, 
by Torreson; Progress-reports, by Parkin- 
son; Abstract of log; Tabulated data, 
in four parts, on daily observations of 
atmospheric-electric elements, diurnal var- 
iations, hourly-recorded potential-gradient, 
and hourly-recorded air-conductivities, all 
compiled by Torreson; and one section of 



eight papers and studies by Gish, Tor- 
reson, and Wait. 

The thirteenth and final volume, Ocea- 
nography IV, is entitled "Future magnetic, 
electric, and oceanographic surveys." It 
contains eight sections: The Captain's 
progress-reports, by Ault; Narrative of the 
cruise, by Paul; The magnetic work of the 
Carnegie and need for future ocean mag- 
netic surveys, by Fleming; The Carnegie: 
its personnel, equipment, and work, by 
Moberg; Gravity-measurements on board 
the Carnegie, by Forbush; Note on fluorine 
content of ocean-bottom samples, by Shep- 
herd; Suggestions for future magnetic, 
electric, and oceanographic surveys — a 
group of nine reports, by Peters, Torreson, 
Soule, Graham, and Seaton; Bibliography 
of publications relating to Cruise VII of 
the Carnegie, compiled by Mrs. R. M. 
Crow. 

The thirteen volumes will have pre- 
sented in detail the observational data ob- 
tained, together with full compilations of 
the results, and with considerable dis- 
cussion and interpretation by the many 
investigators who have given so much time 
and enthusiastic support in the preparation 
of the volumes of the series. Naturally, 
there are many possibilities for additional 
discussions and classifications of data, par- 
ticularly in the great mass of biological 
information acquired. It is felt, however, 
that further researches and compilations 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



53 



and classification of data must be left to 
specialists in the various lines of endeavor, 
who now have available all the observa- 
tional material and results with suitable 
notes regarding details for additional study. 
Torreson, after return (January i, 1945) 
from leave of absence on war research, 
was made responsible for additional studies 
and final editing of completed manuscripts 
for the last two volumes. As he was a 
member of the Carnegie's scientific staff 
during 1928-1929, his organization of the 



material greatly advanced final preparation 
of the data and discussions for publication. 
Mrs. R. M. Crow has been responsible for 
transcribing all copy into a form suitable 
for offset printing, has prepared the layout 
of each volume, assembled and prepared 
bibliographical material, and in many other 
important ways has contributed to the 
completion of the memoirs of the Car- 
negie's last cruise. Preparation of draw- 
ings and other illustrations was by Hen- 
drix and Green. 



INSTRUMENT-SHOP 

The work of the Instrument-Shop and other than for contracts involved replace- 
the Cyclotron Shop during the report-year ment parts for ionospheric and anemo- 
totaled approximately 33,600 hours, of graphic apparatuses at Watheroo, Huan- 
which 6900 hours were devoted to the cayo, and College observatories. Minor 
construction, maintenance, and operation repairs and modifications were made to 
of the cyclotron, and 26,700 hours to instru- several magnetometers and inductors, ion- 
mental work. Approximately 22,000 hours counter, and ionization-chambers. All 
of the latter involved war contracts, the laboratory benches and cabinets for the 
remaining 4700 hours being used for Cyclotron Building were completed except 
construction of new equipment and ex- those required in four rooms, 
perimental apparatus, repairs and im- The time of the woodworking shop was 
provements to instruments and apparatus, devoted to packing and shipping of equip- 
buildings, and grounds, and miscellaneous ment and supplies for contracts and requisi- 
items. The time for contractual obliga- tions, and to construction in, and minor 
tions included 3174 hours' overtime. repairs to, all buildings at Washington 

A large portion of the work of the shop and Kensington. 

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES 



There was active participation in scien- 
tific meetings, conferences, and organiza- 
tions by members of the staff, of whom 
many served as officers and on special com- 
mittees. So far as possible, contacts were 
maintained with geophysical organizations 
and geophysicists abroad and in the United 
States. Many activities related to aspects 
of the war effort, and to conferences with 
cooperating observatories, organizations, 
and individuals in the United States, 
Canada, and Australia. 

Besides the papers and reports noted 



above and in the bibliography following, 
lectures were delivered as follows : "Struc- 
ture elements of quasigroups, III," by 
Duffin and Pate, American Mathematical 
Society, Wellesley, Massachusetts, August 
1944; "General historical development of 
ionospheric research in United States with 
particular reference to recent develop- 
ments," by Wells, Australian Radio Prop- 
agation Committee of Radio Research 
Board, East Melbourne, Australia, Decem- 
ber 1944; "The geographic distribution of 
aurora," by Vestine, Philosophical Society, 



54 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Washington, D. C, February 1945; "The 
odograph," by McNish, Philosophical So- 
ciety, Washington, D. C, February 1945. 

Library. Although the war in Europe 
came to a close in the latter part of the 
report-year, there resulted no appreciable 
change in the international situation with 
regard to foreign scientific books and 
journals. Although reports have been re- 
ceived indicating a reawakening of scien- 
tific activity and publication in France 
and Belgium, postal restrictions have not 
been sufficiently lifted to permit procure- 
ment of publications from those countries. 
The principal scientific journals of Great 
Britain and the Union of Socialist Soviet 
Republics continue to be received. In the 
case of domestic periodicals, there is still a 
dearth of original contributions on ter- 
restrial magnetism and electricity, at- 
tributable in large measure to the number 
of investigators engaged in activities bear- 
ing on the war and, to some extent, to 
the fact that certain researches, already 
completed, may not yet be made public. 

The number of accessions during the 
year was 415 and the total number of 
books and pamphlets accessioned on June 
30, 1945 was 27,955. The practice adopted 
in the past of cataloguing all articles in 
current publications of interest in connec- 
tion with the investigational work of the 
Department was continued, thus assuring 
ready reference to material in the Library 
not otherwise easily located. 

Librarian Harradon continued as co- 
editor of the Journal of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism and Atmospheric Electricity , giving 
attention particularly to foreign contribu- 
tions, preparation of notes, reviews of 
books and reports, and the compilation 
of the annotated bibliographies of recent 
publications on cosmic and terrestrial mag- 
netism and electricity published regularly 
in that journal. He also continued as 



Secretary of the Section of Meteorology of 
the American Geophysical Union. 

In continuance of the project of making 
available in modern English outstanding 
contributions to the early history of geo- 
magnetism, referred to in previous reports, 
two additional contributions, provided 
with suitable introductions, were prepared 
and published in the Journal of Ter- 
restrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Elec- 
tricity. These are "Extracts on magnetic 
observations from log-books of Joao de 
Castro 1538-1539 and 1541," and "The 
haven-finding art," by Simon Stevinus. 

The list of publications by members of 
the Department on December 31, 1944 
showed a total of 2302. Because of the 
continued priorities given work connected 
with the war and the restrictions on mail 
to foreign countries, only a partial distribu- 
tion of accumulated reprints could be 
effected. Complete distribution must be 
deferred until some future time. 

The facilities of the Library were made 
available to investigators from universities 
and various bureaus of the government, 
and particularly to specialists concerned 
with research-problems related to the war. 
Interlibrary loans were continued. Infor- 
mation on a wide range of subjects, some of 
which only remotely related to the work of 
the Department, was supplied in response 
to inquiries from numerous sources. Cor- 
dial relations were maintained with other 
libraries and in particular the Library of 
Congress. 

Dove continued as Secretary to the Di- 
rector and remained in charge of the gen- 
eral correspondence files and the storage 
and distribution of reprints. He typed 
many reports and manuscripts and gave 
much assistance in proofreading. 

Office administration. The work of the 
staff assigned to the Administrative As- 
sistant again was concerned almost entirely 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



55 



with the war contracts of the Department, 
and related to correspondence, liaison with 
various departments of the government 
concerned, orders, accounts, and personnel. 

A conference was held with Dr. Annand, 
Chief of the Bureau of Entomology and 
Plant Quarantine, and his assistants Drs. 
Dove and Rohwer, regarding tests to be 
made with DDT and mosquito repellants 
at our station in northern Canada, and by 
the Hudson's Bay Company at its posts in 
Canada. 

Moats, Miss Gottshall, and Miss Der- 
mody of the regular staff, and the many 
temporary employees assigned to the Ad- 
ministrative Assistant, gave faithful and 
efficient assistance, without which it would 



not have been possible to accomplish the 
large amount of work done during the 
past year. 

The many details of wartime shipments, 
inventories, statements of time and costs of 
work, preparation of reports and manu- 
scripts, and secretarial work for the Di- 
rector were completed by Capello and 
Dove. Charts, diagrams, and illustrations 
for many special reports and publications 
were prepared by Hendrix, who with J. W. 
Green also did much necessary photo- 
graphic work. Filing and arranging of 
field-records were done by Miss Balsam, 
who with Capello maintained the cata- 
logues of photographs and films, and 
index-albums of prints. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Adams, W. S., J. A. Fleming, and F. E. Wright. 
Progress-report of Committee on Coordina- 
tion of Cosmic-Ray Investigations for the 
period July 1943 to June 1944. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash. Year Book No. 43, p. 53 (1944). 

Andrews, H. L. See Brady, F. J. 

Bernstein, A. A survey of methods of construct- 
ing magnetic charts. Terr. Mag., vol. 49, 
pp. 169-180 (1944). 

Brady, F. J., A. H. Lawton, D. B. Cowie, H. L. 
Andrews, A. T. Ness, and G. E. Ogden. 
Localization of trivalent radioactive anti- 
mony following intravenous administration 
to dogs infected with Dirofilaria immitis. 
Amer. Jour. Tropical Med., vol. 25, pp. 103- 

107 (1945)- 

See Cowie, D. B. 

Bramhall, E. H. Auroral photogrammetry. 
Amer. Geophys. Union, Trans. 1944, pt. IV, 
pp. 592-598 (1945). 

Cowie, D. B. The 60-inch cyclotron at the De- 
partment of Terrestrial Magnetism. (Ab- 
stract) Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 35, p. 102 

(i945). 

A. H. Lawton, A. T. Ness, F. J. Brady, 

and G. E. Ogden. Localization of radio- 
active antimony following multiple daily 
injections to a dog with Dirofilaria immitis. 
Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 35, pp. 192-195 

(i945). 

See Brady, F. J. 



Davids, N. Calculation of vertical component 
(Z) for potential fields from observed values 
of declination (D) and horizontal intensity 
(H). Terr. Mag., vol. 49, pp. 239-242 (1944). 

See Vestine, E. H. 

Duffin, R. J. Representation of Fourier inte- 
grals as sums. Bull. Amer. Math. Soc, vol. 
51, pp. 447-455 (i945)- 

and A. C. Shaeffer. Power series with 

bounded coefficients. Amer. Jour. Math., 
vol. 67, pp. 141-154 (i945)- 

Fleming, J. A. Summary of the year's work, 
to June 30, 1944, Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Wash- 
ington. Terr. Mag., vol. 49, pp. 245-250 
(1944). 

Committee on Coordination of Cosmic- 
Ray Investigations. Terr. Mag., vol. 49, pp. 

251-253 (i944). 

Researches in terrestrial magnetism and 

electricity at Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
during April 1943 to May 1944. Amer. 
Geophys. Union, Trans. 1944, pt. IV, pp. 
584-588 (1945). 

The fiftieth year of the Journal, 1945. 

Terr. Mag., vol. 50, pp. 72-73 (1945). 

Nicholas Hunter Heck, geophysicist. 

Terr. Mag., vol. 50, pp. 141-143 (1945) • 

Terrestrial magnetism and electricity. 



56 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



American Year Book for 1944, pp. 760-764 

(i945). 
Fleming, J. A. (ed.). American Geophysical 

Union, Transactions of 1944. Reports and 
papers, joint regional meeting, Section of Hy- 
drology, Western Snow-Conference, Ameri- 
can Society of Agricultural Engineers, 
Berkeley, California, February 17-18, 1944; 
Twenty-fifth annual meeting, June 1, 2, 
and 3, 1944, Washington, D. C. 6 pts., 1065 
pp. Washington, National Research Council 
(1944-1945). 

and W. E. Scott. List of geomagnetic 

observatories and thesaurus of values. VI, 
VII. Terr. Mag., vol. 49, pp. 199-205, 267- 

269 (i944)- 

See Adams, W. S. 



Gish, O. H. Evaluation and interpretation of 
the columnar resistance of the atmosphere. 
Terr. Mag., vol. 49, pp. 159-168 (1944). 

On theories regarding some electrical 

aspects of thunderstorms. Amer. Geophys. 
Union, Trans. 1944, pt. IV, pp. 571-575 

(i945)- 

A curious effect in an ionization-meter. 



Terr. Mag., vol. 50, pp. i35-!37 ( J 945)- 
Harradon, H. D. Some early contributions to 
the history of geomagnetism. VII. Extracts 
on magnetic observations from log-books 
of Joao de Castro 1538-1539 and 1541. Terr. 
Mag., vol. 49, pp. 185-198 (1944)- 

A. G. U. Committee on Extended Fore- 
casting. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc, vol. 25, 
p. 266 (1944)- 

Some early contributions to the history 

of geomagnetism. VIII. The haven-finding 
art, by Simon Stevinus. Terr. Mag., vol. 50, 
pp. 63-68 (1945)- 

Harry Marcus Weston Edmonds, 1862- 

1945. Terr. Mag., vol. 50, pp. 145-146 

(i945). 

List of recent publications. Terr. Mag. 



vol. 49, pp. 217-222, 283-290 (1944) ; vol. 50, 
pp. 83-89, 165-174 (1945). 

Johnston, H. F. Mean X-indices from twenty- 
seven magnetic observatories and prelimi- 
nary international character-figures for 1943. 
Terr. Mag., vol. 49, pp. 255-260 (1944). 

American magnetic character-figure, C A , 

three-hour-range indices, K, and mean K- 
indices, K A , for April to June, 1944; Ameri- 
can magnetic character-figure, C A , three- 
hour-range indices, K, and mean /^-indices, 
K A , for July to September, 1944, and five 



international quiet and disturbed days for 
April to June, 1944; American magnetic 
character-figure, C A , three-hour-range in- 
dices, K, and mean i^-indices, K A , for Oc- 
tober to December, 1944, and summary for 
year 1944; American magnetic character- 
figure, C A , three-hour-range indices, K, and 
mean K-indices, K A , for January to March, 
1945. Terr. Mag., vol. 49, pp. 181-184, 261- 
264 (1944); vol. 50, pp. 47-55, 131-134 

(i945)- 

Five international quiet and disturbed 



days for January to March, 1944; July to 
September, 1944; October to December, 
1944. Terr. Mag., vol. 49, p. 209 (1944); 
vol. 50, pp. 73, 152 (1945)- 
Jones, M. W. Principal magnetic storms, Huan- 
cayo Magnetic Observatory, January to 
March, 1945. Terr. Mag., vol. 50, p. 155 

(i945)- 
Korff, S. A. See report of Committee on Coor- 
dination of Cosmic-Ray Investigations, Car- 
negie Inst. Wash. Year Book No. 44, p. 62 

(i945)- 
Lawton, A. H. See Brady, F. J.; Cowie, D. B. 

Ledig, P. G. Principal magnetic storms, Huan- 
cayo Magnetic Observatory, April to June, 
1944; October to December, 1944. Terr. 
Mag., vol. 49, p. 212 (1944); vol. 50, p. 77 

(i945). 

McNish, A. G. Changes in the solar-diurnal 
variations in vertical magnetic intensity at 
the Huancayo Magnetic Observatory, 1922- 
1943. Amer. Geophys. Union, Trans. 1944, 
pt. IV, pp. 560-563 (1945). 

Ness, A. T. See Brady, F. J.; Cowie, D. B. 

Ogden, G. E. See Brady, F. J.; Cowie, D. B. 

Parkinson, W. C. Principal magnetic storms, 
Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, April to 
June, 1944; July to September, 1944; October 
to December, 1944; January to March, 1945. 
Terr. Mag., vol. 49, pp. 212, 280 (1944); 
vol. 50, pp. 78, 155-156 (1945). 

Rooney, W. J. Summary of earth-current records 
from Tucson, Arizona, for a complete sun- 
spot-cycle. Terr. Mag., vol. 49, pp. 147-157 
(1944). 

Sapsford, H. B. Principal magnetic storms, Apia 
Observatory, April to June, 1944; July to 
December, 1944. Terr. Mag., vol. 49, p. 212 
(1944); vol. 50, pp. 77-78 (1945). 

Scott, W. E. Results of the Magnetic Observa- 
tory, University of Cape Town, 1937-40. 
Terr. Mag., vol. 50, pp. 147-148 (1945). 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



57 



Scott, W. E. Magnetic observatory buildings 
destroyed in U.S.S.R. Terr. Mag., vol. 50, 
pp. 148-149 (1945). 

See Fleming, J. A. 

Shaeffer, A. C. See Duffin, R. J. 
Snyder, E. J. See Vestine, E. H. 

Taylor, J. H. On the determination of magnetic 
vertical intensity, Z, by means of surface 
integrals. Terr. Mag., vol. 49, pp. 223-237 
(1944). 

Vestine, E. H. The geographic incidence of 
aurora and magnetic disturbance, Northern 
Hemisphere. (Abstract) Amer. Geophys. 
Union, Trans. 1944, pt. IV, p. 533 (1945). 

and N. Davids. Analysis and interpre- 
tation of geomagnetic anomalies. Terr. Mag., 
vol. 50, pp. 1-36 (1945). 

and E. J. Snyder. The geographic inci- 



dence of aurora and magnetic disturbance, 

Southern Hemisphere. Terr. Mag., vol. 50, 

pp. 105-124 (1945). 
Wenner, F. The oersted and the gauss. Amer. 

Geophys. Union, Trans. 1944, pt. IV, pp. 

598-600 (1945). 
Wright, F. E. See Adams, W. S. 

Reviews 

Harradon, H. D. Magnetism of the Earth, by 
A. K. Ludy and H. H. Howe. (Rev.) Terr. 
Mag., vol. 50, p. 138 (1945). 

American Geophysical Union, Trans- 
actions of 1944, edited by J. A. Fleming. 



(Rev.) Terr. Mag., vol. 50, pp. 163-164 

(i945)- 

Wait, G. R. The equilibrium of small ions and 
nuclei, by P. J. Nolan and R. I. Gait. (Rev.) 
Terr. Mag., vol. 49, p. 254 (1944). 

Special Publications 

Scientific results of cruise VII of the Carnegie 
during 1928-1929, under command of Cap- 
tain J. P. Ault: 

Biology — V. The genus Ceratium in the Pacif- 
ic and North Atlantic oceans. By H. W. 
Graham and N. Bronikovsky. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash. Pub. 565, vii + 209 pp., 27 figs., 54 
charts (1944). 

Oceanography — I A. Observations and results 
in physical oceanography. By H. U. Sver- 
drup, J. A. Fleming, F. M. Soule, and C. C. 
Ennis. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 545, vii 
+ 156 pp., 59 %s. (1944). 

Oceanography — //. I. Marine bottom samples 
collected in the Pacific Ocean by the Car- 
negie on its seventh cruise, by R. R. Revelle. 
II. Radium content of ocean-bottom sedi- 
ments, by C. S. Piggot. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 
Pub. 556, v + 196 pp., 47 figs., 10 charts, 
14 pis. (1944). 

Chemistry — /. Chemical results of the last 
cruise of the Carnegie. By H. W. Graham 
and E. G. Moberg. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 
Pub. 562, vii + 58 pp., 23 figs. (1944). 






SPECIAL PROJECTS: TERRESTRIAL SCIENCES 

Committee on Coordination of Cosmic-Ray Investigations. Progress report for the 

period July 1944 to June 1945. (For previous reports x see Year Books Nos. 32 
to 43.) 

The end of World War II will make In spite of difficulties occasioned by the 
possible resumption of the active discussion emergency of the war, it has been possible 
and interpretation of accumulated data to continue with only minor interruption 
by the several groups of investigators who the cosmic-ray recordings at Cheltenham, 
have cooperated with the Carnegie Institu- Huancayo, Teoloyucan, Christchurch, and 
tion of Washington in the Committee's Godhavn. The desideratum of continuous 
program. The absorption of so many and homogeneous series of data at world- 
cosmic-ray students in war problems again wide and well distributed stations has been 
seriously curtailed progress in discussions realized since 1936 or 1937 for four of the 
under way, as indicated in earlier reports, stations and since 1938 for Godhavn. Thus 

The programs of the groups at the Bartol by 1949 or 1950 the records will include at 
Foundation, the California Institute of least a complete sunspot-cycle for all five 
Technology, the Massachusetts Institute of stations. This mass of material should be 
Technology, and the University of Cali- ample for statistical analyses concerning 
fornia may be resumed during the coming possible seasonal effects in different locali- 
year. Brief reports for the year ended June ties, solar-day, lunar-day, and sidereal var- 
30, 1945 have been received from the men iations, day-to-day changes, world-wide 
in charge of groups at Fordham Univer- changes, geomagnetic correlations, etc. 
sity, New York University, the University These analyses, together with data on the 
of Chicago, and the Department of Ter- higher atmosphere resulting from numer- 
restrial Magnetism. These reports, as ap- ous determinations above different points 
pended, show good progress. Dr. Korff, on the Earth's surface and parallel coordi- 
of New York University, reports on re- nated researches in the laboratory, will cer- 
search on counters, on measurements of tainly improve understanding and inter- 
neutrons produced by cosmic radiation, pretation of cosmic radiation, 
and on construction of a narrow-angle A request has been received from Pro- 
wide-aperture cosmic-ray telescope. Dr. fessor Amadore Cobas, head of the De- 
Hess, of Fordham University, details meas- partment of Physics of the University of 
urements and interpretations of studies Puerto Rico, for the loan of a meter to 
of atmospheric ionization. Mr. Forbush record near San Juan. It may be recalled 
and Miss Lange, of the Department of that the region of Puerto Rico was one 
Terrestrial Magnetism, report on routine considered at the beginning of the Corn- 
handling of records. Professor Schein, of mittee's program; the station at Teoloyu- 
the group at the University of Chicago, can, Mexico, in about the same geographic 
reports on research on intermediate par- and geomagnetic latitudes, was then se- 
ticles and on mesotron production in the lected instead of Puerto Rico. Because of 
stratosphere. the apparently somewhat anomalous data 

1 -c, c , recorded at Teoloyucan, it is desirable, if 

1 tor statement on formation, purposes, and J 

policies of the Committee see Year Book No. 38 possible, to provide equipment for Puerto 

(1938-1939), pp. 335-349. Rico. The Committee is now considering 

59 



6o 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



this matter. No other applications for 
grants or loans of equipment have been 
received. 

Grateful acknowledgment must again 
be made to the directors and members 
of organizations which continued contri- 
butions of services and laboratories. Those 
so aiding the program are: the Danish 
Meteorological Institute; the National As- 
tronomical Observatory of Mexico; the 
New Zealand Department of Scientific 
and Industrial Research; and the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey. The 
forwarding of supplies for maintenance 
of the station at Godhavn has been aided 
by the Consul-General of Denmark in 
New York and the United States Coast 
Guard. 

W. S. Adams 

J. A. Fleming, Chairman 

F. E. Wright 

Statistical Investigations of Cosmic-Ray 

Variations at Department of 

Terrestrial Magnetism 

S. E. FORBUSH AND IsABELLE LANGE 

Instruments. The precision cosmic-ray 
meters of the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington were continuously operated 
at the following stations: Cheltenham 
(Maryland, United States) Magnetic Ob- 
servatory of the United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, meter C-i, John Hersh- 
berger in charge; Huancayo (Peru) Mag- 
netic Observatory of the Department of 
Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institu- 
tion of Washington, meter C-2, P. G. 
Ledig in charge; National Astronomical 
Observatory of Mexico at Teoloyucan (D. 
F., Mexico), meter C-4, Dr. Joaquin Gallo 
in charge; Amberley Branch of the Christ- 
church (New Zealand) Magnetic Ob- 
servatory of the Department of Scientific 
and Industrial Research, meter C-5, J. W. 
Beagley in charge; Godhavn (Greenland) 



Magnetic Observatory of the Danish 
Meteorological Institute, meter C-6, K. 
Thiesen in charge. 

Reduction of data. Owing to pressure 
of war work it was not possible to keep 
current the tabulations of hourly values of 
cosmic-ray ionization, bursts, and baro- 
metric pressure. 

War work engaged the full time of Miss 
Lange and Mr. Forbush and permitted 
only the routine handling of records and 
assistance in the maintenance of meter 
C-i at Cheltenham. Of the Institution's 
five cosmic-ray meters at the above sta- 
tions, four have been in operation since 
the middle of 1936 or before. This con- 
tinuous series of data, covering nearly a 
complete sunspot-cycle, should, on analysis, 
provide a better basis for interpreting the 
causes for the correlations between changes 
in cosmic-ray intensity and those in the 
Earth's external magnetic field. 

Studies of Atmospheric Ionization at 
Fordham University 

Victor F. Hess 

Measurements with the improved type 
of Gish-Hess ionization-meter, constructed 
by the Department of Terrestrial Magnet- 
ism of the Carnegie Institution of Wash- 
ington, were made in the summer and 
fall of 1944 and in the spring of 1945. 
They were made on a wooden pier 80 
meters offshore in New York, at Spray 
Beach (New Jersey), and at different 
localities in the suburbs of New York. 
These measurements are being continued 
and a complete report will be prepared 
later. 

A special study of the effect of evacuat- 
ing and refilling of the ionization-vessels 
with dry, filtered nitrogen was made, and 
it was found that a small initial drop in 
ionization by 0.5 to 1.0 / after refilling is 
due to a temporary removal of a gas- 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: TERRESTRIAL SCIENCES 



61 



layer from the walls. It takes several 
days — up to 10 — to re-establish the normal 
ionization in the chambers. 

Plotting the ionization (q) against ratio 
of surface to volume of each chamber 
(A/W) gives a straight line, the intercept 
of which with the ordinate of ionization 
allows one to deduce the actual ionization 
without the wall-effect. 

A similar procedure was adopted for the 
determination of Eve's constant (K — 
number of ion-pairs produced by i gram 
of radium per cc and sec at unit-distance) 
with all three chambers. The smallest 
chamber shows the largest value of K. 
The results as graphed show that K has 
a linear relation to (A/W), and extra- 
polation for (A/W) — o gives the value 
of K for the free atmosphere as 4.6 X io 9 
ion-pairs per gram radium, per cc and sec 
in nitrogen at normal temperature and 
pressure — in fairly good agreement with 
other methods. This new method of de- 
termining K was reported at the annual 
meeting of the American Geophysical 
Union on May 31, 1945, by V. F. Hess 
and Eva Balling. 

The new ionization-meter is also verv 
useful in determining the radium content 
of the human body by its gamma-ray 
effect. In the radium industry technicians 
and workers sometimes acquire a certain 
permanent contamination with radium 
amounting to several micrograms of ra- 
dium. The Gish-Hess meter, when cali- 
brated with a i-microgram radium stand- 
ard preparation at different distances 
within a "water-phantom" of the hu- 
man body, allows detection of 0.2 micro- 
gram of radium. This instrument there- 
fore will be helpful in detecting incipient 
radium poisoning in workers and in study- 
ing the changes with time in the radium 
burden of individuals. 



Cosmic-Ray Research at New York 
University 

S. A. Korff 

During the year July 1, 1944 to June 30, 
1945, it was found possible to carry on 
some cosmic-ray research at New York 
University, in spite of the heavy demands 
which the war effort placed on the time 
of all persons concerned. The investiga- 
tions described below were supported in 
part by funds administered by the Car- 
negie Institution of Washington. 

Research on counters. The study of the 
properties of Geiger counters, described 
in previous reports, was continued. Some 
experiments were undertaken to determine 
whether any design could be devised which 
would reduce the operating potential and 
at the same time provide an arrangement 
capable of obtaining coincidence-counts. 
A new type of counter employing a grid 
surrounding the central wire was devel- 
oped. The central wire had a glass bead 
at its center. It was found that the unit 
operated as two separate counters within 
the same outer envelope. The two sec- 
tions of the counter separated by the bead 
discharged independently, and, in addition, 
counts of double height were observed 
when the two sections discharged simul- 
taneously. The effect of adding the grid 
around the central wire was to reduce the 
operating potential. Experiments showed 
that considerable economies in operating 
voltage were attainable by this arrange- 
ment. For example, a counter which re- 
quired 1500 volts in the absence of a grid 
would operate successfully on about 800 
when equipped with the additional elec- 
trode. This development promises to be 
of considerable value in those counters in 
which high operating potentials are a dis- 
tinct drawback. The combination of the 
bead on the central wire and the grid is a 
new contribution to counter-technique. 



62 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Measurements of neutrons produced by 
cosmic radiation. The study of the neu- 
tron component of the cosmic radiation 
was continued. A new device was built, 
consisting of a neutron-counter and ad- 
justable cadmium and boron shields. The 
shields were automatically slipped over 
the counter and then removed at pre- 
determined time-intervals by a small elec- 
tric motor. The apparatus is at present 
undergoing tests. It is planned to adapt 
this instrument to high-altitude work. 

Construction of a narrow-angle wide- 
aperture cosmic-ray telescope. In previous 
reports we have described theoretical cal- 
culations which we have made which per- 
mit new information about the production- 
levels and lifetime of the mesotron to be 
inferred from a study of the vertical cos- 
mic-ray intensity at sea-level and the 
meteorological variables in the column of 
air above the instrument. The device for 
the experimental test of the predictions is 
now under construction. For this purpose, 
a narrow-angle, wide-aperture cosmic-ray 
telescope is being built. This telescope will 
employ a large number of counters which 
use a bead at the center of the wire, and 
thus provide a coincidence-device within a 
single envelope. The vertical intensity of 
the cosmic radiation will be measured with 
this telescope, at the same time that the 
meteorological data are obtained from 
near-by radiosondes. This device will next 
be used to determine the angular distribu- 
tion and thus provide the data necessary 
to interpret the results obtained with the 
large Millikan and Compton meters which 
integrate the intensity received from all 
directions. 

Personnel. K. Kupferberg and F. Reines 
carried out the theoretical analysis of the 
correlations between cosmic radiation and 
meteorological variables. A. Krumbein is 
constructing the vertical telescope. Dr. B. 



Hamermesh is assisting with the work on 
neutron-counters. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Korff, S. A. Experiments on counters with grids. 
Phys. Rev., vol. 63, p. 58 (1945). 

D. K. Bailey, and E. T. Clarke. Re- 
port on cosmic-ray observations made on 
the United States Antarctic Service Expe- 
dition, 1939-1941. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, 
vol. 89, pp. 316-323 (1945). 

Cosmic-Ray Research at the University 
of Chicago 

Marcel Schein 

Intermediate particles. New investiga- 
tions are now in progress to obtain addi- 
tional evidence for the existence of meso- 
trons with a mass smaller than 200 elec- 
tronic masses. For this purpose a special 
magnet-cloud-chamber apparatus has been 
constructed by Marcel Schein and A. J. 
Hartzler. By means of electronic circuits, 
the expansion of this chamber is controlled 
either by the passage of a cosmic-ray par- 
ticle or by the injection of electrons into 
a large induction accelerator (betatron). 
The results of these investigations will be 
published later. 

Mesotron production in the stratosphere. 
The balloon experiments on the produc- 
tion of mesotrons in paraffin and lead were 
continued by Marcel Schein, William G. 
Stroud, Jr., and F. Allen. The apparatus 
consisted of a number of counter-telescopes 
registering the simultaneous passage of 
several cosmic-ray particles through the 
paraffin or lead. Some of these outfits had 
an over-all weight of more than 60 pounds. 
Hence a larger number of balloons (45) 
had to be used to lift them into the 
stratosphere. The results of these experi- 
ments show that multiple mesotrons, or 
so-called mesotron showers, are abundantly 
produced by the impact of primary cosmic- 
ray particles (protons) upon atomic nuclei. 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: TERRESTRIAL SCIENCES 



63 



This process takes place, predominantly, 
close to the top of the atmosphere. The 
cross-section for mesotron production in 
paraffin was measured and found to be 
io -24 cm 2 (per nucleus). The mesotrons 
produced are knocked out in the forward 
direction with an average angular spread 
of 9 to 20 . The frequency of these 
processes as a function of atmospheric 
pressure approximately follows an ex- 
ponential law, indicating that the meso- 
tron showers in paraffin are produced 
rather in a single act than by successive 
impacts as assumed by Hamilton, Heitler, 
and Peng. 

Results of a similar nature were obtained 
in lead. The number of mesotron showers 
found below a lead thickness of 18 cm was 
very abundant at high altitudes. A de- 
tailed analysis of these results is now in 
progress. 

A simplified theory of cosmic-ray phe- 
nomena at high altitudes was worked out 
by I. Bloch. Starting with the idea of 
primary protons, the production and ab- 
sorption of mesotrons was calculated as a 
function of altitude and latitude. The 
theoretical results were compared with the 
experimental data on the intensity of the 
hard component and the production of 
mesotrons in the stratosphere. This com- 
parison strongly indicates that the multi- 
plicity of mesotron production is 9 for pri- 
maries of an energy higher than 7 X io 9 



electron-volts. For lower energies the mul- 
tiplicity decreases with energy. To account 
for the large number of electrons present 
at the very high altitudes, it was assumed 
that in addition to mesotrons of the usual 
type there exist intermediate particles of 
extremely low stability (with a mean life 
of about io" 9 second). These particles 
should then decay into electrons and neu- 
trinos close to the point of their creation, 
giving rise to the high-altitude soft com- 
ponent. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Auger, P., A. Rogozinski, and Marcel Schein. 
Investigation of extensive atmospheric show- 
ers in the stratosphere. (Abstract) Phys. 
Rev., vol. 67, p. 62 (1945). 

Kingshill, Konrad L., and L. G. Lewis. In- 
vestigation of bursts observed in two thin- 
walled ionization chambers. (Abstract) 
Phys. Rev., vol. 67, p. 62 (1945). 

Lewis, Lloyd G. Study of cosmic-ray air show- 
ers with the method of coincident bursts in 
two unshielded ionization chambers. Phys. 
Rev., vol. 67, pp. 228-237 (i945)- 

Stroud, W. G., and Marcel Schein. The mul- 
tiple production of mesotrons in paraffin at 
high altitudes. (Abstract) Phys. Rev., vol. 
67, p. 62 (1945). 

Tab-in, Julius. Production of single mesotrons 
by non-ionizing radiation at altitudes of 
10,600 feet and 14,200 feet. Phys. Rev., vol. 
66, pp. 86-91 (1944). 

Wolfenstein, Lincoln. Theoretical calculations 
on extensive atmospheric cosmic-ray showers. 
Phys. Rev., vol. 67, pp. 238-247 (1945). 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 

Central Laboratory located at Stanford University, California 
H. A. SPOEHR, Chairman 

Two major research projects which were plants have been examined and have 

prompted primarily by the desire to make yielded material which, after exposure to 

a contribution to the war effort have taken air and light, exhibits antibiotic properties 

the entire attention of the staff during similar to those derived from Chlorella 

the past year. One of these projects is cells. It appears, therefore, that this phe- 

concerned with the isolation from plant nomenon, associated with unsaturated fatty 

sources of material showing antibiotic acids, is of rather widespread occurrence 

properties. This material was first iso- and that it may have extensive significance, 

lated from cultures of the unicellular green although there remains much to be worked 

alga Chlorella, and was designated by the out regarding the exact nature of the 

name chlorellin. The relatively small yields substances and chemical reactions which 

of antibiotic material originally obtained are involved in the production of this 

from the culture solutions have been antibiotic. 

greatly increased by the development of The other research project prompted by 
methods which made possible the direct the war has as its aim the development 
extraction of the plant cells. By this means of improved range grasses for the West 
sufficient material was obtained for pre- by employing newly discovered principles, 
liminary examination of the chemical na- For this purpose the attempt has been made 
ture of the material showing antibiotic to produce fertile, nonsegregating hybrids 
properties. It has been found that these that would be unusually adaptable by em- 
properties are due to or are associated with ploying as parents species from radically 
the presence of unsaturated fatty acids in unlike environments. The bluegrasses, of 
the material extracted from the Chlorella the genus Poa, have met the requirements, 
cells. More important is the fact that the because many of the species reproduce 
unsaturated fatty acids as first extracted principally by seed developed asexually, so 
from the fresh cells show very little or no that most of their offspring are entirely 
antibiotic activity. This activity develops maternal in their inheritance. The occa- 
on exposure of the mixture of unsaturated sional sexually produced seedling can be a 
fatty acids to air and light and involves a hybrid, in turn producing a preponderance 
complex oxidation reaction. of offspring just like itself. Thus in a single 

Pure, authentic preparations of a num- generation a new, highly constant form is 

ber of unsaturated fatty acids have been potentially available. 

found to show the same behavior; namely, Hybrids of promise have been obtained, 

they exhibit no antibiotic activity until for example, between Big bluegrass from 

after they have been exposed to air and the prairies of eastern Washington and a 

light. After such treatment their antibiotic hardy race of Kentucky bluegrass from 

activity is of about the same magnitude as Swedish Lapland. In this instance the par- 

that of preparations obtained from Chlo- ents belong to different taxonomic sections 

rella cells. In extension of these findings, of the genus, and were thought to be im- 

a number of common food and fodder possible to cross. These hybrids combine 

8 65 



66 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



the heredities of parents adapted to widely eventually be the function of other agencies 

different climatic conditions, and also concerned with grazing and land use. The 

represent the combination of a bunch program is also yielding scientific results 

grass with a rhizome grass, and of a sum- of importance, as it is complementary to 

mer-active, winter-dormant species with a previous studies on the evolution and or- 

summer-dormant, winter-active one. From ganization of the higher plants. 



such materials it is hoped to discover types 
that will be better suited to environments 
in which the parents cannot thrive, and 
that will produce more feed by a better 
utilization of the soil and the growing 
season. 



The extensive investigations of desert 
vegetation which have been carried on for 
many years by Dr. Forrest Shreve with 
several collaborators have been terminated 
with Dr. Shreve's retirement. A con- 
siderable part of this work has already 



Many of the more promising hybrids been prepared for publication, and it is 
and their parents are being tested at the planned to complete this task within the 
Institution's two mountain stations as well next year. Owing to difficulties of carrying 
as at the gardens of the central laboratory, on field work and the fact that Dr. Chaney 
Some are now being delivered to the Soil has been on special appointment in con- 
Conservation Service for the more exten- nection with the war, the investigations in 
sive final testing of their potentialities. paleobotany have been considerably cur- 

The strictly practical aspects of the tailed during the past year. Dr. Erling 

grass-breeding program have been in the Dorf has spent a part of the year in a 

nature of a demonstration of the applica- study of the occurrence of plant remains 

bility of principles recently discovered. The in the sediments of the Paricutin volcano 

further production of such hybrids will in Mexico. 

BIOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS 

H. A. Spoehr, J. H. C. Smith, H. H. Strain, H. W. Milner, and G. J. Hardin 



Chlorellin and Similar Antibiotic 
Substances 

In the report of last year were described 
the first attempts to isolate material show- 
ing antibiotic activity from cultures of the 
green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. These 
efforts were based upon the fact that the 
first indications of antibiotic effects from 
this source were obtained from extracts 
of the culture solutions. In these first ex- 
periments the culture solutions, after being 
freed of the algal cells, were extracted 
either with organic solvents, or, more prac- 
ticably, by means of columnar adsorption 
on a special preparation of magnesium 
silicate. The material obtained showed 
antibacterial properties against both Gram- 
positive and Gram-negative organisms; it 



was obtained in yields of 0.15 to 0.3 gram 
per 15 liters culture solution, and for con- 
venience of reference was designated by 
the name chlorellin. 

For the most part the cultures were 
grown in a greenhouse, and the best yields 
of chlorellin were obtained during the 
summer months, when the plants were ex- 
posed to long periods of high light in- 
tensity and when the temperature of the 
cultures rarely reached 40 ° C. An exten- 
sive series of experiments was carried out 
with a view to excelling the yields ob- 
tained under these conditions. Various 
environmental factors were altered, singly 
and in groups, including temperature, 
length and intensity of illumination by 
the use of fluorescent and incandescent 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 67 

lamps, concentration of carbon dioxide, etc. which had been dried and ground were 
The objective of obtaining higher yields exposed to the air for several days, or were 
of chlorellin from the culture solutions heated in air to no° C. before extraction, 
was never attained; in fact, under many the yield of active material was consider- 
conditions the yields were exceedingly ably increased. These observations led to 
small, and the conclusion seems war- the experimental demonstration that the 
ranted that the highest chlorellin produc- antibiotic substance extracted from dried 
tion in the nutrient solution occurs under cells arose from oxidative reactions occur- 
conditions of high radiant-energy input, ring in the dried plant material and that 
These conditions have previously been this reaction, or series of reactions, was 
found to favor the production in Chlorella stimulated by light. In order, therefore, to 
cells of the more highly reduced carbon obtain larger yields of the antibiotic ma- 
compounds, such as fats and hydrocarbons, terial from the Chlorella cells it was neces- 
It was soon realized that the small yields sary to subject the dried cells to a prelimi- 
of antibiotic material which are obtainable nary process of fine grinding and exposure 
from culture solutions would necessitate to air. The antibiotic material obtained 
the use of huge amounts of culture solu- in this manner was in the form of a thick 
tions in order to obtain sufficient material yellow or brown oil. When this was sub- 
for chemical study, and that if such cul- jected to saponification, an almost colorless 
tures were to be grown under artificial crystalline product was obtained, melting 
illumination this would entail the expendi- at about 40 ° C. and of slightly higher 
ture of a very considerable amount of elec- antibiotic activity than the original oil. 
trical energy. The process of extraction of the Chlo- 
Because of the small yields of chlorellin rella cells was further simplified by the 
obtainable from the cell-free culture solu- adoption of a saponification-extraction pro- 
tions and because of the rather cumber- cedure in which the fresh, or dried, cells 
some technique involved in handling large are treated directly, at ordinary tempera- 
volumes of solutions, efforts were made to tures, with 80 per cent methanol contain- 
obtain material showing antibiotic activity ing 2 per cent of potassium hydroxide. In 
directly from the Chlorella cells after their this process the cells undergo distintegra- 
separation from the culture solutions. On tion, resulting in the thorough extraction 
the average, a 15-liter unit of Chlorella of the plant material. The material insolu- 
culture produced no grams of fresh cells, ble in the alkaline methanol is separated by 
30 grams when dried, in about 30 days; centrifugation; the solution is acidified and 
considerably larger yields of cells were ob- thoroughly extracted with petroleum ether, 
tained with longer periods of growth of The material soluble in petroleum ether, 
the cultures. From the immediate extrac- when freed from this solvent, is a brown, 
tion of fresh Chlorella cells no material partly crystalline mass. It shows no anti- 
showing antibiotic properties was obtained, biotic activity. When exposed to oxygen 
or only exceedingly small amounts. The or air it becomes an almost colorless, crys- 
extraction of cells which had been dried talline mass, the reaction being definitely 
in vacuo at 60 ° C. yielded a little material accelerated by light. This material now 
with antibiotic activity, and cells which shows decided antibiotic activity. The ac- 
had been dried in this manner and had tivity is not significantly reduced by heat- 
then been finely ground gave higher yields ing in an autoclave to 120 C, and only 
of active material. Moreover, when cells a very small portion thereof is volatile 



58 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

with steam. The saponification-extraction the study of the material extracted from 

method has greatly increased the amount the cells it has become evident that the 

of chlorellin available for experimental antibiotic material is of lipoidal nature; it 

purposes. Several hundred grams have is apparently accompanied by a fat-soluble 

been prepared by this method, the pro- pigment. 

duction being limited chiefly by the amount The material first obtained by means 
of Chlorella cells available for extraction, of the saponification-extraction method is 
There is little doubt that the antibiotic easily soluble in petroleum ether. After ex- 
activity of substances derived from Chlo- posure to oxygen and light it is less soluble 
rella cells is the result of an oxidation reac- in this solvent and its solubility in meth- 
tion. In the one case this oxidation occurs anol and in water is increased. Partition 
in the killed and dried plant material; in between petroleum ether and 80 per cent 
the other case it occurs after lipoidal ma- methanol makes possible the extraction of 
terial has been removed from the cells and much of the active material in methanol, 
has been freed of the solvent used for its but because of complex mutual solubility 
extraction. It is impossible to say to what relations, it has not been possible to attain 
extent an oxidative reaction of this nature a complete separation of the active ma- 
occurs in the living Chlorella cells. The terial from inactive components by this 
indications are, however, that there is very means. Nor have other methods been 
little antibiotic material in the living or found to attain this goal, 
freshly killed cells and also that compara- The material obtained by the saponifica- 
tively little of such material accumulates in tion-extraction method is in all probability 
the nutrient solution in which the cells a mixture of unsaturated fatty acids. Corn- 
are cultured. As a consequence, only rela- bustion analyses substantiate this opinion 
tively small amounts of the antibiotic are and also show that exposure to oxygen and 
obtainable from the cell-free culture solu- light results in material of higher oxygen 
tions by means of the columnar adsorption content than the original extract. For ex- 
method. If, however, cultures are killed ample, an original, inactive extract, on 
by pasteurization (53-56 ° C. for 4 hours) analysis, showed the following composi- 
and are then exposed to light and air, the tion: 77.35 per cent carbon, 11.66 per cent 
amount of antibiotic recoverable by adsorp- hydrogen, and 10.99 P er cent oxygen; after 
tion is greater than that recoverable from exposure to oxygen and light the analysis 
similar pasteurized cultures maintained was as follows: 73.29 per cent carbon, 
free of air, that is, in an atmosphere of 10.86 per cent hydrogen, and 15.85 per cent 
carbon dioxide. As yet, it has not been oxygen. It should be emphasized that 
established with the desired chemical cer- these results represent the analysis of a 
tainty that the antibiotic material derived mixture and that probably only a portion 
from the culture solutions is identical with thereof has antibiotic activity, 
that obtained by extraction of the cells Further indication that we are dealing 
and subsequent oxidation. In all proba- with a mixture of fatty acids is obtained 
bility we are dealing with mixtures of from the distillation of the material before 
very similar compounds, the separation of exposure to air and light. This material 
which is difficult, as has been found to is readily distilled at pressures of 5 to 8 
be the case with several other antibiotic microns and 65 ° to 220 ° C. Only a very 
substances. small fraction fails to distill, and there 
From the information gained through is no evidence of decomposition. All dis- 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



6 9 



tilled fractions approximate the composi- tralization equivalent of the material ex- 
tion of an unsaturated fatty acid on the posed to air and light is 384 and, after 
basis of combustion analysis. The material hydrogenation, 394. A positive correlation 
which has been exposed to air and light, was found between antibiotic activity and 
and which shows antibiotic activity, con- the Kreis rancidity reaction of these prod- 
tains a larger proportion of oxygen in the ucts, though it has not yet been established 
distilled fractions. The amount of material to what particular compound or group of 
which fails to distill is larger, and this compounds this reaction may be due. Nor 
also contains a larger proportion of oxygen is it certain that this parallelism will be 
than the corresponding residue of the un- maintained in the more highly purified 
exposed material. The distillation of the products showing antibiotic activity, 
exposed material is accompanied by some In view of the fact that the cumulative 
decomposition, and there is indication of evidence regarding the chemical nature of 
the formation of easily volatile substances chlorellin showed definitely that unsatu- 
through the splitting of larger molecules. rated fatty acids were involved, a number 

Additional evidence of the unsaturated of such acids of known constitution were 
nature of the material extracted from treated in the same manner as were the 
Chlorella cells is gained from its behavior Chlorella extracts and the resulting prod- 
on catalytic hydrogenation and from its ucts were tested for antibiotic properties, 
iodine number. The product obtained by For this purpose the following unsaturated 
saponification-extraction, before it has been fatty acids were examined : linoleic, elaidic, 
exposed to air and light, readily under- (3-eleostearic, and (3-licanic acids. None of 
goes hydrogenation. Thereby a consider- these showed any antibiotic activity before 
able portion of the product is converted exposure to oxygen and light. After they 
into stearic acid. The hydrogenated ma- had been exposed to this treatment, in the 
terial shows no antibiotic properties; nor solid or oily state, they all gave definite 
is any antibiotic substance formed when antibiotic reactions when tested in the 
the hydrogenated material is exposed to same manner and in the same concentra- 
air and light. The product obtained by tions as used for the chlorellin tests. On 
saponification-extraction has an iodine the other hand, stearic acid, a saturated 
number of 172. After hydrogenation, only fatty acid, showed no antibiotic activity 
an insignificant amount of iodine is ab- either before or after exposure to oxygen 
sorbed. The neutralization equivalent of and light. In this connection it is not 
the hydrogenated material is 362. without interest that carotene, an unsatu- 

By contrast, the material obtained by rated hydrocarbon, also develops antibiotic 

saponification-extraction which has subse- activity on exposure to oxygen and light, 

quently been exposed to air and light, and although the reaction proceeds more slowly 

which has thereby taken on antibiotic prop- than is the case with unsaturated fatty 

erties, absorbs about 30 per cent less hydro- acids. 

gen. This hydrogenated product contains It is evident, therefore, that various un- 

only small amounts of stearic acid and, in saturated fatty acids, which are common 

contrast with its parent substance, shows constituents of naturally occurring vege- 

little antibiotic activity. The product ex- table fats, behave in a manner very similar 

posed to air and light has an iodine num- to that observed in extracts of Chlorella 

ber of 107. After hydrogenation it has cells. The results obtained thus far indi- 

an iodine number of about 10. The neu- cate that antibiotic material of the nature 



70 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



of chlorellin can be produced from a include chlorophyll-bearing as well as pig- 
variety of unsaturated compounds and that ment-free tissue. The plants from which 
the antibiotic activity is probably not due such preparations have been made were: 
to a single oxidation product. It was real- the green leaves of alfalfa, ailanthus, spin- 
ized, of course, that the oxidation of un- ach, sunflower, flax, also cabbage, turnips, 
saturated fatty acids results in the forma- carrots, the fruit of avocado, and baker's 
tion of peroxides, including hydrogen per- yeast. 

oxide, and that the latter has bactericidal The antibiotic activity of the various 
properties. Preparations of chlorellin and preparations of chlorellin was measured by 
fatty acids exposed to oxygen and light the Oxford cup test technique, the organ- 
were treated with thiourea or with thio- ism for routine tests being Staphylococcus 
urea and potassium iodide in order to aureus (Food and Drug Administration 
destroy labile peroxides which might be No. 209). Similar tests using other bacteria 
present. By this treatment the antibacterial showed that chlorellin is active against 
activities were not reduced significantly, E. coli and several strains of Shigella dy- 
a fact which indicates that not much of senteriae. Streptococci were but little af- 
the activity can be due to labile peroxides, fected. Dr. Sidney RafTel, who kindly sup- 
These investigations were largely based plied us with most of the bacterial strains 
upon the observation that cultures of Chlo- used for these assays, is also testing the 
rella are autoantibiotic, that is, such cul- activity of chlorellin against various other 
tures produce substances that are inhibitory pathogenic bacteria both in vitro and in 
to their own development. It was in the vivo, but these investigations are not far 
belief that this autoantibiosis may prove enough advanced to warrant report at this 
to be heterantagonistic, and because purely time. The use of infected animals in assay- 
autotrophic microorganisms had not been ing antibiotics is a specialized and exact- 
studied for the production of antibiotics, ing technique demanding talents somewhat 
that these investigations were pursued, different from those available in our own 
Since the antibiotic properties of the prepa- laboratory; consequently we consider our- 
rations obtained from Chlorella appear to selves fortunate in having the advice and 
be due to unsaturated fatty acids or at wholehearted cooperation of Dr. Raffel 
least to be associated with these com- and Dr. Winsor Cutting on this phase of 
pounds, it seemed important to determine the work. 

whether similar preparations could be ob- It may prove to be of considerable in- 
tained from the lipid extracts of other terest that the antibiotic here described, 
plants. Such has, in fact, now been found which was first obtained from cultures of 
to be the case. By the use of the same Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and which for con- 
methods of extraction as employed with venience was designated as chlorellin, has 
Chlorella, extracts showing very similar proved to be very similar to pyocyanase, 
properties and having approximately the the first antibiotic, recognized and iso- 
same antibiotic activities have been ob- lated over a half-century ago from Pseu- 
tained from a variety of plants. The same domonas aeruginosa. Although pyocyanase 
phenomenon was observed, namely, that has for some time been the subject of ex- 
the first extracts of the plants showed no tensive investigation, its chemical compo- 
antibiotic activity, but that this was pro- sition has not been definitely established, 
duced on exposure of the extracts to oxy- There are, however, a number of points of 
gen and light. The plant tissues examined similarity between chlorellin and pyocyan- 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY y T 

ase which may make a comparative study antibiotics, as to discover means of com- 

of the two antibiotics a profitable under- bating bacterial organisms after they have 

taking. They are both heat-resistant; their invaded the body. The former would be 

solubility in organic solvents is very simi- at least an important part of scientific 

lar; in both, unsaturated fatty acids are hygiene. 

definitely associated with the antagonistic From this point of view the unsaturated 
action toward a variety of microorganisms, fatty acids, which are common constituents 
It is conceivable that the tremendously of many plants, are deserving of more care- 
complex interrelations involved in micro- ful study. The chemistry of this group of 
bial antagonism could in a measure at compounds has been well developed, so 
least be clarified on the basis of the chemis- that a vast body of scientific knowledge is 
try of the substances responsible for these available. It is possible that the antibac- 
antagonistic reactions. Biological antago- terial action of this class of compounds 
nism is a natural phenomenon, doubtless may be of a highly specific character, as 
occurring throughout the entire biocoenose appears to be the case with chaulmoogric 
of which man is a part. The urge on the acid. Although as compared with penicil- 
part of man to obtain therapeutic agents lin, for example, the antibiotic activity aris- 
capable of suppressing bacterial pathogens ing from the unsaturated fatty acids has 
is natural and of the greatest importance, thus far been found to be of relatively low 
Yet it is also important to know to what potency, the mixture of fatty acids obtained 
extent man is unwittingly protected from from Chlorella cells has not been resolved, 
bacterial infection because of antibiotic and only a modest beginning has been 
substances which are ingested with his made in the study of individual compo- 
food or which the body manufactures or nents. It is possible that the antibiotic 
which are the result of old sanitary cus- properties associated with unsaturated fatty 
toms. It would seem to be quite as im- acids may make them useful prophylactic 
portant to know something about the nat- agents in the form of soaps and cleansing 
ural protective agents, that is, man's own agents. 

EXPERIMENTAL TAXONOMY 

Jens Clausen, David D. Keck, and William M. Hiesey 

The range-grass program, initiated in from crossings between remotely related 

1943 in cooperation with the Soil Conser- species from contrasting climates, 

vation Service of the U. S. Department of Poa, or bluegrass, was chosen because 

Agriculture, has advanced to a point where its species are important for forage in al- 

its practical and scientific potentialities can most all parts of the world, and because 

be evaluated with reasonable clarity. The many of them produce their seed largely 

primary objective has been to produce asexually. Only a small percentage of the 

through hybridization new grasses of value seed is formed as a result of fertilization, 

under conditions of the open range, and so the great bulk of it produces offspring 

to explore new approaches to the breeding just like the mother plant. Hybrids be- 

of forage grasses. This is being accom- tween such species likewise produce their 

plished by obtaining nonsegregating hy- seed largely asexually, and so are non- 

brids with increased climatic tolerance segregating and fertile. The small per- 



72 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



centage of offspring arising from fertiliza- tained among 38,000 seedlings grown from 
tion includes the hybrids, which for this 26 crossings made in 1944. These repre- 
reason are rare. This disadvantage is sented 21 strains from 9 species and 3 sec- 
counterbalanced by the fact that the hy- tions of Poa. This number of hybrids is 
brids do not segregate once they are ob- in addition to the 13 obtained among 4500 
tained. The superior hybrids can therefore seedlings from the 1943 crossings. Also, 
be selected in the variable first generation, 3 spontaneous intersectional hybrids were 
as each individual of this generation is a discovered. 

potential starting point for a new, distinct, Most of the hybrids are between species 

and practically constant race. belonging to very different sections of the 

Poa is also well adapted for large-scale genus. They differ greatly in vigor, some 

attempts at combining the genomes of individuals exceeding either parent. The 

species fitting very different environments, yield of good seed also varies, but in a sur- 

for its forms are found in most of the prising number of cases, as many as 15,000 

environmental niches within the temperate to 50,000 seeds per plant were obtained, 

and arctic zones. Scientifically, it is at- In the more promising hybrids the per- 

tractive for a study on speciation in a centage of good seeds varies between 35 

group that is evolutionary so mature that and 90, a range of fertility which is simi- 

reproduction is largely asexual, and also lar to that observed in the parental form, 

for an exploration of certain important Such wide hybrids could not have yielded 

aspects of ecological genetics. so much had their seed been produced by 

Of no less importance is the fact that fertilization; therefore, the results strongly 

the practical application of scientific prin- indicate that they, like their parents, set 

ciples is being tested through this program, most of their seed asexually, and that they 

Plant breeding is applied evolution. Fun- will be constant. 

damental to the intelligent planning of a It is also now obvious that in these 

breeding program is an understanding of crossings between extremely remotely re- 

the evolutionary relationships within the lated species, the vigor of the hybrids and 

groups to be bred, but these relationships t he frequency of their occurrence depend 

are largely elucidated through the cross- upon how well the genomes of the parents 

ings. The scientific and practical objec- fi t together. The most vigorous hybrids 

tives are therefore interwoven. j Q not a l wavs ar i se f r0 m the most vigorous 

Spontaneous crossing has undoubtedly parents . Also, two plants that yield a low 

taken place in Poa through the ages, and percentage f hybrids in other combina- 

some of the artificial hybrids resemble tions may pro duce a high percentage when 

certain of the taxonomically critical species crossed together . The hybrid frequency 

in western North America, suggesting that yaries betw£en qq6 and per ^ wkh 

the latter may have arisen through hy- c c 

•; & ; a mean or 0.46 per cent. 

bndization. This does not mean, however, 

that the possibilities have been exhausted, Breeding Stock 
for spontaneous crossing is limited to such 

species and races as happen to grow and The breeding procedure is relatively 
flower together, but the breeder can cross simple in a group having the evolution- 
races that would never occur together in ary maturity of Poa, in which the entire 
the wild. genome, rather than the individual gene, 
About 180 hybrid individuals were ob- has become the evolutionary building 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



73 



block, and the hybrids do not segregate. 
It consists in fitting together the available 
genomes into successful new combinations 
that combine the desirable characteristics 
of widely distinct species. For this pur- 
pose it is important to have a diversified 
stock from which to select the genomes. 

About 4500 plants representing 160 new 
strains of 23 species of Poa have been 
started in the gardens of the Carnegie In- 
stitution at Stanford University this year. 
Some of these potential breeding stocks 
were obtained through our collections in 
California; others were received through 
the courtesy of the Division of Forage 
Crops and Diseases of the Bureau of Plant 
Industry, representing strains from widely 
different parts of the United States and 
of the world; still other seeds, represent- 
ing the Rocky Mountain region, were re- 
ceived from Dr. B. F. Harrison, of Brig- 
ham Young University, Provo, Utah, and 
Dr. C. L. Porter, of the University of 
Wyoming. The evolutionary relationships 
and characteristic reactions of these races 
will be studied. Two growing seasons are 
required for most of the forms to come to 
full maturity. 

The species of Poa that offer the great- 
est promise for breeding belong to two 
contrasting sections of the genus. One 
section consists of the bunch-grass Poas of 
western North America, including the 
members of at least the sections Neva- 
denses and Scabrellae of Hitchcock's Man- 
ual. Here are found some of the largest 
Poas, but they are specialized in their 
habitat requirements and are very modi- 
fiable, hence are unsuitable for introduc- 
tion in a wide range of climates. They 
are usually winter-active and summer- 
dormant under the climatic conditions at 
Stanford. 

The members of the other group are 
the rhizome-developing species of the Pra- 
tenses. They are generally winter-dormant 



and summer-active. This section is world- 
wide in distribution, with many local 
species and at least one that is cosmopoli- 
tan, Poa pratensis L., the Kentucky blue- 
grass, one of the most tolerant and least 
modifiable species known. A form of it 
from a subarctic bog at 68° north latitude 
has been growing successfully in the heavy 
dry soil at Stanford, 30 farther south. 
A strain from the Athabasca region of 
western Canada grows vigorously at Stan- 
ford without irrigation or summer precipi- 
tation. The wide range of tolerance and 
the slight environmental modifiability of 
Poa pratensis and its relatives make them 
suitable for agriculture, and it is hoped 
that some of this adaptability can be trans- 
mitted to their hybrids with the bunch 
grasses. 

The Poa investigations will be limited 
largely to these two sections, whose species 
and races offer a striking array of differ- 
ences in form and in seasonal periodicity 
related to the environment. 

Poa Hybrids 

The technique employed and the ob- 
jectives guiding the crossing experiments 
were described in Year Book No. 43 (pp. 
73, 75). Mass pollination in cages is used, 
and the hybrids are distinguished from 
the nonhybrid seedlings of maternal type 
in the young seedling stage. The extreme 
rarity of the hybrids makes it necessary to 
grow large numbers of seedlings, which 
are pricked out into flats and spaced ac- 
curately to facilitate methodical examina- 
tion. The hybrids can be detected in the 
8- to 12-leaf stage, when 2 to 3 months 
old, and most of the numerous nonhybrid 
plants can then be eliminated. 

Several crossings were made this year 
between species that ordinarily flower at 
different seasons. Such was the case in the 
crossing of the California bluegrass, Poa 



74 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



scabrella (Thurb.) Benth., which flowers 
in February and March, and the Canada 
bluegrass, Poa compressa L., which is ac- 
tivated by day length and flowers at Stan- 
ford in June. It was found that scabrella 
seedlings will flower about three months 
after sowing, and so by regulating the 
planting time it was possible to use sca- 
brella for crossing with compressa and 
other late-flowering species. Likewise, the 
earliest strains of pratensis were held dor- 
mant in cold storage at the Bellingham, 
Washington, station of the Soil Conserva- 
tion Service. Plants thus delayed could 
then be used for crossing with P. nevaden- 
sis Vasey and the latest-flowering strains of 
P. ampla Merr. Flowering in ampla is de- 
layed when the plants are kept in the 
greenhouse, probably because of reduced 
light intensity. Such plants were used for 
crossing with compressa, which otherwise 
blooms later than ampla at Stanford. 

Reciprocal crossings were made system- 
atically for the first two years. No hybrids, 
however, were obtained on pratensis as the 
maternal parent, and very few on any 
member of the Pratenses. It was at first 
thought that this finding might be due to 
the dominance of pratensis characters in 
juvenile stages, making difficult the dis- 
covery of the hybrids among the pratensis 
seedlings. Older hybrids, however, are 
readily recognized as distinct from praten- 
sis, yet none have been discovered among 
8000 seedlings raised to maturity from seed 
harvested on pratensis after heavy pollina- 
tion by ampla and scabrella. Apparently, 
then, hybrids occur only on the bunch 
grasses when pollinated by pratensis, and 
not in the reciprocal combination. This 
is possibly another indication of the re- 
mote genetic relationship between the two 
groups. Because of this finding, and in 
order to obtain the greatest yield of hy- 
brids, the pollen now is carried only from 
the rhizome grass to the bunch grass. 



The results of the crossings made in 
1943 and 1944 show that in hybridizations 
between such remotely related species it 
is impossible to predict accurately which 
combinations will produce the best hy- 
brids. Further exploration of the hybrid 
possibilities in the genus has therefore been 
necessary. Crossings have now been made 
between key climatic races of Poa ampla 
Merr., P. scabrella (Thurb.) Benth., P. 
nevadensis Vasey, and an alpine race of 
P. secunda Presl of the bunch grasses, on 
the one hand, and P. pratensis L., P. Kel- 
loggii Vasey, P. arida Vasey, and P. com- 
pressa L. of the rhizome grasses, on the 
other. These are in addition to more 
scattered crossings utilizing P. Canbyi 
(Scribn.) Piper, P. nervosa (Hook.) Vasey, 
P. arachnifera Torr., and P. longifolia 
Trin. The 26 combinations attempted this 
spring raise the total number of different 
crossings to 59. Some 19 different hybrid 
combinations have already been obtained, 
and the new crossings can be expected to 
double this number. 

The hybrids already obtained probably 
give a fairly reliable picture of the breed- 
ing possibilities in these two agronomically 
important sections of Poa. The character- 
istics of those that are already mature make 
it almost certain that desirable and con- 
stant new range types can be produced 
from such intersectional crosses. 

A list of the hybrids growing in 1945, 
which are the results of the 1943 and 1944 
crossings, is given in the table on page 75. 
The percentage of hybrids obtained is indi- 
cated for each of the 19 combinations; it is 
almost uniformly a low figure. 

Most intersectional Fi hybrids of Poa are 
so variable that it is difficult to character- 
ize any one combination. Three examples 
among the more outstanding are discussed 
below and include (1) Poa ampla X pra- 
tensis, (2) P. ampla X compressa, and (3) 
P. scabrella X pratensis. 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 75 

POA HYBRIDS, I944-I945 

No. of Per cent 

Crossing hybrids hybrids 

Ampla X pratensis, 84 hybrids: 

ampla, E. Washington, X pratensis alpigcna, Lapland 7 2.30 

ampla, E. Washington, X pratensis, Mather 57 4.95 

ampla, E. Washington, X pratensis, Athabasca region 20 0.10 

Ampla X arida: 

ampla, E. Washington, X arida, Nebraska, and reciprocal 3 0.27 

Ampla X compressa: 

ampla, E. Washington, X compressa, Asia Minor, and reciprocal 5 0.20 

Canbyi X pratensis: 

Canbyi, Blue Mts., X pratensis, Athabasca region 1 2.04 

Canbyi, Blue Mts., X pratensis, Great Basin race o (2500 seedlings) 

Nervosa hybridizations: 

nervosa ? X Canbyi (2 crossings) (1255 seedlings) 

nervosa $ X scabrella (3 crossings) (1155 seedlings) 

Nevadensis X compressa: 

nevadensis, E. Oregon, X compressa, Asia Minor 4 1.18 

Nevadensis X longifolia: 

nevadensis, W. Idaho, X longifolia, Armenia 1 0.21 

Scabrella X ampla, possibly 15 hybrids: 

scabrella, S. California, X ampla, E. Washington 3? 0.27 

scabrella, Cent. California, X ampla, E. Washington 6 + 6? 0.98 

Scabrella X pratensis, 65 hybrids: 

scabrella, S. California, X pratensis, Athabasca 11 0.35 

scabrella, S. California, X pratensis alpigena, Lapland 2 0.23 

scabrella, S. California, X pratensis, Mather 19 1.34 

scabrella, S. California, X pratensis, Great Basin 8 0.61 

scabrella, Cent. California, X pratensis, Athabasca 12 0.17 

scabrella, Cent. California, X pratensis, Great Basin 2 0.06 

scabrella, Mather, X pratensis alpigena, Lapland 1 0.23 

Coastal scabrella X high-altitude secunda, possibly 29 hybrids: 

scabrella $, Cent. California, X secunda, Timberline 5? 2.1 1 

scabrella, N. California, X secunda, Timberline, and reciprocal 24? 1.57 

1. Poa ampla X pratensis. This hybrid cultures grown from seed received from 
combines the best of the bunch-grass Poas the Soil Conservation Service. 

from the dry Palouse prairie region of The ampla-pratensis hybrids generally 
eastern Washington and Oregon with combine the winter activity of ampla with 

the outstanding rhizome-producing species the rhizomes, summer leaves, and in- 
that usually grows in meadows. These creased rust resistance of pratensis. When 
species differ considerably in their time mature, they are different from either 

of flowering at Stanford, but cross fairly parent and readily recognized, but like 
readily, for 84 Fi individuals have been pratensis they do not flower before the 
obtained in 3 combinations. In addition, second year. 
3 spontaneous hybrids were found in 3 The only ampla-pratensis combination 



7 6 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



sown in 1944 was a cross between a very that it has two genomes of ampla and one 

tall race of ampla from the eastern Wash- of pratensis. This plant, which produced 

ington prairie and the alpigena form of some 18,000 good seeds, is 40 per cent 

pratensis from a bog 2 north of the Arctic fertile, ranking with some ampla forms 

Circle in Swedish Lapland. One would from the wild. 

expect these hybrids to be best adapted to Still better ampla-pratensis hybrids are 

climates of northern latitudes, like that of anticipated. A cross between two highly 

temperate Canada or southern Scandinavia, apomictic strains, one the most vigorous 

Sister hybrids are so unlike that they ap- form of ampla from eastern Washington, 

pear to belong to distinct species. Each the other a disease-resistant form of praten- 

one is potentially the starting point of a sis from a meadow at our Mather station, 

new constant and distinct form. Two or has produced 57 hybrids out of approxi- 

three of them are of promise, and are doing mately 1200 seedlings. These are more 

well even at the relatively southern latitude uniformly vigorous than any of the other 

of Stanford. One has inherited the long, hybrids, but they will not flower before 

glaucous leaves, winter activity, and very next year. 

large inflorescences of ampla, together with 2. Poa ampla X compressa. The Canada 
the soft leaf texture, partial summer activ- bluegrass, Poa compressa, is a Eurasian rhi- 
ity, short rhizomes, and short culms of zomatous species from drier habitats than 
alpigena. It has also inherited some of the pratensis that has been able to establish 
rust resistance of the latter. It is only about itself widely. Hybrids between it and 
33 per cent fertile, like its ampla parent, yet ampla combine the genomes of two fairly 
it was able to produce some 50,000 good drought-resistant species. Five hybrid in- 
seeds. dividuals were obtained between the larg- 
Another promising ampla-pratensis plant est form of ampla from eastern Washing- 
is a spontaneous hybrid of unknown pra- ton and a form of compressa from the 
tensis parentage discovered among seed- Mediterranean slopes of Asia Minor at 
lings of a desirable race of ampla from 4000 feet altitude. Two of these resemble 
Condon, northern Oregon. The seed was compressa, a third is a dwarf, and a fourth 
harvested on Condon ampla at the Pull- is sterile. These four have between 50 and 
man nursery of the Soil Conservation Serv- 60 chromosomes, and are probably corn- 
ice. The lone hybrid stood out distinctly posed of one genome from each parent, 
from the ampla plants in the row. Al- The fifth hybrid, however, is an out- 
though it is winter-active like ampla, it standing form. It has about 86 chromo- 
flowers about three weeks earlier, and then somes, and probably arose from a diploid 
remains green longer. It is more florif- ampla ovule with 63 chromosomes and a 
erous, and its leaves, although somewhat haploid compressa pollen with approxi- 
shorter, are more numerous and darker mately 23 chromosomes. This hybrid is 
green. Also, it is more rust-resistant. In winter-active like ampla, and during the 
loose soil it develops short rhizomes, but summer it is still green after both parents 
it would be classified normally as a bunch have become semidormant. It has inherited 
grass, and would pass for an improved the glaucous leaves of ampla, together with 
form of ampla. It was more vigorous and the rust resistance and short rhizomes of 
taller than its ampla parent and than any compressa. This plant, which is much 
pratensis strain grown at Stanford. Its more vigorous than compressa and corn- 
chromosome number, in — 92, suggests pares favorably with forms of ampla, may 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



77 



be of use in extending the summer grazing This relatively ephemeral bunch grass is 

season in some dry sectors of the country, resistant to mildew and fairly resistant to 

It is as fertile as the best, namely 85 per rust; also, it is very rapid in development, 

cent, and has produced about 35,000 good Seedlings will flower in 90 days. In addi- 

seeds in one season. tion to these desirable characteristics, it 

These five ampla-compressa hybrids, all was realized that scabrella is well adapted 

from the same two parents, illustrate the to a southern mild climate and can furnish 

variability to be found when species of two a genome to counterbalance those of species 

different taxonomic sections are crossed, from northern latitudes or high altitudes. 

In many respects, the Fi of these partially A total of 65 scabrella-pratensis hybrids 

apomictic species resembles the F2 of sexual were obtained this year in 7 crossings, 

species, and it is important to have sufn- using as parents two Coast Range and one 

ciently large Fi populations to afford ma- Sierran race of scabrella, paired with races 

terial for selection of superior types. of pratensis from Lapland, Canada, the 

3. Poa scabrella X pratensis. The paren- Sierra Nevada, and the Great Basin pla- 

tal species, California bluegrass, P. sea- teau. The hybrids were recognized by 

brella, and Kentucky bluegrass, P. praten- several characters 2 to 3 months after 

sis, are complementary in their characters, sowing. 

and the hybrid combines the best of the The scabrella-pratensis hybrids have in- 
two. Thus, although the scabrella parent herited the summer activity and the long 
is a rather weak, unimpressive species, the leaves of pratensis, and, judging from other 
hybrid has unexpected vigor and gives hybrids between winter-active and winter- 
promise of becoming one of the most sue- dormant species, they may also be expected 
cessful combinations. to be winter-active. Such a hybrid might 

Poa scabrella is highly specialized to fit become dormant during cold winters or 
the climates where it is native. It is largely dry summers, or remain perpetually active 
limited to the California Coast Ranges and under favorable conditions, thus provid- 
the slopes surrounding the Great Valley ing wide adaptability to different circum- 
and those of the Sierra Nevada to mid- stances. This hybrid resembles the sea- 
altitudes. All its forms are distinctly brella parent in its quick development, for 
winter-active and completely summer-dor- it flowers the first season, only 2 or 3 
mant. After May or June there is no sign weeks later than scabrella, whereas praten- 
of life until new leaves develop in the cool sis ordinarily does not flower until the 
fall even before the first rains come. Forms second year. It is much less rhizomatous 
from the outer Coast Range flower in than the ampla-pratensis hybrids, but pro- 
February and March. At least three eco- duces more tillers than the scabrella parent, 
types are apparent. The one from the Unexpectedly, the most vigorous hybrids 
outer Coast Range is the most vigorous occurred in a cross between a scabrella 
and the only one of promise for breeding, form from coastal Ventura County, south- 
It is the only form that is able to develop ern California, and a very mildew-suscep- 
a second crop of leaves after flowering if tible form of pratensis from the desert pla- 
the weather stays cool. Under conditions teau near Mono Lake at 6500 feet. The 
at Stanford the forms from the Transition latter plant comes from an arid, alkaline 
Zone in the Sierra Nevada flower 4 to 6 region with a very severe winter and a 
weeks later than those from the outer hot summer, whereas the scabrella parent 
Coast Range, yet they go dormant earlier, is from the coastal fog belt with a mild 



7 8 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



winter and summer climate. A hybrid 
combining the genomes of such forms 
should have a considerable range of toler- 
ance for different climates. All 8 of the 
hybrids obtained were mildew-resistant. 
The fertility was variable, but the best 
plant in other characters was 90 per cent 
fertile, and its three inflorescences pro- 
duced some 3500 good seeds. From pre- 
liminary tests, this hybrid appears to be 
more productive and fertile than either par- 
ent. Its chromosome number is in — 70, 
as compared with 84 and 68 in the parents. 

Not all hybrids are so promising as those 
in the three groups mentioned. Some are 
definitely weak, as for example Poa sea- 
brella X ampla. This hybrid between mem- 
bers of the bunch-grass section unites the 
genomes of a species from the southern 
coast and one from the dry northern in- 
terior. The few hybrids obtained are dis- 
tinctly weak, but remain green longer than 
scabrella. None have shown a tendency to 
flower the first year. 

Another weak hybrid is Poa nevaden- 
sis X longijolia. The Nevada bluegrass, 
which is a close relative of ampla, is from 
montane meadows east of the Sierra Ne- 
vada and the Cascades. The other parent, 
Poa longijolia, is a coarse bunch grass 
from the Caucasus region, but it is unre- 
lated to the American bunch grasses. The 
single hybrid obtained was only a small 
rosette of leaves when 8 months old, much 
smaller than either parental type of the 
same age. Obviously, the genomes of 
these two species do not fit together. 

These divergent results indicate that a 
number of exploratory crossings are neces- 
sary to determine which combinations will 
produce the most successful hybrids. Then 
further crossings can be made for the pur- 
pose of combining the proper ecotypes of 
these species to fit the desired environ- 
mental niches. This type of breeding is 
relatively simple as compared with breed- 



ing by gene exchange between genomes, 
for in the latter case many generations are 
required before constancy can be attained 
when many exchangeable genes are in- 
volved. 

Summarizing the results of the cross- 
ings, it is demonstrated that intersectional 
hybrids between many species of Poa can 
be obtained; that the first hybrid genera- 
tion is highly variable; and that the com- 
binations of some species are generally 
vigorous, and those of others are weak. 
Furthermore, it is possible to combine 
favorable characteristics of the two parents 
in many intersectional hybrids, and some 
hybrids are as fertile as their parents or 
even more so. High fertility in intersec- 
tional hybrids in this case should indicate 
that the offspring is produced without fer- 
tilization and will be constant. 

Transplant Experiments 

In Year Book No. 43 (p. 77) it was men- 
tioned that the Poa hybrids and the paren- 
tal strains would be tested at the three 
transplant stations in order to determine 
their ecological characteristics and their 
fitness to different climates. Clones of par- 
ent plants and of the first hybrids were 
transplanted during 1944 and 1945, and 
recent hybrids and their parents will fol- 
low as soon as available. Other forms of 
critical interest will be transplanted as their 
importance becomes apparent. Poa praten- 
sis, for example, has now been collected at 
from 3000 to 10,000 feet altitude in the 
Sierra Nevada, and a closely related form, 
P. Kelloggii, has been obtained from 
coastal bluffs in Oregon. These, with forms 
from the desert ranges, constitute a series 
from very different climates worthy of 
being tested and classified ecologically at 
the transplant stations. 

In addition, a nonhybrid series of vari- 
able offspring from one individual of the 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



79 



giant ampla from Albion, Washington, number are accompanied by a change in 

was transplanted. These differ in their ecological requirements. 

chromosome numbers, belonging to a When the hybrids at hand and those 

slightly obscured 7 series, with in — 56, arising from this year's hybridizations have 

63, 66, 70, 90-93, 98-100, and 126 chromo- been established at the transplant stations, 

somes. There are several plants in each of there will be available for study in three 

the 90-93 and 98-100 chromosome groups, climatically very different gardens a unique 

These numbers approximate 8-, 9-, 10-, 13-, series of Poa, consisting of many species 

14-, and 18-ploid. At Stanford, these plants and ecotypes and some 35 to 40 different 

vary considerably in vigor, fertility, and hybrid combinations of these, as well as 

susceptibility to disease, but all are char- series of chromosomal aberrants like that 

acteristic of ampla and even of the Albion mentioned. Study of this material should 

race irrespective of their chromosome produce a new insight into the ecological 

number. Poa ampla normally has in = 63 characteristics of the basic forms, and the 

chromosomes, 9 sets of 7, which is an un- behavior of their genomes when combined 

balanced number. The parent of this series in hybrids or changed by simple addition 

has 63 chromosomes, and no strain of or subtraction of sets o£ chromosomes. 

ampla from the wild has been discovered 

with less. Therefore the plant with 56 Cytology of Range Grasses 

chromosomes has lost one set of 7 chromo- u . u . TT , . , 

TT ... ' r . Miss Marguerite Hartung has continued 

somes. Under the conditions at Stanford 1111 i_ r 

. 11 the study on the chromosome numbers or 

this loss appears to have been rather ad- „ . 1 1 1 • 1 1 

rr , Poa species and hybrids and on many 

vantageous, for that plant is less sus- . , . £ A , 

..° . . r 1 r -1- r species and strains or Agropyron and 

ceptible to rust and has a seed fertility or „, A , , , £ , , 

r 1-1 hlymus. A knowledge or the chromo- 

7S per cent as contrasted with 40 per cent , r , L . . , 

/J \ 7 r some numbers or the forms is essential to 

in the parent. The fact that whole sets or 1 . •.. c , , . 

r an understanding or the evolutionary past 

chromosomes can be added to or sub- 1 c . r 1 

and tuture or such groups. 

tracted from ampla without much effect p ^ The krge number q£ chromosomes 

on the morphology of the plant indicates [n mQ$t spedcg of Pm makes thdr cytQ _ 

that the same basic sets of chromosomes logkal investigation s l ow< Tri i s and the 

are duplicated a number of times, and that inherent difficulties in fixation and stain- 

the species probably is highly autoploid. ing also make it difficult to determine posi- 

The members of this autoploid series of t i ve l y whether the chromosomes are pres- 

ampla arose spontaneously, and the indi- e nt in exact multiples of 7 or whether 

cations are that such variations may arise slight deviations exist. Some of the re- 

also in the natural populations. Since 63 suits were reported in Year Book No. 43 

chromosomes are uniformly found in (pp. 74-75). The chromosome numbers 

ampla from the Palouse prairie, there is a of more than 115 races from 22 species of 

possibility that a change in the chromo- Poa are now determined. This has filled 

some number may be accompanied by a out gaps in our information, but has not 

change in the fitness to the environment, essentially changed the picture presented 

which places the chromosomal aberrant at in last year's report. 

a disadvantage at its point of origin. It is evident that in the Pacific states 

The present transplant tests will indicate each species of the bunch-grass section is 

whether the differences in chromosome chromosomally relatively uniform, and all 



8o 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



are characterized by high numbers in mul- 
tiples of 7. For example, Poa scabrella is 
usually duodecaploid, with in — 82-86 
chromosomes; that is, its forms have ap- 
proximately 12 sets of 7 chromosomes each. 
Occasional weaker individuals deviate, 
with in — 63 chromosomes, but they ap- 
pear to be unimportant in wild popula- 
tions. However, one vigorous population 
from near Clear Lake, northern Cali- 
fornia, has uniformly in — 63. Its tech- 
nical characters are those of scabrella, but 
it has coarser stems, more congested in- 
florescences, and a flowering period 2 
months later than the other Coast Range 
strains. Therefore, its origin is probably 
different from that of the others. Like- 
wise, a 70-chromosome race has been 
found in Poa ampla and in P. nevadensis, 
which normally have in — 63 chromo- 
somes. Aberrations like these are to be 
expected in partially apomictic groups 
where vigorous deviators and new hybrids 
can immediately establish themselves as 
constant populations. 

The western American bunch-grass Poas 
with high chromosome numbers must have 
had a long evolutionary history, but very 
few facts that can be expected to lead to 
an understanding of it have so far been 
found. The discovery of related primitive 
forms with low chromosome numbers 
would furnish keys to the solution of this 
problem. But if such forms still exist, they 
must be very rare. The only indication 
in this direction is the discovery of a 
hexaploid form of scabrella with about 
42 chromosomes from the western edge of 
the Mohave Desert. This single plant is 
indistinguishable from the normal 84- 
chromosome form. Its existence merely 
tends to strengthen the impression that 
our present-day forms of these grasses have 
arisen from the earlier by a multiplication 
of their chromosomes, that is, through 
autoploidy. 



Poa pratensis ranks as the chromoso- 
mally most variable species of the genus, 
and as one of the plants most tolerant to 
variation in chromosome number. Forms 
with in = 49, 50, 56, 57, 67, 68, 70, 73, 74, 
76, and 80 chromosomes have been found 
among races from the Pacific states, and 
in = 81 has been found in two races of 
the very closely related P. Kelloggii from 
coastal bluffs of Oregon. A fairly healthy 
form with in = 36, half the normal num- 
ber, was discovered among the aberrants 
of the alpigena form from Lapland. Some 
local populations of pratensis consist of 
several forms that differ in chromosome 
number. Asexual propagation makes it 
possible for such forms to be perpetuated 
once they arise. It appears that in the 
higher brackets of the series, the forms 
that deviate from the multiples of 7 are 
just as vigorous as those having chromo- 
some numbers in multiples. 

In spite of this extreme variation in 
chromosome number, Poa pratensis is not 
a critical species taxonomically, for its 
forms are easily recognizable and very 
different from all other Poas. There are 
no clues as to the origin of this remarkable 
species, from which chromosomes may be 
added or subtracted within the range of 
about in — 18 to 120 without its losing its 
identity. Its occurrence at very high alti- 
tudes in the mountains of western North 
America makes it certain that it is indig- 
enous here, although some forms in agri- 
cultural areas have been introduced. 

Many forms of Poa of hybrid origin are 
no doubt present in the vegetation of 
western North America. Some of these 
intermediate forms have been named as 
species; others have not yet been noticed. 
The crossing experiments have shown that 
morphologically very distinct forms with 
different chromosome numbers may arise 
within one cross. Species of parallel hy- 
brid origin can therefore exist under differ- 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



8l 



ent names in distinct sections of the coun- 
try. For example, the characters of Poa 
fibrata Swallen, in — 64, in California, and 
P. glauci folia Scribn. & Williams, in — 50, 
in the intermountain states, are such that 
both could have arisen independently from 
spontaneous crossings between Poa ampla 
and P. pratensis. Likewise, two native 
strains from Washington are in culture 
which are very different from each other, 
but both of which appear to combine char- 
acters of Poa ampla and P. Canbyi. They 
have not received formal names, and al- 
though one has in — 63 and the other 
approximately in — 88 chromosomes, both 
could well be descendants from independ- 
ent spontaneous crossings between these 
two species. 

The synthesized Poa hybrids therefore 
will probably furnish some clues to the 
understanding of the intermediate forms 
that obscure the distinctions between the 
taxonomic sections. They point to the 
species of the future, whose forerunners 
already are elements of the vegetation, but 
they will not contribute much to the 
understanding of the makeup of the basic 
species from which they sprang. 

Agropyron and Elymus. Another im- 
portant group of forage grasses in western 
North America are the wheat grasses 
{Agropyron) and the wild rye (Elymus). 
Thirty individuals each of some 115 races 
of 19 species of these genera have been 
grown in the garden for two years in order 
to study and compare them and to deter- 
mine their chromosome numbers. 

These genera present a very different 
picture from Poa, for most of their species 
have relatively low chromosome numbers 
in strict multiples of 7, and they repro- 
duce sexually. A few species are diploid, 
with 7 pairs of chromosomes, but most are 
tetraploid, with 14 pairs. Higher poly- 
ploids are uncommon; in our assemblage 
9 



only one species each has 21, 28, and 35 
pairs of chromosomes. 

More than one chromosome number has 
been found in some species of Agropyron. 
This situation usually indicates that such 
a species is heterogeneous, and that addi- 
tional methodical investigation is required 
to clarify its composition and the origin 
of its forms. Agropyron spicatum (Pursh) 
Scribn. & Smith has 7 pairs of chromo- 
somes over most of its territory, but there 
is a pocket of large tetraploids with 14 pairs 
in eastern Washington and western Idaho. 
The extremely variable Agropyron Smithii 
Rydb. is predominantly octoploid, with 28 
pairs of chromosomes, as noted in races 
from Washington, Idaho, South Dakota, 
Kansas, and Texas, but a form from 
southeastern Oregon, near the periphery of 
the range of the species, has only 14 pairs. 

Within a natural population the species 
of Poa are relatively uniform, but Agro- 
pyron and Elymus are highly variable, al- 
though some species vary more than others. 
In extreme cases individual differences 
within one population will involve even 
the technical characters that are used to 
separate Agropyron and Elymus, which 
probably are very artificial genera. Great 
morphological variation, and poorly de- 
fined species, are characteristic of genera 
having closely related species which will 
cross rather readily, and whose chromo- 
somes are still largely homologous and able 
to pair in the hybrids. Amphiploids aris- 
ing from hybrids between such species 
would be unstable and very difficult to 
breed to constancy. 

In view of the complexity of the Agro- 
pyron-Elymus group, it has been decided 
to limit the grass studies to the two sec- 
tions of Poa, particularly since progress in 
hybridizing members of this genus has 
been greater than anticipated. 



82 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Achillea Studies 

The study of the transplant reactions of 
local populations of Achillea is now ap- 
proaching its conclusion. The materials 
came from frequent intervals across central 
California in a line with the transplant 
stations from the coast to the Great Basin 
plateau east of the Sierra Nevada. They 
were discussed in Year Book No. 41 (pp. 
127-132), and planted at the three stations 
in 1942. The unique range of climates 
covered by this transect and occupied by 
Achillea, the strategic sampling, and the 
reactional patterns as recorded from the 
three stations lead to an understanding of 
the basic characteristics of climatic races, 
or ecotypes. The analysis of the data and 
the preparation of illustrations for publi- 
cation are well under way. 

Future Investigations 

The war temporarily interrupted a series 
of studies dealing with the laws that de- 
termine the hereditary and environmental 
relations of plants. These laws are basic 
to an understanding of organic evolution. 
Fortunately, the garden experiments have 
been completed. The very complete records 
preserved in the form of notes and plant 
materials can now be prepared for publi- 
cation without the necessity of making new 
field collections. The Poa investigations 
have been conducted in such a way that 
they represent a further extension of this 
program. 

These investigations on the organization 
of plant life, as viewed from coordinated 
cytogenetic, morphologic, geographic, and 
ecologic approaches, have extensively uti- 
lized the Madiinae, the climatic races of 
Achillea, and the selection experiment on 
Potentilla glandulosa. Each of these three 
groups of plants has been eminently suited 
to the purpose for which it was used. The 
usefulness of these materials for discovering 



basic laws governing relationship and dis- 
tribution of organisms in a region of cli- 
matic and topographic diversity, and the 
broad scope of the coordinated investiga- 
tions, are unique features of this program. 

It is an obligation to bring this material 
to prompt publication. The two parts of 
"Experimental studies on the nature of 
species" published by the Carnegie Insti- 
tution, one as publication 520, on environ- 
mental influence, and the other as publica- 
tion 564, on amphiploidy and autoploidy, 
deal with two phases of our program. The 
intervening field is to be treated in publi- 
cations on the evolutionary dynamics of 
the Madiinae, on the climatic races of 
Achillea, and on the genetics of ecotypes. 

The grass program, which extends the 
field to speciation in a group of asexu- 
ally reproducing (apomictic) plants, was 
largely built on the principles learned in 
these still unpublished investigations. It 
has had three interlocking objectives. One 
is the development of improved range and 
forage grasses. At best, the necessarily 
limited output of such materials can be 
expected to contribute only a small part 
to the solution of the very complex prob- 
lem of improving the range lands. Once 
the utility of these methods of producing 
superior grasses is demonstrated, this phase 
of the program obviously belongs to agen- 
cies other than those devoted to basic 
research. 

The second and more important objec- 
tive is the development of new principles 
in the practical breeding of range and 
forage grasses, in this case combining 
species fitted to very contrasting environ- 
ments to obtain hybrids with greater toler- 
ance, and speeding the production of new 
forms by utilizing nonsegregating hybrids. 

The third objective is to arrive at an 
understanding of the laws that govern the 
evolution of forms in a group of apomictic 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



83 



organisms. The other two objectives de- 
pend on this one, the attainment of which 
is clearly within the domain of basic 
research. 

Our plan is to proceed with the prepara- 
tion for publication of the Madiinae inves- 
tigations, the selection experiment, and the 
studies on climatic races, while continuing 
the experimental work on Poa. Under 
this arrangement, facilities at the stations 
now partially vacated by the other pro- 
grams become available for Poa, the data 
on which can be assembled while the 
other records are being analyzed. 

Guest Investigations 

Dr. Th. Dobzhansky, Research Asso- 
ciate of the Carnegie Institution from Co- 
lumbia University, utilized facilities at the 
Mather transplant station during the sum- 
mer of 1945 for experiments related to the 
genetics of native populations of Drosoph- 
ila pseudoobscura. Dr. G. L. Stebbins, 
Jr., of the University of California, also 
spent some time there during the sum- 
mer, analyzing wild populations contain- 
ing intergeneric and interspecific hybrids 
of Agropyron, Elymus, and Sitanion. 
Mather is strategically located for studies 



on the distribution of plants, for forms 
common to higher and lower elevations, 
and of northern and southern distribution, 
frequently grow together here and a num- 
ber will hybridize. 

Professor W. E. Lawrence, of Oregon 
State College, spent two summer months 
during 1945 at the laboratory at Stanford 
studying the geographic distribution of 
Achillea throughout the Pacific coast states. 
As no thoroughly dependable morpho- 
logical characters have been found to dis- 
tinguish all forms of Achillea borealis 
Bong., which is hexaploid, from A. lanu- 
losa Nutt., which is tetraploid, the only 
safe way of determining their distribution 
is to count the chromosomes. In Cali- 
fornia, the hexaploids extend from the 
coast to the foothills of the Sierra Nevada 
and have developed three or four major 
ecotypes over this area. Higher in the 
Sierra and eastward they are replaced by 
the tetraploids. Lawrence finds that in 
Oregon the tetraploid presses to within a 
very short distance of the coast, replacing 
all hexaploids inland, but leaving room for 
the maritime ecotype of the hexaploid 
species, which extends north to the coast 
of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. 



DESERT INVESTIGATIONS 



Forrest Shreve 



Shortly after the establishment of the 
Division of Plant Biology a program was 
formed for a regional investigation of the 
desert areas lying in Arizona, southeastern 
California, and the Mexican states of Baja 
California and Sonora. This is a sharply 
marked area with essential unity in its 
climatic and biological conditions. In geo- 
graphical and botanical literature it has 
long been designated as the Sonoran 
Desert. The Desert Laboratory of the In- 
stitution was located on the inner edge 
of this area and about midway between 



its northern and southern limits. The 
Sonoran Desert program provided for a 
complete enumeration of the higher plants, 
more exact determination of their areas 
of distribution, and fuller knowledge of 
their habitat requirements and ecological 
behavior, as well as for a study of the types 
of vegetation found in the area, their dis- 
tribution and relationship, and their rela- 
tion to the differences of climate and soil 
that were known to exist in the more 
widely separated parts of the area of 
126,000 square miles. 



84 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Field work was begun in 1932 and type very distinct from that found inland, 
carried on actively for five years, being but it enjoys extremely little amelioration 
supplemented later by several visits to of the arid conditions through its proximity 
areas of importance which had not pre- to the sea. The almost constant strong 
viously been readily accessible. Work on ocean winds join with the aridity in caus- 
the vegetation was carried out by Dr. ing a very low and open plant covering. 
Shreve and Dr. T. D. Mallery, and the The region of biseasonal rainfall is one 
study of the flora was in the hands of Dr. in which the control of soil moisture by 
I. L. Wiggins, of Stanford University, topographic conditions is marked. The 
Large plant collections were made by Dr. broad plains support a very uniform 
Wiggins and he has devoted much time shrubby vegetation which is low in stature 
to the study of material collected in the and made up of a small number of species, 
area by early workers. Because of the fact The coarser soil of bajadas, pediments, and 
that there has been no previous compila- the slopes of hills and mountains supports 
tion of the flora of the Sonoran Desert or vegetation which is taller, more dense, and 
the Mexican parts of the area, it has been made up of a much larger number of 
necessary for Dr. Wiggins to make a criti- species. The southern part of this desert 
cal study of almost every group of plants area, lying in the state of Sonora, and the 
found there. The adoption of a natural inner edge of the area, lying near the foot- 
rather than a political area has also made it hills of the Sierra Madre, support a heavier 
necessary to determine the precise locality vegetation than is found in the north, 
in which each of the older collections was The flora of the southeastern part of the 
made. Sonoran Desert is greatly enriched by the 

The principal differences of vegetation occurrence of many trees and shrubs which 
in the several parts of the Sonoran Desert here reach their northern limits. A few of 
are chiefly attributable to restriction of these are characteristic plants of the thorn 
rainy periods in Baja California to the forest which extends south from the south- 
winter and early spring months, the occur- ern edge of the desert. In this region the 
rence of biseasonal rains in the northern rainfall is greater than it is in the Colo- 
parts, and the increasing prevalence of sum- rado and Gila valleys, and its increase with 
mer rains toward the south. The vegeta- increasing altitude is greater, 
tion of Baja California is marked by the The Sonoran Desert program has, in 
occurrence of several common large plants effect, been an extension of the earlier 
which are either confined to that penin- work of the Desert Laboratory, carrying 
sula or found only very locally on the the investigation of the Tucson region to 
mainland. The size and unique character the distributional limits of the plants which 
of some of these plants, as Idria, Pachy- had been studied there, and using the 
cormus, Yucca valida, and Pachycereus knowledge of the plants and conditions of 
Pringlei, have given Baja California a the Tucson area as aids in interpreting 
reputation for unique vegetation which is the ecological features of the more remote 
scarcely borne out when consideration is parts of the desert area, 
given to the less favorable habitats and to In 1937 the program of desert work was 
the very large number of characteristic extended to include the more elevated 
plants which are common to this and other areas lying east of the continental divide in 
parts of the Sonoran Desert. Where the western Texas and the Mexican states of 
desert borders the Pacific coast it is of a Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Zacatecas, 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



85 



and San Luis Potosi. This area has been 
designated the Chihuahuan Desert, al- 
though field work has revealed that the 
most characteristic part of the area, and 
the one in which the agencies of aridity 
have apparently been longest at work, lies 
in the state of Coahuila. 

The Chihuahuan Desert lies mainly 
above 3500 feet in elevation and includes 
some very arid areas together with others 
in which there is summer precipitation 
approaching that of the central part of the 
Sonoran Desert. The winter temperatures 
are much lower than those in the coldest 
parts of the Sonoran Desert. The Chihua- 
huan Desert is distinguished by the oc- 
currence of numerous large and small un- 
drained basins which have either a central 
saline playa or a deep soil with a heavy 
stand of coarse grass, and by the preva- 
lence of limestone outcrops and hills of a 
type which erodes very slowly under arid 
conditions. 

The study of the flora of the Chihua- 
huan Desert has been carried on through 
the cooperation of Dr. I. M. Johnston, of 
Harvard University, who had already done 
considerable work in the deserts of Chile 
and Argentina. Dr. Johnston made large 
collections between 1938 and 1941, and has 
been favorably situated at the Gray Her- 
barium for study of the older collections 
from northern Mexico. He has detected 
a relatively large number of new species in 
the area, has thrown new light on the 
floristic affinities of the flora of the basins 
and mountains of northern Coahuila, and 
has found critical study and revision nec- 
essary in several groups of plants. Dr. 
Johnston has published papers embodying 
descriptions of new species, and in 1943 
and 1944 published five installments of an 
annotated list of the plants of Coahuila and 
adjacent states, covering the families from 
the Polypodiaceae to the Nyctaginaceae. 



The distribution of vegetation in the 
Chihuahuan Desert is mainly controlled 
by the character of underlying rock and 
soil and by the major topographic fea- 
tures. Only at elevations of 1000 to 2000 
feet above the surrounding plains does the 
influence of climatic conditions become 
important in differentiating the vegetation. 
In spite of floristic differences, there is a 
strong similarity between comparable situ- 
ations in the northern and southern parts 
of the desert. Trees are far less frequent 
than in the Sonoran Desert, and shrubs 
and such semishrubs as Atriplex are char- 
acteristic. Large cacti are relatively un- 
common, but small ones are extremely 
abundant. Extensive areas have open or 
heavy stands of Yucca or Dasylirion. Also 
the smaller semisucculents Agave and 
Hechtia are found in extensive stands, par- 
ticularly on limestone. In all parts of the 
Chihuahuan Desert above 5000 feet there 
are many areas with an open sod of per- 
ennial grasses. 

There are no parts of the Chihuahuan 
Desert in which the ground is as thickly 
covered with diversified groups of striking 
plants as in many localities in Sonora and 
Baja California. Only in Zacatecas and 
San Luis Potosi does the occurrence of 
tall yuccas, Acacia Farnesiana, and large 
platyopuntias and agaves give striking evi- 
dence of the somewhat ameliorated condi- 
tions which exist along the southern edge 
of the Chihuahuan Desert. 

The preparation of material for com- 
panion publications on the flora and vege- 
tation of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan 
deserts has made progress during the past 
three years, in spite of other urgent de- 
mands on the time of the participants, and 
the ultimate completion of the results of 
the projects should be possible within the 
next two years. 



86 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

PALEOBOTANY 

Ralph W. Chaney 

Completion of the study of an Eocene the more specialized dictyostele in modern 

cactus by Dr. Chaney is the only concrete Opuntieae. These earliest members of the 

yield of the period during which he has cactus family, though having the flattened, 

been engaged upon an emergency war as- fleshy stems of living prickly pears, were 

signment. Modern members of the Cac- at an unspecialized level of vascular devel- 

taceae are highly specialized; in the case opment consistent with their great an- 

of the tribe Opantieae, which the fossils tiquity. In several features of their fruits, 

closely resemble, this specialization of vege- the ancient cacti of Utah also show more 

tative structures makes possible their ex- generalized structures than their modern 

istence in arid or exposed environments, descendants. The bases of the fruits are 

Discovery of similar plants in rocks as- narrowed and stemlike, vascular tissues are 

signed to the Eocene epoch, when mod- well developed, and areoles are numerous 

ern flowering plants were first becoming on their distal ends. These characters of 

dominant and widespread, is therefore of the fruits, like the stelar structure of the 

interest as indicating an early development stem joints, suggest an ancestral relation- 

of this structural adjustment to desert con- ship with modern Opuntieae, and an in- 

ditions. This record of a prickly-pear termediate position between Opuntieae and 

type of cactus, to which the generic name the more primitive tribes Peres\ieae and 

Eopuntia has been assigned, extends the Cereeae. 

known age of the Cactaceae back some The Green River flora as a whole con- 
fifty million years to the early part of the tains many genera which now live in 
Tertiary period, the period preceding that regions characterized by warm-temperate 
in which we live. climate, with well defined dry seasons. 
The Green River formation of Utah and Such an environment appears to have been 
adjacent states contains an abundance of present in eastern Utah during the Eocene 
plant remains. Most of the conifers and epoch, and to have provided living condi- 
angiosperms are preserved as impressions, tions suited to this oldest known cactus, 
which show the surface characters of The current eruption of Paricutin is pro- 
leaves, stems, and fruits in great detail viding an opportunity to continue the 
but supply little information regarding study of conditions under which many 
their internal structure. Our specimens of fossil plants have been preserved in the 
Eopuntia, representing stem joints and at- western United States. Widespread vulcan- 
tached fruits, show on their surfaces linear ism during the Tertiary period provided 
markings which are not characteristic of the topographic setting and the sediments 
similar living cacti. It is therefore particu- which facilitated the burial of stems, seeds, 
larly fortunate that one of the stem joints and leaves of ancient trees and shrubs, 
has been so preserved that not only the and their subsequent transformation into 
external but the internal characters may fossils. A clearer picture of the past can be 
be observed. When studied from within, drawn if we have an understanding of 
these linear markings are seen to represent factors concerned in the burial and preser- 
vascular strands of a siphonostele, a type vation of plant remains in contemporary 
of stem still occurring in certain primitive deposits. Under the combined auspices of 
genera of the Cactaceae, but superseded by Princeton University and the Carnegie In- 



DIVISION OF PLANT BIOLOGY 



8 7 



stitution of Washington, Dr. Erling Dorf 
has spent a month at Paricutin volcano, in 
a study of the occurrence of plant remains 
in volcanic sediments. His preliminary re- 
port indicates that (1) leaves, stems, and 
fruits of plants buried during the eruption 
have been little if any altered as yet; (2) 
there is abundance of remains of pine and 
oak, but other trees such as alder, linden, 
and cherry are poorly represented although 
they are numerous in the region; (3) plant 



remains have been well preserved only 
where buried close to their parent trees or 
shrubs; (4) subaerial ash deposits contain 
more abundant and better-preserved ma- 
terial than stream and lake deposits; (5) 
these deposits are already being destroyed 
by erosion; (6) the best situation for the 
ultimate preservation of the record of this 
Mexican forest will be in valley ash de- 
posits buried by lava to protect them from 



erosion. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Chaney, Ralph W. A fossil cactus from the 
Eocene of Utah. Amer. Jour. Bot., vol. 31, 
pp. 507-528 (1944). 

Clausen, Jens, David D. Keck, and William M. 
Hiesey. Experimental studies on the nature 
of species. II. Plant evolution through 
amphiploidy and autoploidy, with examples 
from the Madiinae. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 
Pub. 564. vii+i74pp. (1945). 

Hardin, Garrett. A more meaningful form of 
the "logistic" equation. Amer. Naturalist, 
vol. 79, pp. 279-281 (1945). 

Hiesey, William M. See Clausen, Jens. 

Keck, David D. Studies in Penstemon. VIII. A 
cyto-taxonomic account of the section Sper- 
munculus. Amer. Midland Naturalist, vol. 
33, pp. 128-206 (1945). 

See Clausen, Jens. 



La Motte, Robert Smith. Supplement to cata- 
logue of Mesozoic and Cenozoic plants of 
North America, 1919-37. U. S. Geol. Surv. 
Bull. 924, pp. 1-330 (1944). 

Lawrence, William E. Some ecotypic relations 
of Deschampsia caespitosa. Amer. Jour. Bot., 
vol. 32, pp. 298-314 (1945). 

Smith, James H. C. Concurrency of carbohydrate 
formation and carbon dioxide absorption 
during photosynthesis in sunflower leaves. 
Plant Physiol., vol. 19, pp. 394-403 (1944). 

Spoehr, H. A. Some responsibilities of science. 
Amer. Scientist, vol. 33, pp. 49-54 (1945). 

Wiggins, Ira L. Collecting ferns in northwest- 
ern Mexico. Amer. Fern Jour., vol. 34, pp. 
37-49 (1944). 

Notes on the plants of northern Baja 

California. Contr. Dudley Herbarium, vol. 
3, pp. 289-312 (1944). 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 

Baltimore, Maryland 
GEORGE W. CORNER, Director 

This annual report, the fourth to be sub- reduce the distortion of tissues caused by 
mitted since the entry of our nation into the pressure of the microtome knife. His 
the war, is accompanied by the smallest new knife, circular in form, is made to 
review of published work since the De- rotate as it passes through the tissues and 
partment of Embryology first got well thus produces a slicing cut. Considerable 
under way. Two members of the regular mechanical effort is necessary to produce a 
staff of investigators have been away on truly circular knife and to keep its edge in 
war duty. A group of workers normally good condition. In the course of this work 
active in peace times, consisting of visit- Mr. Heard has acquired a great deal of 
ing investigators, temporary members in information, both practical and theoretical, 
the status of fellows, and local scientific about the nature of a useful knife-edge 
workers making use of the laboratory's for microtomy. This will doubtless be pub- 
facilities, has been almost completely scat- lished in due time and is now being put to 
tered by the war. The Director and other use. Other members of the staff have been 
members of the staff have been distracted able to maintain their research programs 
by emergency duties and by the general along the lines mentioned in previous 
disturbance of the times. Year Books, with results that will be pub- 

The small output of the year, in pub- lishable in due course. We have continued 

lished research, does not however repre- to put about half the facilities of the mon- 

sent all the activities of the Department, key colony at the disposal of a research 

The accumulation and preparation of group from the Johns Hopkins University 

human embryos has continued, and in fact School of Hygiene, in the conduct of a 

the year has seen a notable growth in the study in tropical medicine requiring the 

number of well preserved embryos cut into use of monkeys under the skilled care 

perfect serial sections by Dr. C. H. Heuser, which our animal-house staff is qualified 

Curator of the Embryological Collection, to give. 

and his technical assistants. In an effort to Dr. Louis B. Flexner, who has been 

provide Dr. G. L. Streeter with ample Technical Aide to the Committee on Avia- 

material for his special project described tion Medicine of the National Research 

below, a score or more of embryos of the Council, has been released from most of 

fourth and fifth weeks were prepared for the demands upon his time made by that 

study. The specimens thus newly made work, and will resume on a larger scale 

available for morphological research, repre- than before his studies on the physiology 

senting the period when many of the im- of developing tissues. Dr. S. R. M. Reyn- 

portant organs begin to take form, make a olds, major in the Army Air Forces, has 

permanent addition to our resources. been released from the army. There are 

Mr. O. O. Heard, the senior modeler, hopeful signs that the group of investi- 

working in collaboration with Dr. Heuser, gators outside the formal membership of 

devoted much time to the perfection of the staff will soon be reconstituted. Post- 

a new technique of microtomy intended to war plans of the Department involve no 

89 



9 o 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



large deviation from the program which The war has delayed the work but has 
was set forth by the Director in the annual not altered the fundamental problems of 
report for 1940-1941 (Year Book No. 40). human development. 



EMBRYOLOGY AS A COOPERATIVE SCIENCE 



During the period, now ending, of na- 
tional concentration for war, scientists 
have found themselves called upon as 
never before for cooperative action. A 
trend, created by the needs of modern 
science and already noticeable in recent 
years, toward group research by associates 
trained in different branches has been 
greatly accelerated by the war. The public 
is now learning through the newspapers 
and magazines of the group projects that 
sprang into existence under such organi- 
zations as the Office of Scientific Research 
and Development and the National Re- 
search Council. Some of the practical 
achievements of group research are already 
apparent. Among the gains brought about 
by this war, in partial compensation for 
its destruction and misery, surely not the 
least is this cross-fertilization of the various 
sciences, which results not only in imme- 
diate practical advantages, but also in new 
thinking about fundamentals. The syn- 
thesis of ideas thus achieved is not lost 
even if in times of peace the pendulum 
swings again necessarily toward individu- 
alistic research. 

Professional scientists are therefore in a 
mood, at present, to take stock of the serv- 
ices their respective branches may render 
to others. A few reflections on this ques- 
tion, as concerns a laboratory of mam- 
malian embryology, may be useful in fore- 
casting our own work in the future. 

The science of the development of the 
higher animals, and especially of man, has 
necessarily been largely descriptive and has 
mostly dealt with events so intricate, so 
much unlike the things man can do with 
his hands and mechanical tools, as to ban- 



ish any thought of controlling them. The 
embryologist could only observe, depict, 
and describe, although the phenomena 
thus revealed have been of such profound 
significance as to claim the attention of 
able minds to embryology as a pure science. 
Embryology could not give immediate 
birth to applied science as physics gave 
birth to locomotives, flight, and electronic 
devices. Its chief practical service, rendered 
to the art of the physician, has been to 
provide a background of explanation and 
understanding for many otherwise puz- 
zling facts of normal anatomy as well as 
of structural anomalies and defects. This 
service is often so subtle that it is not ap- 
preciated by ultra-practical minds. Pre- 
sumably an operation, for example for con- 
genital hernia or cleft palate, could be done 
successfully without knowledge of the em- 
bryology of the region; but the surgeon 
who has the responsibility of repairing 
such lapses of development, if he under- 
stands how they came about, operates with 
added assurance and comfort of mind. 
This is well understood by the wisest sur- 
geons, as is evidenced by the time many of 
them have spent on embryological studies. 
To cite a case close at hand, we are pre- 
paring to publish in an early volume of 
the Carnegie Contributions to Embryology 
a painstaking investigation of the develop- 
ment of the arteries of the brain, made by 
Dorcas H. Padget, of the staff of the 
distinguished neurological surgeon Walter 
E. Dandy. Dr. Dandy's interest in this 
subject was aroused because he observed 
anomalies of the cerebral arteries at the 
operating table and he thought it worth 
while to subsidize a study of their origin. 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY q T 

The staff members of the Department of Some of these discoveries have gone so far 
Embryology, like embryologists in other as to localize the enzymes under the micro- 
cities, are not infrequently called to the scope, as for example the new tech- 
hospital clinics to take part in the scien- niques of Gomori for visualizing the phos- 
tiflc analysis of cases involving embryonic phatases. The chemical processes of cell 
defects. Whether or not the embryologist life are being worked out. The develop- 
contributes to a cure, the patients are ing embryo offers an especially favorable 
fortunate to be in the hands of physicians opportunity for studying the chemical 
who want to understand their problems functions of specific tissues, for as the em- 
from the most fundamental aspect. bryo grows, new organs and tissues make 

At any moment, of course, the facts of their appearance. Applying the new tech- 
a so-called "pure" science may suddenly niques to the embryo, it will be possible 
be found to have practical importance, in many cases to associate the appearance, 
This has been strikingly true of one divi- the peak activity, and the disappearance 
sion of mammalian embryology: the in- of an enzyme or other metabolic chemical 
vestigation of the reproductive cycle, i.e., compound with the unfolding organic 
the integration of function of ovaries, structure. In the long run we shall thus 
uterus, and other parts of the female repro- approach a full understanding of the 
ductive tract, by which the maturation of physicochemical means by which the or- 
the ovum, its discharge from the ovary, its gans and tissues of the body are developed 
fertilization, transportation to the uterus, and differentiated from the simpler con- 
and implantation are timed and coordi- stituents of the fertilized egg. As this 
nated. About the beginning of the present kind of investigation develops, the chem- 
century the newly developing study of ical embryologist will find himself in co- 
endocrinology and that of the reproductive operative relation with other students of 
cycle were brought together, with the re- growth, and especially with investigators 
suit that the half-century has seen an of abnormal growth, i.e. cancer and other 
enormous increase of knowledge of the tumors. No line can be drawn, in fact, 
hormonal control of reproduction, with between normal growth as in the embryo 
practical results that are already impressive, and infant on the one hand, and abnormal 
if measured by the number of pages in the growth on the other. Whatever is learned 
medical journals on this subject and the from one will help in understanding the 
investment of the pharmaceutical firms other. We have long since had an example 
in the manufacture of steroid hormones, of this fact in the work on cell growth in 
The staff of our laboratory has already tissue cultures, carried on in our labora- 
taken a part in this advance and we shall tory by Dr. W. H. Lewis and Dr. M. R. 
continue to work in the same field. Lewis. Begun as a way of analyzing nor- 

There are several aspects of embryology mal cell growth and development, their 

in which a similar cooperative attack is program became closely associated with 

under way or impending. In recent years cancer research. 

there has been a great advance in knowl- Another phase of mammalian embry- 

edge of the enzymes in animal tissues, ology in which, one may venture to pre- 

and of other chemical and physical sys- diet, there will soon be notable progress 

terns controlling such essential functions through cooperation between the sciences 

as tissue respiration and the intracellular is that of teratology, the lore of embryonic 

metabolism of various organic substances, abnormalities. It has been part of our 



9 2 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



departmental routine to preserve and study 
anomalous and defective embryos and to 
render diagnostic service to physicians as 
far as current knowledge goes. Better 
knowledge, based on experiments, has had 
to wait for the results of work on lower 
animals. Experiments on accessible em- 
bryos like those of fish, amphibians, and 
birds, intended to produce defects and 
anomalies, are a century old and have 
taught us much about the susceptibility of 
early embryonic tissues to harmful en- 
vironmental conditions, e.g. excessive cold, 
heat, defective oxygenation, deleterious 
chemicals, etc. The advent of genetic anal- 
ysis has taught us how defective genes 
can also produce disturbances of develop- 
ment. It has been difficult to reach the 
well protected embryos of mammals with 
such experimental weapons, but progress 
is being made, and a science of experi- 
mental teratology in mammals is probably 
not far oflf. The attention of physicians 
and even of the lay public has recently 
been directed to the damage to human 
infants in utero produced by certain dis- 
orders of immunity caused by the "Rh" 
factor, and by the occurrence of the virus 
disease rubella (German measles) in early 
pregnancy. In our laboratory we have al- 
ready begun an effort (admittedly unsuc- 
cessful thus far) to analyze the rubella 
problem by experiments on monkeys. 

Enough has been said to show that in- 
vestigators of the embryology of man and 
the higher mammals not only are follow- 
ing a so-called pure science, but are more 
and more in a position to contribute their 
knowledge to cooperative study of prob- 
lems that are of vital practical importance. 
During the war it was frequently neces- 
sary to explain to selective service boards 
and similar public officers (people not at 
the moment officially interested in theo- 
retical science), in the small blank space 
of a questionnaire, what the Department 



of Embryology considered itself to be do- 
ing for the national effort. The statement, 
which fortunately seemed acceptable, was 
that we are carrying on our share of the 
research on which the maternal welfare 
and "better baby" programs are based. 
This explanation, of course oversimplified, 
will serve to show that we are not unmind- 
ful of our opportunity to render service to 
the public through medical application of 
embryology. There will, however, always 
be a place in this Department, especially 
in the unharassed times of peace, for re- 
search workers, if such there be, who dis- 
regard all thought of application and use- 
fulness to study the development of the 
human body simply because it is ineluc- 
tably fascinating. If in some future day 
the embryologists learn how to get at the 
smallest units of life and split and recom- 
bine them, as physics has reached inside 
the atom, the resulting changes (which 
will be as cataclysmic as the atomic bomb, 
for good or evil) will have resulted from 
the work of the cloistered theorists of 
earlier years. 

Discoveries about the embryonic devel- 
opment of man and the other primates 
place the embryologist in cooperative rela- 
tionship also with students of biological 
theory, philosophy, and even religion. The 
relation of man to the other animals is 
greatly illuminated by the study of his 
development. This is an old story which 
had its lurid chapters in the days of con- 
flict over evolution. Now that the animal 
affinities of man are accepted, the embry- 
ologist is able to make a sober contribu- 
tion to the details of primate evolution. 
Mammalian embryos not only possess in- 
cipient anatomical organs and systems like 
those of adults, which may be studied for 
evidences of resemblance and dissimilarity 
as in ordinary comparative anatomy; they 
also possess a set of organs not present in 
the adult, namely, the placenta and the 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



93 



embryonic membranes and cavities of the 
chorion, amnion, allantois, and yolk sac. 
These organs differ extraordinarily from 
species to species, and thus they are of very 
great importance to the investigator who 
seeks to know how one animal or group 
of animals is related to another. It hap- 
pens that in man and the other primates 
there are enough differences in the pla- 
centas and membranes to give us light 
on the old Darwinian question, whether 
man's eldest living relatives are to be found 
among the anthropoid apes or the mon- 



keys. Given time, means, and sufficient 
ingenuity, we have much to learn from an 
extension of our program of embryological 
study, especially the study of the earliest 
stages of embryonic development, to the 
infrahuman primates of Africa, Asia, and 
America. 

The understanding of man's place in the 
animal world, gained from such studies 
as these in association with other branches 
of comparative zoology, necessarily influ- 
ences the whole structure of human edu- 
cation, lawmaking, and philosophy. 



RESEARCHES, COMPLETED AND IN PROGRESS 



Developmental Stages of Human 
Embryos 

Dr. G. L. Streeter continues actively his 
program of classification of human em- 
bryos. This undertaking was fully ex- 
plained in Year Book No. 42. Its aim is 
the description and depiction of human 



primitive bronchi. Stage XVI (32-34 days) 
is readily detected by the appearance of 
the first retinal pigment. The secondary 
bronchi are clearly recognizable. In stage 
XVII (34-36 days) the retina is heavily 
pigmented. The secondary bronchi begin 
to branch. The calyces of the renal pelvis 



first semicircular canals of the internal ear 
(vestibular apparatus) are seen. Jacobson's 
organ is distinct in the nasal region. 

The essence of Dr. Streeter's plan is thus 
to select, describe, and depict characteristic 
structural details at each stage. A fact thus 
revealed, perhaps not unexpected theo- 



embryos in such manner that successive a /P ear - In sta S e XVI , n (3f3» da Y s ) i the 
stages of development can be recognized 
by obvious characteristics, both external 
and internal. By this means embryologists 
will be able to indicate the stage of devel- 
opment of any embryo by reference to 
Streeter's numbered stages, thus obviating 
all sorts of difficulties inherent in the 

comparison of objects which differ, as they retically, but very striking as brought out 

develop, by so many variables at once. The by this research, is the high correlation 

descriptions of stages XV to XVIII are between the various organs of the body as 

now well advanced and will be published to time of first appearance and stages of 

in volume XXXII of the Contributions to development. If, for example, in a well 

Embryology. preserved embryo the eyes are just begin- 

Stage XV, including embryos of age ning to show retinal pigment, then it is 

estimated as 30-32 days, is characterized certain that secondary bronchi will be 

by detachment and closure of the lens present in the lungs. If any organ lags 

vesicle. At this and the two following behind, there is something wrong, and this 

stages, the development of the bronchus is is generally evidenced by multiple devia- 

useful for the comparison of sectioned em- tions. In a brief review of Dr. Streeter's 

bryos; in stage XV the secondary bronchi work only a few of the characteristics 

are distinguishable as swellings on the which he has studied can be mentioned; 



The Rate of Abnormality in Early 
Embryos 



qa CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

his successive chapters must be read to already beginning to find their way into 

appreciate the march of developmental the textbooks of embryology, 

events. Dr. Hertig and Dr. Rock, reviewing 

their work for this report, state that the 

Very Early Human Embryos nineteen embryos range from a specimen 

—,, 11 • i i -iiii 4 days of age (a segmenting ovum found 

lhe collection has been enriched by the 7 . , ° \ . v r ^ 

, „ , t^ a i t ree in the uterine cavity) to one io days 

receipt rrom our collaborators Dr. Arthur £ n • i i i / ■ i / 

,_, TT i -r^ t 1 t^ 1 r i ot a £ e > a well imbedded ovum with early, 

1. Hertig and Dr. John Rock or several . , , , . . .„. „. \ 

. r 1 i i 11 i • i simply branched chorionic villi. Eleven or 

embrvos or the late second and the third , . . , , , 

. . , ,. . , , . the nineteen specimens are mdged to be 

week, in addition to those reported in r , , . 1 

,. _. , ,— . til • perfectly normal and encompass the stages 

previous Year Books. 1 hese valuable speci- L , t . f ■ , r , ° f 

r . . . , , ■_. * TT or embryologic development rrom that or 

mens have been sectioned by Dr. L n. , . , , , , , . , , v 
. t , . . 1-1 re i a recently implanted blastocyst (jy 2 days) 

Heuser, aided by the technical start, and , i . .„ y ; ' , / / 

, .til i- i to that or an early villous ovum ( io days), 

together with ample photographic records ^ . . . , i i • i • 

° i-i ii • r 1 -^ ne remaining eight are pathological in 

are preserved in the collection or the i i • i i • • 

_^ r one way or another, their abnormalities m- 

Department. , ,. , ,. r r , 

r eluding such diverse ractors as faulty seg- 
mentation, absence of the embryonic disk, 
extreme hypoplasia of the trophoblast, and 
shallow implantation of an otherwise nor- 

This past year has seen the completion mal ovum, 

of preliminary studies by Dr. Hertig and It is apparent from these figures that the 

Dr. Rock, at the Free Hospital for Women index of fertility in married women of 

in Brookline, Massachusetts, on a series of proved fertility, with at least one recorded 

one hundred fertile married women on coitus during the estimated time of ovula- 

whom a therapeutic hysterectomy was per- tion preceding the hysterectomy, is 19 per 

formed in known calendar relation to the cent. Equally apparent is the fact that a 

next expected menstrual period. The in- high proportion, 42 per cent, of these early 

vestigation was supported by the Carnegie pregnancies would probably have failed to 

Corporation of New York, by the Carnegie reach term. Indeed, it is doubtful whether 

Institution of Washington through this the abnormal segmenting ovum of 4 days 

Department, and by the Milton Fund of would have implanted and, if it had, 

Harvard University. The surgically re- whether it would have caused the next 

moved uteri were carefully searched for expected menstrual period to be missed, 

the presence of young fertilized ova, either Of the seven pathological ova that were 

free in the uterine cavity or implanted on implanted, it is doubtful whether the two 

the endometrium. During the seven years most abnormal forms would have more 

of this study, nineteen such specimens than briefly delayed the next expected 

were found. These form the Hertig-Rock menstrual period. Thus it is apparent that 

collection of very early human embryos, many fertilized human ova, as is the case 

already well known to readers of these with lower animals, are destined to abort 

annual reports, in which many of the indi- before the fetal stage is reached. Certainly, 

vidual specimens have been discussed as many of the abnormal forms encountered 

they were added to the Carnegie Collec- in this study have their pathological coun- 

tion in this laboratory. Several of them terparts in ova spontaneously aborted by 

have been published in full and they are patients during the early months of preg- 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



95 



nancy. Therefore, these early abnormal 
forms of pregnancy serve to teach us some- 
thing about the pathogenesis of human 
abortion, a subject about which little is 
known at present. This is so because the 
specimen from a spontaneously aborting 
patient is relatively so mature that it is 
impossible to trace accurately the sequence 
of events leading to the premature expul- 
sion of the nonviable ovum. 

During the past year, two of the speci- 
mens mentioned above were recovered 
from the last thirteen patients of the series. 
Both specimens were abnormal with re- 
spect to their embryos, although the 
chorions were normal. The younger speci- 
men (Carnegie no. 8299), estimated to be 
about 12 days of age, shows a disoriented 
germ disk (embryo), of which the cephalic 
end points directly toward the trophoblast, 
while the caudal end, at the site of the 
potential body stalk, is free in the chorionic 
cavity. It is unlikely that a good body 
stalk or umbilical cord would have formed. 
This may be the early stage of the fre- 
quently found type of pathologic ovum 
which invariably aborts and whose embryo 
is either nodular or stunted and is attached 
to the trophoblast by a defective body 
stalk. 

The older specimen (Carnegie no. 8290), 
an early villous ovum about 13 days of 
age, likewise shows a serious defect of 
its embryonic disk, the primitive ectoderm 
being disoriented with respect to the un- 
derlying primitive endoderm and its asso- 
ciated yolk sac. It appears as though the 
dorsal part of the premature embryo had 
slipped horizontally with respect to the 
ventral part, an abnormality which would 
probably interfere with any proper axial 
differentiation of the future embryo. 

Continuing their report, Dr. Hertig and 
Dr. Rock state that regardless of whether 
their tentative interpretation of the rela- 
tion of such defective early embryos to 



subsequent defects in the aborting ovum is 
correct or not, the fact cannot be gainsaid 
that here are a series of intrinsically defec- 
tive ova whose environment is apparently 
normal. Hence this series ofTers additional 
evidence of such a condition as "germ 
plasm defect," unsatisfactory and all-inclu- 
sive though the term may be. 

During the past year, the detailed de- 
scription of one of the jYz-day ova and 
the 9 ! /4-day ovum (Carnegie no. 8020 and 
no. 8004) has reached galley-proof stage, 
and its appearance in the Contributions to 
Embryology is expected in the near future. 
In addition, plastic sheet reconstructions of 
two ova (Carnegie no. 8155 and no. 8171) 
have been prepared in anticipation of com- 
pleting a detailed description of these two 
specimens for early publication. 

Attempts to Fertilize Human Ova 
in Vitro 

Dr. John Rock reports that during 
1 944-1 945 he has continued his efforts to 
fertilize and initiate cleavage of human 
ovarian eggs. This work, primarily sup- 
ported by the Milton Fund of Harvard 
University, has also depended upon facili- 
ties provided for the discovery of early 
human embryos (discussed in the previous 
paragraphs) supported by the Carnegie 
Corporation of New York and more 
recently by the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington through the Department of 
Embryology. 

A year ago (see bibliography), Dr. Rock 
and his associate Mrs. Menkin reported on 
the fertilization of three such eggs. Dur- 
ing the past year, 103 follicular eggs in 
the preovulatory phase have been recov- 
ered from operative patients. The eggs 
were cultured in serum and 76 of them 
were exposed to spermatozoa, but none 
were successfully fertilized. Forty-nine of 
the eggs were cultured, before exposure 



9 6 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Phosphatase in the Ovary; Fate of the 
Theca Interna 



to sperm, in serum to which had been all younger than one month old. These are 

added a small amount of hyaluronidase. being photographed and sectioned, and 

English investigators (Rowlands and promise to yield much information about 

McLean) had found that this enzyme early placentation and the formation of the 

would break down the gel of the corona embryonic membranes. It is a most inter- 

radiata, allowing the sperm to penetrate esting fact, in view of the studies of Hertig 

the egg. Thus far, Dr. Rock has not found and Rock, mentioned above, on the pro- 

this to be of much assistance, but he plans portional incidence of early abnormality 

to try a larger variety of techniques. of human embryos, that one and possibly 

two of the first three Gillman baboon em- 

Embryos of the Baboon bryos are pathological. Such early ab- 

T i. 1 r i • • normalities are as valuable, in their way, 
In an earlier paragraph or this report it . . • i i rr 
, , . , i as normal specimens, provided a sum- 
has been pointed out how we may get .11 . % 111 
, , , . c 1 ciently large series can be assembled to 
clues as to the evolution or man by com- : ° r , , 
£ 1 1 r 1 • permit proper comparison or normal and 
panson or. the embryos or the various , r , r r 

. 1 . _. abnormal types, 

primate species with one another. I he Jr 

value of such comparative study has long 
been recognized by the Department. It 
possesses, through the efforts of Dr. C. G. 
Hartman, a noteworthy collection of em- Dr. George W. Corner has completed 
bryos of the rhesus monkey described in a the preliminary stages of an investigation 
recent monograph by Dr. C. H. Heuser of the distribution of the enzyme known 
and Dr. G. L. Streeter. A beginning has as alkaline phosphatase in the cytoplasm 
been made also with respect to anthro- of ovarian cells of various species. This 
poids, two early embryos of the chimpan- enzyme, as its name indicates, has the 
zee being in the collection. In 1942 the property of splitting phosphate ions from 
Department enjoyed a long visit from the compounds of phosphoric acid, in an 
Dr. Joseph Gillman, of the University of alkaline environment. It is widely dis- 
the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South tributed in the organs and tissues of the 
Africa. Dr. Gillman possesses extensive body. In bony tissue it is obviously con- 
knowledge of the breeding habits and cerned with the metabolism of calcium by 
physiology of reproduction of the baboon its action on calcium phosphate. In tissues 
(Papio porcarius), and required only more like the ovary its function is less obvious; 
extensive facilities for collecting, housing, probably it is concerned in the metabolism 
and breeding animals to enable him to col- of phospholipids. Dr. Corner's attention 
lect early embryos. As the result of plans was turned in this direction by a recent 
developed during his visit, the Trustees publication of the Chicago histopathologist 
of the Carnegie Corporation of New York Gomori, who devised a method of demon- 
made a grant late in 1942 from their British strating the presence of alkaline phos- 
Dominions and Colonies Fund (to be ad- phatase in microscopical sections. Gomori 
ministered through this Department) to included the ovaries of a few species among 
provide facilities for such an enterprise, the tissues which he studied in cursory 
The effort has now begun to yield results, fashion. Because he found that in some 
for during the year 1 944-1 945 Dr. Gillman animals the theca interna and the mem- 
has sent five embryos of Papio porcarius, brana granulosa of the Graafian follicle 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



97 



differ in their content of alkaline phos- 
phatase, there seemed to be a possibility 
of using the method to trace the fate of the 
theca cells in the formation of the corpus 
luteum, and thus to contribute to the solu- 
tion of an old problem. 

In brief, the result was that in the do- 
mestic sow the fate of the theca interna 
can be clearly followed, because the theca 
interna is rich in phosphatase and the 
granulosa lacks it. The theca cells, thus 
traced, persist throughout the formation of 
the corpus luteum and become scattered 
among the granulosa lutein cells. This 
confirms a description of the origin of the 
corpus luteum of the sow, published by 
Corner in 1919, which has been disputed. 
In the several other species studied, all 
possible variations of the distribution of 
phosphatase between theca interna and 
granulosa are found; in the rhesus mon- 
key, for example, both these layers are rich 
in phosphatase; in the rabbit the enzyme 
is plentiful in the granulosa and absent 
from the theca interna. The method can- 
not therefore be used in these species to 
trace the theca cells after rupture of the 
follicle. This puzzling difference between 
species, however, may ultimately afford an 
explanation of the function of the enzyme, 
by revealing the association between phos- 
phatase and other constituents of the 
ovarian cells. 

Injurious Effect of Light upon Dividing 

Cells in Cultures Containing 

Fluorescent Substances 

Certain substances have the property of 
fluorescing, that is, of emitting radiations 
when themselves radiated, for example 
with light rays. The emitted radiation is 
generally of longer wave length than the 
exciting radiation, and is thus of different 
color. This phenomenon accounts for the 
peculiar glow of solutions of eosin and 
10 



the bluish color of ordinary machine oil 
seen in strong daylight. It is more vividly 
displayed by various fluorescent substances 
when observed in the dark under the in- 
visible rays of ultraviolet light. It has long 
been known that animal and plant tissues 
containing fluorescent substances are in- 
jured by light. A few years ago renewed 
attention to this subject was stimulated by 
the discovery that cancer cells growing in 
tissue cultures containing eosin were more 
sensitive to light than normal cells grow- 
ing in the same cultures. 

Dr. Margaret Reed Lewis has analyzed 
this phenomenon of photosensitivity of liv- 
ing cells in the presence of fluorescent sub- 
stances by growing chick embryo cells in 
culture media containing various fluores- 
cent substances, namely chlorophyll, diben- 
zanthracene, methylcholanthrene, eosin, 
and neutral red. Attention was centered 
on the dividing cells because it has been 
found previously that dividing cells in 
growing cultures are more sensitive than 
resting* cells. Dr. Lewis found that the 
fluorescent substances named above, when 
added in suitably dilute amounts, were not 
toxic to the process of cell division as long 
as the cultures were kept in the dark, but 
when a strong light was passed through 
the cultures the cells quickly became dam- 
aged. The mitotic spindles and chromo- 
somes and also the cytoplasm were in- 
jured. If the exposure to light was pro- 
longed, the cells died. Cells showing only 
a slight injury were able to recover when 
the cultures were returned to the dark. 

These effects were apparently not due 
to the light emitted from the activated 
fluorescent substance, for the cells con- 
tinued to grow normally when irradiated 
by light that, had been passed through 
eosin or neutral red solutions outside, but 
very close to, the culture slides. It appears 
that the cells were damaged by changes 



9§ 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



brought about in the medium during the 
activation of the fluorescent material. 



Induction and Transplantability of 
Sarcomata in Rats 

Dr. Margaret R. Lewis, working in col- 
laboration with Dr. Helen Dean King at 
the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biol- 
ogy, has completed an extensive study of 
the biological factors governing induction 
and transplantation of malignant tumors 
(sarcomata) in rats. The two workers 
made use of the carcinogenic substances 
dibenzanthracene, benzpyrene, and methyl- 
cholanthrene. These substances, when in- 
jected subcutaneously into rats, produce 
cancer of the connective tissue, that is to 
say, sarcoma. The experiment involved 
such injections into large numbers of rats 
of various genetic strains, and subsequent 
transplantation of the induced tumors into 
other rats of the same various strains. The 
object of the work was to discover whether 
the differences between the strains, evi- 
denced in physical characteristics, growth 
rate, behavior, and reaction to stimuli, 
would affect the character and growth of 
the induced tumors or of the implanted 
tumor grafts. The strains used were the 
"King A" inbred albinos of the Wistar 
Institute, gray Norway rats of the Wistar 
Institute, three crosses between these, and 
nine different mutant strains of diverse 
origin. In all, nearly 10,000 rats were used. 

Every one of the rats in thirty litters from 
the fourteen strains survived the carcino- 
genic injection and developed a sarcoma. 
The tumors thus produced behaved some- 
what differently under different circum- 
stances of sex and strain; they developed 
earlier in males than in females, and grew 
more slowly in gray Norway rats than in 
the other strains. 

The transplanted tumors also behaved 
differently under different circumstances. 



They were, as would be expected, more 
transplantable to rats of their own strain 
of origin than to the other strains. Tumors 
that originated in the highly inbred King 
A rats were 100 per cent transferable to 
rats of the same strain and to two of the 
crosses with Norway rats. When inocu- 
lated into the other strains, however, they 
did not behave alike. Some grew in some 
of the other strains, some did not; in other 
words, there was a tendency to be strain 
specific. Tumors that originated in rats of 
less inbred strains grew much less fre- 
quently in the rats to which they were 
transplanted. One strain, the "curly" mu- 
tant, was highly resistant to the growth 
of sarcomata transplanted from rats of its 
own and of other strains. Tumor grafts 
grew faster when implanted into young 
rats than into old rats. Growth of the 
grafts was not influenced by coat color. 

In summary, the sarcomatous malignant 
tumors of rats induced by carcinogenic 
agents proved to be subject, as regards their 
growth, to biological influences which are 
associated with different hereditary history 
(strain) of the rats into which they are 
transplanted. 

Failure of Purified Penicillin to 
Retard Sarcoma 

In March 1944 Mr. Ivor Cornman, who 
had been working at the Wistar Institute 
under the guidance of Dr. M. R. Lewis, 
published the finding that the growth of 
sarcoma tissue in tissue culture is inhibited 
by penicillin. The penicillin used in his 
experiments was a partially purified sam- 
ple. Dr. M. R. Lewis proceeded to try the 
effect of the sodium salt of penicillin upon 
sarcoma, using mice of the Bagg inbred 
strain implanted with a sarcoma native 
to the strain. Ample doses of the penicillin, 
which was highly purified, failed to inhibit 
the growth of sarcoma in vivo. Dr. Lewis 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY qq 

next tested penicillin upon sarcoma cells versity School of Hygiene, and Dr. Robert 
growing in tissue culture, using both a M. Rankin. These workers compared the 
highly purified colorless sodium salt and a rate of exchange of sodium chloride from 
less pure yellow sodium salt. The latter, blood to tissues in normal animals and in 
in the higher of the concentrations used, animals placed in a state of surgical trau- 
killed the tumor cells and damaged the matic shock under anesthesia. The move- 
normal cells. This part of the experiment ment of the salt was followed by using 
confirmed the observations of Cornman. radioactive sodium chloride (Na 24 Cl) as 
The highly purified penicillin salt, how- explained in previous Year Books. The 
ever, failed to inhibit the growth of sarco- investigators ran into a certain amount of 
matous and of normal cells. Dr. Lewis difficulty owing to the complications of the 
concludes that the factor present in the less problem. Their work disclosed, for ex- 
purified sodium salt of penicillin is lost ample, that the curve describing the rate 
from the highly purified product. of transfer of sodium chloride from blood 

vessels to tissues is complex and can only 

Transcapillary Exchange of Sodium in be understood by assuming that there are 

Normal and Shocked Dogs two rates at which the salt passes back and 

Previous annual reports of this Depart- £orth between P las ™a and extravascular 

ment, in Year Books No. 41 and No. 43, fluids > Presumably due to differences in 

reviewed a series of studies by Dr. Louis B. dlfoent P art s of the body. 

Flexner and various collaborators on the After £ul1 mathematical analysis of the 

transfer of substances across the placenta results 2t 1S shown that in shocked, un- 

from mother to fetus, and from blood to treated ammals the total number of milli ' 

tissues across the blood capillary walls of £ rams o£ sodmm exchanged across the 

the body in general. The methods used in ca P lllai 7 walls per unit of time is about 

these important studies were applicable to 5° P^ cent of the normal. When the ani- 

one of the most serious of war problems, mals are treated by replacement therapy 

namely traumatic shock. Dr. Alfred Gell- witn salin e solution or serum, the defective 

horn, who was working with Dr. Flexner rate oi exchange is not improved, in spite 

before our entrance into the war, under- of temporary better clinical appearance of 

took studies on the physiology of shock the animals. 

in our laboratory under a grant from the This finding, namely of a lessened trans- 
Committee on Medical Research of the capillary movement of sodium, is not easily 
Office of Scientific Research and Develop- reconciled with current theories of trau- 
ment. A summary of the work has now matic shock which postulate an increase 
been published by Dr. Gellhorn, Dr. Mar- of capillary permeability as fundamental to 
garet Merrell, of the Johns Hopkins Uni- the diseased state. 

DIFFUSION AND POPULARIZATION OF RESULTS 

As already mentioned, the Director's ested are reviewed for the educated general 

Terry Lectures, given in March 1944 at reader. Dr. Corner also published during 

Yale University, have appeared in book the year, by request of the editor of Parents' 

form under the title Ourselves unborn. In Magazine, a journal issued under the aus- 

this volume, many of the problems in pices of several university groups, a popu- 

which this Department has been inter- lar article on human sterility from the 



100 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



standpoint of the scientific investigator. 
Dr. Heuser, Dr. Burns, and Dr. Corner 
each lectured by invitation once or twice 
during the year to the students of Johns 
Hopkins Medical School. 

A significant demonstration of the use- 
fulness, outside our own walls, of our large 
collection of embryological materials is 
given by the latest textbook of human em- 
bryology, an excellent work by W. J. 
Hamilton, of St. Bartholomew's Hospital 
Medical College, London; J. D. Boyd, of 
the London Hospital Medical College; and 
H. W. Mossman, of the University of Wis- 
consin (Human embryology, Cambridge 



[England], HefTer, 1945). Dr. Boyd and 
Dr. Mossman have been visiting investi- 
gators at the Department of Embryology 
in past years, and are therefore directly 
familiar with the resources of the De- 
partment. More than 90 of the 364 illustra- 
tions in the new textbook are drawn from 
the embryos of the Carnegie Collection or 
from articles by workers connected with 
the Department. It is a pleasure to note 
that Professors Hamilton, Boyd, and Moss- 
man dedicate their book to Dr. George L. 
Streeter jointly with Professor T. H. Bryce, 
of Glasgow. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



*Burns, R. K., Jr. The differentiation of the 
phallus in the opossum and its reactions to 
sex hormones. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 
557, Contr. to Embryol., vol. 31, pp. 147-162 

(i945). 

* The effects of male hormone on the 

differentiation of the urinogenital sinus in 
young opossums. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 
557, Contr. to Embryol., vol. 31, pp. 163- 

175 (i945)- 
Corner, G. W. Alkaline phosphatase in the 
ovarian follicles and corpora lutea. Science, 
vol. 100, pp. 270-271 (1944). 

Las hormonas en la reproduccion hu- 

mana. (Translation into Spanish, by Ines 
L. C. de Allende, of "The hormones in 
human reproduction," 1942). Buenos Aires, 
Libreria Hachette (1944). 

Report of survey of medical records 

created by the federal government. National 
Research Council (1944). (The general 
section, pp. 1-12, prepared by Dr. Corner 
as Chairman of the Committee on Medical 
Records, National Research Council.) 

Ourselves unborn: an embryologist's 

essay on man. The Terry Lectures, Yale 
University, 1944. Yale University Press 
(1944). 

The gifts of the good physician. A 



commencement address delivered on Septem- 

* Indicates contributions discussed in report 
of previous year (Year Book No. 43, 1943- 
1944). 



ber 23, 1944, to the graduating class in 
medicine of the School of Medicine and 
Dentistry of the University of Rochester. 
Privately printed by Strong Memorial Hos- 
pital, Rochester, N. Y. (1944). 

— Why can't we have a baby? Parents' 
Mag., vol. 20, pp. 22-23, 59~6o, 62, 64, 66, 
69, 70 (1945). 

with the collaboration of C. G. Hart- 



man and G. W. Bartelmez. Development, 
organization, and breakdown of the corpus 
luteum in the rhesus monkey. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash. Pub. 557, Contr. to Embryol., 
vol. 31, pp. 1 17-146 (1945)- 

Gellhorn, A., M. Merrell, and R. M. Rankin. 
The rate of transcapillary exchange of so- 
dium in normal and shocked dogs. Amer. 
Jour. Physiol., vol. 142, pp. 407-427 (1944). 

Hertig, A. T., and J. Rock. On a normal human 
ovum not over seven and one-half days of 
age. Anat. Rec, vol. 91, p. 281 (1945). 

On a normal human ovum of 

approximately nine to ten days of age. 
Anat. Rec, vol. 91, p. 281 (1945). 

Two human ova of the pre- 



villous stage, having a developmental age 
of about seven and nine days respectively. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 557, Contr. to 
Embryol., vol. 31, pp. 65-84 (1945). 
— See Heuser, C. H. 



: Heuser, C. H., J. Rock, and A. T. Hertig. 
Two human embryos showing early stages 
of the definitive yolk sac. Carnegie Inst. 



DEPARTMENT OF EMBRYOLOGY 



101 



Wash. Pub. 557, Contr. to Embryol., vol. 31, 
pp. 85-99 (i945) • 

King, H. D., and M. R. Lewis. A study of in- 
ducement and transplantability of sarcomata 
in rats. Growth, vol. 9, pp. 155-176 (1945). 

Lewis, M. R. The failure of purified penicillin 
to retard the growth of grafts of sarcoma 
in mice. Science, vol. 100, pp. 313-315 
(1944). 

See King, H. D. 

*Marchetti, A. A. A pre-villous human ovum 
accidentally recovered from a curettage 
specimen. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 557, 
Contr. to Embryol., vol. 31, pp. 107-115 

(i945)- 
Menkin, M. F. See Rock, J. 
Merrell, M. See Gellhorn, A. 



Rankin, R. M. See Gellhorn, A. 

Rock, J., and M. F. Menkin. In vitro fertili- 
zation and cleavage of human ovarian eggs. 
Science, vol. 100, pp. 105-107 (1944). 

See Hertig, A. T.; Heuser, C. H. 

*Streeter, G. L. Developmental horizons in 
human embryos. Description of age group 
xiii, embryos about 4 or 5 millimeters long, 
and age group xiv, period of indentation of 
the lens vesicle. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 
557, Contr. to Embryol., vol. 31, pp. 27-63 

(i945)- 
*Wilson, K. M. A normal human ovum of 
sixteen days development (the Rochester 
ovum). Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 557, 
Contr. to Embryol., vol. 31, pp. 101-106 
(i945)- 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New Yor\ 
M. DEMEREC, Director 



During the war, because of the nature 
of our work, staff members of this De- 
partment were not called upon to par- 
ticipate in war research to any considerable 
extent. The Department carried out two 
war research contracts, one with the War 
Production Board and the other with the 
Office of Scientific Research and Develop- 
ment. In addition, several members par- 
ticipated in other research related to the 
war emergency. The objective of our work 
under WPB contract was the development 
of a strain of Penicillium yielding a high 
content of penicillin. This work was suc- 
cessfully carried on by E. Sansome, M. 
Demerec, and H. E. Warmke; and a high- 
yielding strain, now used in production, 
was selected from among mutants induced 
by X-ray treatment. The contract with 
OSRD, which is still in effect, deals with 
the genetic aspects of resistance in bacteria. 
For two years Warmke cooperated with 
the Bureau of Plant Industry of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture in research 
aimed at the development of strains of fiber 
hemp with reduced marihuana content. 
He also participated in breeding studies 
on the rubber-producing Russian dan- 
delion {Taraxacum \o\-saghyz). Kauf- 
mann, in collaboration with Dr. A. Hol- 
laender, of the National Institute of 
Health, Bethesda, Maryland, investigated 
the effect of ultraviolet radiation on the 
mammalian eye, with the purpose of de- 
veloping standards for prevention of in- 
dustrial hazards. Demerec and Potter took 
part in research at the Biological Labora- 
tory, under contract with the Chemical 
Warfare Service, relating to the production 
and properties of aerosols. For one phase 



of this work, MacDowell supplied mice 
from his colony. Since 1943 Fano has been 
active at the Ballistic Research Laboratory, 
Aberdeen, Maryland, first on a part-time 
basis and later as a full-time worker. The 
Department cooperated with the Office of 
War Information by preparing for its 
Genetics News Letter monthly statements 
giving abstracts of important papers and 
brief summaries of other developments 
in the field of genetics. 

Several members of the Department 
were taken into military service. In the 
Army Air Forces Dr. J. S. Potter served 
for a brief period as a captain, Louis R. 
Stillwell, Jr., and Robert Holl are serving 
as officers, and Dr. R. A. Miller is working 
as a corporal in a research laboratory. 

In October 1944 Dr. Oscar Riddle re- 
tired from the Institution, but he remained 
with the Department until August of 1945 
in order to complete his manuscripts. In 
September 1945 he became visiting pro- 
fessor of the Department of State in Brazil, 
Uruguay, and Argentina. Riddle came to 
the Department from the University of 
Chicago in 1912, as a Research Associate of 
the Institution. He brought with him the 
late Professor C. O. Whitman's pigeon 
material, and spent his first few years at 
Cold Spring Harbor in editing Whitman's 
work for posthumous publication. In 1914 
Riddle was appointed a staff member of 
the Department. During his entire stay 
here he worked almost exclusively with 
pigeons and doves as experimental ma- 
terial; and his primary interest was in 
problems of sexuality, reproduction, and 
internal secretions. Although his approach 
was physiological, he was always aware of 



103 



104 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



genetical applications; and on many occa- 
sions he was able to trace physiological 
differences to differences in genetic con- 
stitution of the birds. When in 1932 he 
discovered a new hormone, prolactin, the 
emphasis on chemical aspects of his prob- 
lems became greater. From that time on 
a chemist was included among the work- 
ers in his group; and this has had a signifi- 
cant effect on the work of the whole De- 
partment, broadening the general range of 
interest of the group. With Dr. Riddle's 
retirement the members of the Depart- 
ment have felt the loss not only of their 
oldest colleague, but also of a good friend 
and a sympathetic adviser. 

Dr. H. E. Warmke left the Department 
in August 1945, to organize a Department 
of Plant Breeding at the Institute of 
Tropical Agriculture in Puerto Rico. 

Much of the effort of Riddle and his 
associates during the year has been con- 
centrated on analysis and summarization 
of data obtained in long-term investiga- 
tions. The manuscript of a small volume 
on the subject of carbohydrate and fat 
metabolism in pigeons has been completed. 
The results of the twenty-four-year study 
on the relation of endocrines to constitu- 
tion in doves and pigeons have been sum- 
marized in the more extensive forthcom- 
ing volume "Endocrines and constitution 
in doves and pigeons." McDonald and 
Riddle have finished their studies on the 
effect of reproduction and estrogen ad- 
ministration on the partition of the various 
calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen com- 
ponents of pigeon plasma. The nonultra- 
filtrable calcium was found to exist in 
three forms: (a) colloidal calcium phos- 
phate, (b) calcium bound to the phospho- 
protein, serum vitellin, and (c) calcium 
bound to the plasma proteins other than 
vitellin. Increments in (a) and (b) ac- 
counted for all the increases in nonul- 
trafiltrable calcium resulting from endog- 



enous or administered estrogen. The cal- 
cium-combining capacity of the phospho- 
protein, serum vitellin, is apparently 8 to 9 
times greater than that of the other plasma 
proteins. All the changes in the various 
components that occur in the plasma of 
female pigeons at or near egg production 
can be duplicated by the injection of es- 
trogens; and estrogens are effective in ma- 
ture and immature, normal, parathyroid- 
ectomized, and hypophysectomized pi- 
geons of both sexes. Thyroxine, when ad- 
ministered simultaneously with estrogen 
in equal amounts by weight, prevented 
the marked estrogen-induced increases in 
plasma calcium, phosphorus, and neutral 
fat. It did not measurably inhibit the 
ability of estrogen to promote formation 
of endosteal bone or growth of the oviduct. 
McDonald has continued her studies on 
the alcohol solubility of the plasma pro- 
teins. These have shown that serum al- 
bumin (and, to a lesser extent, some of 
the globulin fractions) is highly soluble, 
in the range of pH below its isoelectric 
point, in 95 per cent ethanol. Hollander 
and Riddle have noted the occasional onset 
of nongenetic partial melanism in adult 
female pigeons of essentially wild-type 
coloration. This partial melanism was as- 
sociated with only slight exposure to sun- 
light and enlargement of the parathyroids. 
It appeared after one or more molts. The 
blackening, when it did not involve entire 
feathers, produced transverse bands on the 
feathers, not longitudinal streaks such as 
are typical of mosaic effects. Parathyroid 
enlargement and defective ossification of 
the bones were shown to occur regularly 
in young pigeons reared on a mixed-grain 
diet in the absence of direct sunlight 
(vitamin D deficiency). Melanism, how- 
ever, was not found in these squabs. 

MacDowell has found that the Cold 
Spring Harbor albino strain of mice 
(Balb) has a relatively high susceptibility 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



105 



to spontaneous leukemia, although the re- 
sistance of this strain to all causes of death 
is so great, and the appearance of leuke- 
mia is so delayed, that this marked suscep- 
tibility was not recognized until a special 
study was recently completed. Dr. Gasic 
came to this laboratory as a Fellow of 
the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial 
Foundation from the University of Chile, 
Santiago, to test upon leukemic growth 
the efficacy of different steroid hormones, 
which had been found by Dr. A. Lip- 
schiitz, of the Chilean National Health 
Service, to have a striking influence on 
fibrous tumors in guinea pigs. Using a 
virulent line of transplanted mouse leu- 
kemia, Gasic found that death was delayed 
slightly (less than one day) in mice treated 
with pellets of testosterone propionate, but 
that desoxycorticosterone and progesterone 
had no effect on the time of death. Gasic 
has pointed out that many of the features 
of the alarm reaction of Selye are shown 
by mice dying with highly virulent trans- 
planted leukemias. Biesele has found that 
normal chromosome size varies with age 
in the rat. According to the tissue, there 
is an increase, a constancy, or a decrease. 
Similarly, in normal lymphatic tissue of 
C58 mice there is an ontogenetic decrease 
in size of chromosomes, but in the transi- 
tion to spontaneous leukemias and from 
them to long-transplanted leukemic lines 
there is an increase in size of chromosomes, 
which occurs gradually rather than by an 
abrupt doubling. Chromosome size in leu- 
kemic cells is influenced by the sex of the 
host and can be modified by means of male 
sex hormone. 

Kaufmann has continued his analysis of 
the mechanism of chromosome breakage 
and recombination by treating sperma- 
tozoa of Drosophila with combinations 
either of X-rays and ultraviolet rays or of 
X-rays and near infrared rays. Ultraviolet 
radiation of wave length 2537 A, when it 



penetrates spermatozoa previously exposed 
to X-rays, effectively reduces the frequency 
(as compared with the controls) of chro- 
mosomal rearrangements that are detected 
by analysis of salivary-gland chromosomes. 
Near infrared radiation likewise, under 
certain conditions of treatment, will reduce 
the frequency of chromosomal rearrange- 
ment; but the effect is not directly on the 
regions of X-ray-induced breakage, as with 
the ultraviolet radiation, but on those proc- 
esses that make spermatozoa that were not 
mature at the time of treatment available 
for transfer in copulation. When treat- 
ment with near infrared radiation pre- 
cedes X-ray exposure, the chromosomes are 
effectively sensitized to breakage by the 
X-rays, as is indicated by the higher fre- 
quency of detectable rearrangement as 
compared with the controls. On the basis 
of the extensive data (about 3750 pairs of 
glands) collected in these and other studies, 
Kaufmann has re-examined the question 
of chromosome recombination, and now 
reports that, so far as the X chromosome 
of Drosophila melanogaster is concerned, 
the degree of randomness of recombina- 
tion varies according to whether the 
breaks occur in euchromatin or in hetero- 
chromatin. 

Demerec has developed a special tech- 
nique for detecting in Escherichia coli 
mutants resistant to bacteriophages, which 
involves applying the phage to the culture 
in the form of a fine aerosol. With ma- 
terial treated with ultraviolet radiation of 
wave length 2513 A, evidence was ob- 
tained that the increased mutation rate 
induced by irradiation persists over a 
considerable period of time, presumably 
through a number of cell divisions. Luria 
has detected two types of resistance to 
penicillin in Staphylococcus. In one type 
the bacteria are resistant because they 
secrete penicillinase; in the other type there 
is no evidence for an inactivator of penicil- 



io6 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



lin. Mrs. Witkin has found that difference 
in resistance to ultraviolet in E. coli is due 
mainly to a difference in the ability of 
bacteria to initiate division after irradia- 
tion. Demerec has devised a method for 
treating adult Drosophila with aqueous 
solutions of various chemicals by keeping 
the flies in an atmosphere containing an 
aerosol of the solution in question. Obser- 
vations made by Dr. Jack Schultz, of the 
Lankenau Hospital Research Institute, on 
flies treated with aerosols of various dyes 
indicated that the material was present 
in the crop and digestive organs of the 
flies and, in some instances, in the testis. 

Th. Dobzhansky, Research Associate of 
the Institution, has been investigating the 
rapid evolutionary changes discovered in 
natural populations of the fly Drosophila 
pseudoobscura in certain localities in Cali- 
fornia. These changes seem to be con- 
nected with the annual climatic cycle: 
some genetic variants become more fre- 
quent in the populations during the sum- 
mer and other variants during the spring. 
The causative agent that operates here is 
natural selection; some variants are more 
favorable in spring and others in summer 
environments. This is interesting in itself, 
because very few well established instances 
of observable changes produced by natural 
selection are known. What makes the 
case of Drosophila pseudoobscura unique 
is that the changes observed in nature can 
be reproduced in part in the laboratory. 
For this purpose, artificial populations of 
flies of this species are set up in specially 
constructed "population cages," and sam- 
ples of these populations are taken and 
examined from time to time. The most 
significant result to date is that in popula- 
tion cages kept at higher temperatures 
(25 ° C, or summer room temperatures) 
changes are observed which coincide both 
in direction and in speed with those taking 
place in natural populations during the 



summer. At lower temperatures (16 C.) 
the composition of the populations in the 
population cages remains constant. This 
shows that the advantages or disadvan- 
tages that a genetic variation may produce 
in an organism are greatly dependent on 
even relatively small changes in the en- 
vironment: at 25 ° C. some of the variants 
involved in these experiments are much 
superior to others in the struggle for sur- 
vival, whereas at 16 C. all seem to be 
equally viable. Now, natural populations 
of at least some organisms are composed 
of mixtures of numerous genetic variants, 
with different environmental optima and 
different responses to changes that may 
occur in the milieu in which they live. 
This fact permits us to understand the re- 
markable adaptability shown by species of 
many organisms, within short intervals of 
time as well as in geological time, which is 
one of the most important phenomena of 
evolution. 

Warmke has continued his investiga- 
tions of polyploidy and sex in Melandrium. 
He has found that the spontaneous break- 
age of the Y chromosome observed pre- 
viously is associated with bridge formation, 
particularly at the second meiotic division. 
By studying plants with various types of 
Y-chromosome deficiency, which arose 
from the spontaneous breakage, he has 
been able to resolve the process of male 
development into three separate steps: (1) 
the initiation of maleness, (2) the com- 
pletion of maleness, and (3) the suppres- 
sion of femaleness. The first of these 
processes is controlled by a gene or genes 
near the centromere of the Y chromosome, 
the second by a gene or genes near the top 
of the differential arm, and the last by a 
gene or genes near the end of the homol- 
ogous arm. These steps appear to be 
qualitatively distinct from one another. 

During the fall of 1944, McClintock 
spent a period of ten weeks at the Bio- 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



107 



logical Laboratories of Stanford Univer- The very special behavior in successive 

sity and undertook a preliminary investi- nuclear divisions of a recently broken end 

gation of the chromosomes of Neurospora. of a chromosome was utilized as the mu- 

Recent investigations with fungi have tation-inducing agent. In these studies, 

demonstrated their superiority as genetic the short arm of chromosome 9 was the 

materials, but little has been done to co- particular segment of the chromosomal 

ordinate the genetic studies with studies complement under investigation. Theo- 

of chromosomal conditions. If the full ad- retical considerations had indicated that it 

vantages of fungi as genetic materials are should be possible to obtain a number of 

to be realized, a knowledge of chromo- new mutations located at various positions 

somal conditions and behavior is requi- throughout the full short arm of chromo- 

site. Many genetic investigations would be some 9. To date, 69 mutations have been 

simplified and our understanding greatly located in the short arm of chromosome 9, 

enhanced if concomitant cytological anal- but they represent only 7 distinct types 

yses could be made. The brief study of because of the repeated occurrence of the 

the chromosomes and their behavior in same mutations. New phenomena of chro- 

Neurospora has suggested not only that mosome behavior and new mutants with 

some fungi are superior genetic materials, provocative phenotypic expressions have 

but also that they may be adequate and in appeared as a part or an adjunct of these 

some respects superior cytogenetic ma- experiments. 

terials. The observations of Neurospora Because of the increasing pressure of his 

included determinations of chromosome duties at the Ballistic Research Laboratory, 

number, absolute and relative sizes of Fano could not continue to act as scientific 

chromosomes, centromere positions, in- adviser for the Survey of the Human Re- 

ternal organization of the chromosomes, sources of the State of Connecticut. There- 

zygote formation, and chromosome be- fore Dr. Ruby Jo Reeves Kennedy, of the 

havior in the two meiotic mitoses and the Connecticut College for Women, New 

equational mitosis that follows, as well as London, Connecticut, has taken his place 

scattered observations of several chromo- as scientific adviser; Miss Mabel A. 

somal translocations. Several phenomena Matthews, Director of the Social Service 

of considerable theoretical interest were Department of the Mansfleld-Southbury 

noted; in particular, the contracted state Training Schools, is in charge of the 

of the chromosomes at the time of synaptic project. 

association. On returning to Cold Spring Dr. S. G. Stephens is spending a year 
Harbor, Dr. McClintock resumed her with us as a Research Associate of the 
studies with maize. These studies are Department. Dr. Edgar Anderson, of 
aimed at the production of mutations in Washington University, St. Louis, Mis- 
a specific segment of the chromosomal souri, and Dr. William L. Brown, of the 
complement. If our knowledge of the Pioneer Hi-Bred Corn Company, John- 
mutation processes is to advance, some ston, Iowa, spent about three weeks in 
methods should be devised for the indue- June and July working with Dr. McClin- 
tion of specific mutations, and some under- tock. A number of geneticists worked 
standing should be obtained of the phe- during the summer at the Biological Labo- 
nomena associated with the origin of these ratory, in close contact with our Depart- 
mutations. Previous investigations with ment. These included Max Delbriick, of 
maize have suggested a possible method. Vanderbilt University; Myron Gordon, of 



io8 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



the New York Zoological Society; Ernst kenau Hospital Research Institute; and 
Mayr, of the American Museum of Nat- C. C. Tan, of the National University of 
ural History; Jack Schultz, of the Lan- Chekiang, China. 

CYTOGENETIC STUDIES OF MAIZE AND NEUROSPORA 

Barbara McClintock 



Induction of Mutations in the Short 
Arm of Chromosome 9 in Maize 

In the past, many methods have been 
used to induce mutations. The majority 
of these methods do not give rise to spe- 
cific mutations or to mutations confined 
to specific regions of the chromosome com- 
plement. Instead, a random assortment 
and distribution of mutations are obtained. 
A better understanding of the factors in- 
volved in the mutation processes would be 
possible if specific mutations associated 
with specific regions of the chromosomal 
complement could be effected. Recent in- 
vestigations with maize have suggested sev- 
eral approaches to the problem of induc- 
tion of specific mutations. One of these 
will be considered in this report. In pre- 
vious reports, the repeated induction of 
the mutants pyd (pale-yellow seedling), 
wd (white seedling), and yg (yellow- 
green seedling and plant) has been 
described. Their origin has been asso- 
ciated with the behavior in several succes- 
sive nuclear divisions of a recently broken 
end of a chromosome. This behavior has 
been called the chromatid type of break- 
age-fusion-bridge cycle. The pyd mutant 
appeared when the chromosomal comple- 
ment was deficient for a small terminal 
segment of the short arm of chromosome 
9; the wd mutant appeared when a slightly 
longer terminal segment was missing. The 
mutant phenotype bz (bronze) has like- 
wise appeared following the production of 
a specific internal deficiency, as previously 
described. From this and other types of 
evidence, it has been concluded that spe- 
cific mutations will arise as the conse- 



quence of specific minute deficiencies. If 
the breakage-fusion-bridge cycle could give 
rise to a number of different internal 
minute deficiencies, and if the short arm 
of chromosome 9 were subjected to this 
process, various new mutants other than 
pyd, wd, yg, and bz should appear, each 
related to loss of a specific minute segment 
within this arm. The methods used to iso- 
late the mutants pyd, wd, yg, and bz were 
selective. Therefore, a random sample of 
mutants which might be produced as the 
consequence of the breakage-fusion-bridge 
cycle did not appear. During the past year, 
nonselective methods have been used to 
determine whether the expected new mu- 
tants actually are being produced. 

Cytological observations of the breakage- 
fusion-bridge cycle, as well as theoretical 
considerations, have indicated that this 
cycle will result in the production of in- 
ternal deficiencies. Occasionally, a chro- 
matid bridge in an anaphase figure is 
broken at more than one place. If a 
chromatid bridge breaks in three places, 
two centric chromosomes with a single 
broken end and two acentric fragments, 
each with both ends broken, will be 
formed. It is possible for the two frag- 
ments to enter one telophase nucleus along 
with the centric chromosome. If, in this 
nucleus, a particular type of fusion of 
broken ends occurs, a centric rod chromo- 
some with an internal deficiency and an 
acentric ring fragment can be produced 
(following fusion of the two broken ends 
of the proximal fragment to form an 
acentric ring, and fusion of one broken 
end of the distal fragment with the broken 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



109 



end of the centric chromosome). If the ranging from minute to extensive. There- 
remaining free broken end of the centric fore, both the chromatid and the chromo- 
rod chromosome healed and no longer some type of breakage cycle have been 
underwent the breakage-fusion-bridge cy- utilized in an attempt to produce and 
cle, a chromosome with an internal de- isolate new mutations confined within the 
ficiency might subsequently be isolated, short arm of chromosome 9. 
Sufficient cytological evidence has accumu- To isolate new mutants produced by the 
lated to support the assumption that this chromatid bridge cycle, F 2 progeny de- 
is one method of origin of internal de- rived from Fi plants that had received a 
ficiencies. Theoretical considerations sug- recently broken chromosome 9 from one 
gest a second method for obtaining in- parent were examined. To isolate new 
ternal deficiencies. Many investigators mutants produced by the chromosome 
have considered the anaphase chromo- bridge cycle, the selfed progeny of indi- 
somes to be multiple, that is, composed viduals that had received a newly broken 
of two or more sister strands. It is prob- chromosome 9 from each parent were ex- 
able that effective doubleness at anaphase amined. In many cases, the constitution of 
is present in some cells or tissues and not the short arm of the chromosomes 9 with 
in others. Should a chromatid bridge at healed broken ends had been considerably 
anaphase be composed of two sister strands, altered during the period of the breakage 
breakage need not occur at comparable cycles. Large as well as small duplications 
positions in the two strands. Should the or deficiencies frequently were present, 
breakage be unequal, the chromatin com- Many of these altered chromosomes 9 
position of the two sister strands enter- did not pass through the gametes to 
ing a nucleus would not be comparable, the next generation. Whenever the pollen 
They could differ by various duplications grains and eggs carrying the chromo- 
or deficiencies. If, in the following telo- somes 9 with altered short arms were 
phase, fusion occurred between the two capable of effecting fertilization, the selfed 
broken ends of the unequal strands, the progeny could include individuals homo- 
chromatin components between the two zygous for these altered short arms. Should 
centromeres would consist of two dis- an alteration, when homozygous, result in 
similar instead of similar segments. A a changed phenotype, individuals with a 
chromatid bridge and breakage of this distinct mutant character would appear in 
bridge would follow in the next mitotic the progeny. Considerations of space and 
division. Should the resulting newly labor confined the search for new muta- 
broken end heal permanently, it might tions mainly to the kernels and the seed- 
be possible subsequently to isolate a chro- lings. A number of new mutants appeared 
matid with an internal deficiency. The in these progenies. The most clearly de- 
type and extent of deficiency would de- fined of these mutants were selected to 
pend on the positions of breakage in these determine whether or not they were lo- 
two divisions. This process would give cated in the short arm of chromosome 9. 
rise to internal deficiencies without frag- Only 3 of the distinctly new types of 
ment formation. Again, theoretical consid- mutant have been sufficiently analyzed to 
erations have suggested that the chromo- indicate their positions in the short arm. 
some type of breakage-fusion-bridge cycle These are a small-kernel mutant (sml(), a 
(see previous reports) should result in spotted-leaf mutant (spl), and a pale-green 
chromosomes with internal deficiencies mutant (pg). The sm\ and spl mutants 



no 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



are located in the distal third of the short 
arm, whereas pg is located between the 
mutants sh and wx. Many new pyd and 
wd mutants and a few new yg mutants ap- 
peared in these cultures. Although 69 
mutants arising from newly broken chro- 
mosomes 9 have been tested, they represent 
only 7 distinct phenotypes because of the 
repeated occurrence of the same mutations. 
In the published linkage group of chromo- 
some 9, 7 spontaneously arising mutants 
have been placed in the short arm. The 
symbols for these are : Dt, yg, C, sh, bz, bp, 
and wx. The newly broken chromosomes 
9 have given the 7 mutants pyd, wd, yg, 
sm\, spl, bz, and pg. As has been stated 
previously, the yg and bz mutants derived 
from the broken chromosomes 9 are allelic 
to the 2 mutants, yg and bz, that arose 
spontaneously in genetic cultures. 

An interesting type of chromosomal be- 
havior has appeared in three of the broken- 
chromosome cultures mentioned above. In 
each culture, one of the broken chromo- 
somes 9 is continually being lost from cells 
during development. This loss is not due 
to bridge formation or to ring chromosome 
behavior, but appears to be caused by the 
inability of the two halves of this chromo- 
some to migrate to opposite poles in some 
of the somatic anaphase figures. The rate 
of loss varies widely from plant to plant. 
Within a single plant, changes in rate 
occur; this is made evident by the pres- 
ence of distinct sectors each with its own 
rate of loss. To date, only a cursory ex- 
amination of the nature of this phenome- 
non has been made; it warrants further 
study. In addition, some of the mutants 
appearing in these cultures are individu- 
ally provocative. Several show variegation 
characterized by a change from mutant to 
normal-appearing tissues. For any one 
plant, a distinctive or basic rate of change 
is apparent, but this basic rate differs from 
plant to plant. Sectors with changed rates 



of variegation appear in all plants, espe- 
cially in the later-appearing tissues. It is 
significant that twin sectors accompany 
many if not most of the alterations in rate; 
this is expressed by the appearance of a 
sector of tissue having a greatly increased 
rate of variegation immediately adjacent 
to a sector of tissue having a much reduced 
rate of variegation. 

Preliminary Studies of the Chromosomes 
of the Fungus Neurospora crassa 

During the fall of 1944, a period of ten 
weeks was spent in the Biological Labora- 
tories of Stanford University, where ge- 
netic studies are being conducted with the 
fungus 'Neurospora. The purpose of this 
visit was to obtain some knowledge of 
chromosomal and nuclear behavior in 
Neurospora crassa. Although fungi have 
assumed an important role as genetic ma- 
terials, little has been done to coordinate 
the genetic studies with a study of chromo- 
somal conditions. As genetic investiga- 
tions with fungi progress, the necessity 
for correlative cytogenetic analyses will be- 
come increasingly evident. It was a pleas- 
ure to have the opportunity of examining 
Neurospora in this laboratory. Progress 
was greatly accelerated by the availability 
of large numbers of stocks, both wild-type 
and mutant, and by the generous and co- 
operative support of the members of the 
department. 

The observations were confined to the 
chromosomes and nuclei of the ascus. 
They included observations of chromo- 
some numbers, absolute and relative sizes 
of the chromosomes, centromere positions, 
internal organization of the chromosomes, 
zygote formation, chromosome behavior in 
the two meiotic mitoses and the equa- 
tional mitosis which follows, and scattered 
observations of several chromosomal trans- 
locations. In the short time available, no 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



III 



one of these topics could be adequately 
considered. Nevertheless, this over-all sur- 
vey has suggested that some fungi may be 
adequate and, in several respects, superior 
material for cytogenetic studies. 

The haploid number of chromosomes in 
Neurospora crassa is 7. Each chromosome 
of the complement is distinguished by its 
relative length, the position of its centro- 
mere, and its internal organization. The 
longest chromosome is approximately 2.7 
times as long as the shortest. The second- 
longest chromosome, chromosome 2, has a 
nucleolus organizer located close to the end 
of the short arm. The organizer region 
functions to produce a nucleolus in a man- 
ner similar to that observed in many other 
organisms. Because of its location close to 
the end of one arm of this chromosome, a 
minute satellite is formed. Throughout the 
various nuclear cycles, the relative lengths 
of the chromosomes of the complement are 
maintained. Therefore, absolute lengths 
need be given only for the longest chromo- 
some. In the third division in the ascus, 
which is equational, this chromosome may 
be only 1.5 microns long. At the full 
meiotic prophase extension, it may be 15 
microns long. Chromomere patterns were 
observed at this latter stage; each chromo- 
some appears to have its characteristic 
pattern. Centromere positions were ade- 
quately determined for the two longest 
chromosomes, and approximate positions 
were obtained for the other five chromo- 
somes. Two heterochromatic segments 
were observed and located adjacent to the 
centromere, but the chromosome or chro- 
mosomes carrying these heterochromatic 
segments were not identified. 

Fusion of two haploid nuclei to form 
the zygote nucleus occurs in the very 
young ascus. The two sets of chromo- 
somes in this zygote nucleus then com- 
mence the activities associated with meiosis. 
The behavior of the chromosomes in the 



early meiotic stages is of considerable theo- 
retical interest. During meiosis in most 
organisms, homologous associations com- 
mence when the chromosomes are in a 
very elongated state. In the Neurospora 
strains most intensively studied, this occurs 
when the chromosomes are greatly con- 
tracted. Following nuclear fusion, the 
chromosomes contributed by each nucleus 
undergo what appears to be a typical pro- 
phase contraction without visible evidence 
of splitting, until, in some strains, the chro- 
mosomes are almost as short as those of the 
metaphase of the third division in the 
ascus. In this highly contracted state, the 
homologous chromosomes commence their 
synaptic associations. Before the chromo- 
somes have reached this state, fusion of the 
nucleoli contributed by the two nuclei usu- 
ally has occurred. Actual physical associa- 
tion of the homologues usually begins at 
one or both ends and continues along the 
chromosomes. In many nuclei, synapsis is 
completed for some pairs of chromosomes 
before the members of the other pairs have 
approached sufficiently close to each other 
to commence actual contacts. It is not 
clear from these studies whether the 
approach of homologous chromosomes 
toward each other is directed or whether 
it follows from random movements of the 
chromosomes in the nucleus. It is of con- 
siderable theoretical interest to determine 
the range of the synaptic force which 
brings about homologous associations of 
chromosomes. It is suspected that the 
young asci of Neurospora might be readily 
cultured. Because of the relatively large 
volume of the nucleus and the small size of 
the chromosomes in these asci, continuous 
observations of the behavior of these chro- 
mosomes in the living nuclei might be 
possible. 

Following the synaptic phase, the asso- 
ciated homologous chromosomes begin to 
elongate until, as stated above, the longest 



112 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



chromosome may reach a length of 15 
microns. Diplotene sets in rather suddenly 
following the completion of elongation of 
the synapsed chromosomes. The period 
from diplotene to metaphase I is passed 
through very rapidly. At diakinesis, typical 
chiasmata may be observed leading to 
rather orthodox, even though small, meta- 
phase I bivalents. Although the nucleolus 
becomes smaller during the prometaphase 
stage, it is still present at metaphase. Chro- 
mosome 2 remains attached to the nucleo- 
lus by its organizer region. Anaphase I 
appears to be essentially typical except for 
the presence of the nucleolus. The nucleo- 
lus may be dragged toward one pole or 
stretched between the poles because the 
nucleolus organizer of one or more chro- 
matids of chromosome 2 still remains at- 
tached to it. The nucleolus becomes de- 
tached before telophase sets in. At telo- 
phase I, and likewise at telophases II and 
III, the centromere regions of all the chro- 
mosomes form an aggregate that lies at 
the apex of a distinct protrusion of the 
nucleus (the beak). No true resting nu- 
cleus is formed. Instead, the chromosomes 
uncoil, the individual arms of each chro- 
mosome extending into an elongated nu- 
cleus. A new nucleolus is formed and 
remains attached to the nucleolus organ- 
izers of chromosome 2. Contraction of the 
chromosomes initiates prophase II. This 
continues until the two dyad chromosomes 
are in the form of short, parallel rods, each 
showing a conspicuous centromere region. 
Metaphase and anaphase II are essentially 
typical. At telophase II the centromere re- 
gions are again aggregated at the apex 
of the beak of the nucleus; the chromo- 
somes uncoil and the two arms of each 



chromosome extend into the nucleus as 
individual strands. They remain in this 
condition until the following prophase. 
The extent of elongation of the chromo- 
somes appears to be similar to that ob- 
served in the meiotic prophase. In each 
nucleus, a new nucleolus is formed at the 
position of the nucleolus organizers of 
chromosome 2. Prophase III is initiated by 
contraction of the arms of the chromo- 
somes. The metaphase and anaphase of 
division III proceed as a typical equational 
mitosis. The resting stage of nuclear or- 
ganization follows telophase III. Shortly 
after spore delimitation, a mitosis occurs 
in each ascus. This is also a typical equa- 
tional mitosis. In essential details, divi- 
sions I and II are typically meiotic. Divi- 
sion III is essentially a somatic mitosis, ex- 
cept that the chromosomes retain their 
identity as elongated strands from the telo- 
phase of division II to the prophase of 
division III. The time of effective splitting 
of the chromosomes for this division is 
of some theoretical interest. 

Because many of the mutations in Neu- 
rospora have appeared following X-ray 
and ultraviolet irradiation, it was suspected 
that various types of chromosomal translo- 
cation might likewise have been induced 
by these treatments. Three irradiation-in- 
duced mutants, whose genetic behavior 
suggested the presence of some chromo- 
somal abnormality, were selected for ex- 
amination. A translocation between two 
nonhomologous chromosomes was found 
in each case. Intensive studies of these 
translocations were not undertaken, but 
the preliminary observations have sug- 
gested the usefulness of some transloca- 
tions for attacking special problems. 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



113 



POLYPLOIDY INVESTIGATIONS 

H. E. Warmke, Harriet Davidson, and Germaine LeClerc 



The work of this laboratory during the 
past year has been largely devoted to a 
study of spontaneous breakage of the Y 
chromosome in Melandrium and to an 
investigation of the number, position, and 
mode of action of the male genes made 
available for study by such breakage. The 
beginnings of these studies were men- 
tioned last year, at which time certain con- 
tradictory observations were noted. Now 
these apparent contradictions have been re- 
solved, and the essential facts stand out 
clearly. 

These studies had their inception with 
the discovery that the chief male-determin- 
ing genes in Melandrium are located in a 
single chromosome, the Y. This knowl- 
edge, and the development of inbred 
plants of the constitution 2A XXY, made 
possible an analysis of maleness in Melan- 
drium similar to the analysis of female- 
ness made by Dobzhansky and Schultz, 
Pipkin, and others in Drosophila; that is, 
a determination of whether sex is con- 
trolled by a single or by many male-deter- 
mining c genes, and something of the loca- 
tion of this gene or genes in the Y chromo- 
some. No similar investigation of maleness 
has been made previously, on either plant 
or animal material, so far as we are aware. 

Breakage of the Y Chromosome in 
2A XXY Plants 

Cytological examination of plants with 
broken Y chromosomes shows that frag- 
ments are constant in size in all parts of 
a given plant. This evidence, together 
with the absence of sectorial chimeras, 
indicates that the breakage does not occur 
somatically, but is a meiotic phenomenon. 
This inference was borne out by the dis- 
covery of meiotic bridges, involving the 
Y chromosome, apparently in sufficient 
11 



numbers to account for the observed inci- 
dence of breaks. 

These bridges, however, are not of the 
usual type, which results from crossing 
over in heterozygous inversions. The 
bridges observed in 2A XXY individuals 
of Melandrium appear to be restricted 
largely to the second division, and are 
not accompanied by acentric fragments. 
Though the exact cause of bridge forma- 
tion is not clear, it appears to be asso- 
ciated with asynapsis of the Y chromo- 
some. There is a close correlation between 
the amount of asynapsis and of bridge for- 
mation, and the number of broken Y 
chromosomes recovered. 

When the Y chromosome fails to syn- 
apse with either of the X's, it behaves as 
a univalent at meiosis. If it is not on the 
spindle at the first division, and is by 
itself, it may form a separate micronucleus; 
or, if it happens to lie near one of the 
poles, it may become incorporated in one 
of the daughter nuclei. In this latter case 
it splits longitudinally at the second divi- 
sion, and the two chromatids separate 
normally. If, however, the asynaptic Y 
comes to lie on the first-division spindle, 
it divides somewhat later than the other 
chromosomes but nevertheless one whole 
division cycle ahead of normal. The sister 
halves of such a precociously dividing Y 
chromosome may become incorporated in 
the telophase nuclei of the first division; 
or they may not have separated in time 
to be so included, and in this case they 
form small accessory nuclei. In either 
event they behave abnormally at the second 
division. Having already divided at the 
first division, they do not divide again at 
the second; instead they become laggards, 
are not under the control of their centro- 
meres, and are variously distributed on the 



ii4 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



spindle during the second division. These 
laggards, when caught by the spindle 
forces, are stretched and, it is believed, form 
the bridges which break and give rise to 
the observed Y fragments. 

Number, Location, and Mode of Action 
of Male-Determining Genes 

As the result of selfing 2A XXY plants, 
the normal offspring — 2A XXY (male- 
hermaphrodite), 2A XX (female), 2 A XY 
(male), and 2AXYY (supermale) — are 
obtained, and in addition two abnormal 
hermaphrodite types appear. These are: 
(1) a type in which the female structures 
are highly developed, essentially as well 
developed as in 2A XX females and with 
normal stamens; and (2) the type de- 
scribed last year, in which there is a 
complete failure of stamen development 
shortly after meiosis. These segregants are 
easily distinguished from the normal types, 
and cytological examination has shown 
them to be associated with breaks in the 
Y chromosome. The first type occurs 
when the homologous (synaptic) arm of 
the Y is deficient. Deficiencies may range 
in size from a short terminal loss to one 
which appears to include the entire or 
nearly the entire homologous arm. It is 
interesting that the degree of abnormality 
is not proportional to the length of the 
deficiency; once a small terminal segment 
is lost, this phenotype appears, and larger 
losses do not cause more pronounced 
effects. One can be certain in such cases 
that the homologous arm, and not the 
differential arm, is the deficient one, by 
the fact that deficiencies in the homologous 
arm cause complete asynapsis of the Y 
chromosome. The asynaptic Y, as noted 
above, behaves as a univalent and is obvi- 
ous in all figures. The segment that pairs 
with the X thus appears to be terminal and 
quite short; losses of as little as one-fourth 
or one-fifth of the arm prevent synapsis. 



The second abnormal type of segregant, 
in which male development is arrested 
short of completion, with resultant male 
sterility, appears when there is breakage 
of the differential arm of the Y chromo- 
some, or combined differential and homol- 
ogous breakage. As with deficiencies in 
the homologous arm, a small terminal loss 
in the differential arm is sufficient to evoke 
the effect, and larger deficiencies do not 
increase this effect. Plants that have lost 
as little as one-fourth of the differential 
arm are male sterile and indistinguishable 
from plants that have lost most of both 
arms. The Y, in extreme cases of this latter 
type, may be represented at meiosis by 
only a small spherical fragment, smaller in 
diameter than the normal width of a chro- 
mosome, and in somatic mitosis by a frag- 
ment shorter than the smallest autosome. 
These fragments, down to the smallest, re- 
tain their centromeres and are carried 
through the mitotic growth divisions to 
every cell of the plant; only in rare cases 
and with the very smallest fragments is 
there evidence that somatic loss may occur. 

The above observations are interpreted 
as indicating that maleness in Melandrium 
is not controlled by a single gene, or by an 
extremely large number (as is the case with 
femaleness in Drosophila). Specifically, 
there appear to be at least three genes 
or gene complexes in Melandrium that 
operate in the development of maleness, 
and more may well appear as more defi- 
ciencies are discovered. First, there is one 
near the centromere, and present in the 
smallest observed fragments of the Y chro- 
mosome, which initiates male development. 
Plants which lack this proximal part of 
the Y, as when it is lost somatically or is 
not originally present (2A XX types), are 
normal females; when this proximal seg- 
ment is present stamens do develop, but 
just past meiosis. Second, there is a gene 
(or group of associated genes) near the 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



115 



end of the differential arm of the Y that partial answer to this question is now 

completes male development. When the possible, because of evidence obtained from 

entire differential arm is present full male two newly derived types of plants. These 

development results, but when as little as are plants with two sets of autosomes, 

one-fifth of the arm is absent in terminal two X chromosomes, and two deficient 

deficiencies, male development stops where Y chromosomes. 

the male-initiating influence left off. Third, One of these types had two Y fragments 
there appears to be a gene or region in comprising the proximal region (the re- 
the terminal fourth of the homologous gion necessary for the initiation of male 
arm of the Y which suppresses femaleness. structures), but none for male completion 
Whether this is in the pairing segment or or female suppression. These two Y frag- 
not is uncertain. When the entire Y ments, though unquestionably exceeding 
chromosome is present (in addition to two a complete Y in total amount of chro- 
X chromosomes), female structures are matin, did not combine to produce com- 
poorly developed; in only a small per- plete maleness. These plants were pheno- 
centage of the blossoms are ovaries suffl- typically indistinguishable from plants 
ciently well developed to set capsules with with only a single proximal Y fragment; 
seed. When the homologous arm is de- they were male sterile because of incom- 
ficient — that is, when this particular region plete male development, 
is removed — female development is com- A second and somewhat similar type has 
plete, and every blossom produces seed- recently been synthesized; it has two Y 
filled capsules. Thus experimental evi- fragments, each lacking the distal part of 
dence indicates that this part of the the homologous arm, that is, the female- 
Y chromosome acts when present as a suppressing region. These plants, though 
positive suppressor of the female-determin- having two male-initiating segments and 
ing regions in the X chromosomes. two male-completing segments, still are not 
Basically it is important to know able to suppress femaleness. It would thus 
whether the genes controlling these three appear that the genes governing these three 
steps in male development are qualita- essential steps in male development are 
tively different and control different reac- qualitatively distinct from one another in 
tion systems, or are only quantitative stages their action and cannot be substituted one 
in a common over-all process. At least a for another in a quantitative fashion. 



THE GENE 

M. Demerec and S. E. Luria 



Ultraviolet Irradiation and Mutations 
in Escherichia 

Experiments with ultraviolets and X-rays 
were undertaken as a part of the program 
for studying the origin of bacterial resist- 
ance to various agents (Year Book No. 
43). In experiments conducted by M. 
Demerec in collaboration with Miss M. 
Crippen and Miss N. McCormick, strain 
Br of Escherichia coli was treated with 
ultraviolet radiation of wave length 2513 A, 



and the rate of mutation from B to B/i — 
that is, to resistance to bacteriophage Ti — 
was observed. 

Bacteria were plated on Petri dishes and 
incubated. The controls begin to divide 
after about 50 minutes, and the bacteria 
treated with ultraviolet radiation after 
about 2 hours. Once they start to divide, 
the division periods are regular, one every 
20 minutes. Therefore, if the number of 
bacteria put on each plate is known, the 



n6 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



number at subsequent periods can easily 
be estimated. Phage sprayed as an aerosol 
does not disturb the position of bacteria on 
a plate. It will eliminate all sensitive in- 
dividuals, and the resistant ones will re- 
main to form colonies. The number of 
mutations that has occurred during a cer- 
tain interval can readily be determined by 
finding the number of resistant colonies at 
the beginning and at the end of the in- 
terval. The advantage of this method of 
applying phage is that the positions of bac- 
teria are not changed. If mutation occurs 
early in the interval, a mutant bacterium 
will divide and produce several resistant 
bacteria, but all of them will be close 
together and will form only one colony. 

In one set of experiments, the control 
series showed a mutation rate of about 
i to 2 X io -8 , which is similar to that ob- 
served previously in untreated material. In 
a series treated with a dosage which kills 
about 98 per cent of bacteria, the mutation 
rate among bacteria immediately following 
treatment was about 2 X io" 6 ; among bac- 
teria developing during the first 2 hours 
of incubation (one cell generation after 
treatment), the rate was about 4 X io" 6 ; 
among those developing during the in- 
terval between 2 and 3 hours (2d and 3d 
cell generation) after treatment, it was 
about 2 X io" 6 ; and among those develop- 
ing during the interval between 3 and 4 
hours (4th to 6th generation) after treat- 
ment, it was about 3 X io -5 . Results of 
another series of experiments indicated 
that the mutation rate reaches its normal 
level after the bacteria have passed through 
ten to twelve divisions. 

These data show that the increased mu- 
tation rate induced by ultraviolet irradia- 
tion persists over a considerable period of 
time, presumably through a number of 
cell divisions. Experiments are now under 
way to trace down the reasons for this 
persisting effect. 



Bacterial Resistance 

Last year's report (Year Book No. 43, 
pp. 109-110) contained a summary of work 
on the genetic aspects of the origin of re- 
sistance to penicillin of Staphylococcus bac- 
teria. Results of that work indicate that 
resistant bacteria occur as mutants inde- 
pendently of the action of penicillin, that 
resistance develops in steps, and that the 
progress of the building up of resistance 
is more rapid with each step. 

In June 1945, an extensive research proj- 
ect was started, dealing with the genetics 
of acquired bacterial resistance to drugs 
and other antibacterial agents. Dr. S. E. 
Luria, who is on leave of absence from 
Indiana University, is taking a leading 
part in this research. In July and August 
he was joined by Dr. E. Oakberg, Mrs. E. 
Oakberg, Miss R. Arbogast, and Mrs. E. 
Witkin. 

The scope of this project is twofold. Its 
aims are, on the one hand, to solve prac- 
tical problems arising from bacterial resist- 
ance to therapeutic agents, and, on the 
other hand, to obtain fundamental knowl- 
edge about bacterial genetics — in particu- 
lar, about the mutational patterns of bac- 
teria and the underlying physiological 
mechanisms. The present approach to this 
problem is based on the analysis of the 
distribution of mutant individuals in uni- 
parental populations made by Luria and 
Delbriick in 1943. This analysis has been 
applied successfully to the study of bac- 
terial resistance to bacteriophages (Luria 
and Delbriick, 1943; Demerec and Fano, 
1944) and to penicillin (Demerec, 1945). 

The present project includes work on 
resistance to penicillin, sulfonamides, in- 
organic salts, bacteriophages, and ultravio- 
let radiation. The work on penicillin re- 
sistance is directed toward clarification of 
several complex aspects of this phenome- 
non. Two types of penicillin resistance can 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



II 7 



occur. In the first type the cells acquire, 
by mutation, tolerance to higher concentra- 
tions of the antibiotic, without other evi- 
dent physiological changes, as described by 
Demerec. In the second type the organ- 
isms secrete an inactivator of penicillin 
(penicillinase), which protects them from 
penicillin although they are individually 
sensitive. The genetic basis of this second 
type of resistance is still obscure. In the 
course of the work, a rapid quantitative 
test for penicillin resistance in staphy- 
lococci has been devised for use in medical 
laboratories. 

The problem of acquired resistance to 
sulfonamides has met with several difficul- 
ties because of the peculiarities of the phe- 
nomenon of bacteriostasis; in particular, 
because of its complex dependence on the 
initial number of bacterial cells present 
in a culture. This and other aspects of 
the problem are being methodically in- 
vestigated. 

Work on bacteriophage resistance is 
being continued with an analysis of com- 
plex mutations involving unusual changes 
in the resistance pattern of bacteria. Study 
of these mutations is being extended to an 
analysis of the correlated changes in growth- 
factor requirements. It is also planned 
to attempt investigation of the cytological 
aspects of the problem by nuclear stainings. 

The occurrence of bacterial resistance to 
ultraviolet radiation, discovered by Mrs. 
Witkin last year (Year Book No. 43, pp. 
iio-iii), is being further investigated. 
Resistance seems to be due mainly to a 
difference in the ability of bacteria to 
initiate division after irradiation. Im- 
proved techniques have been developed 
for an analysis of this type of resistance, 
and for investigation of the possibility that 
mutations to ultraviolet resistance, besides 
occurring spontaneously, are also induced 
by the radiation itself. 



Development of a High-Yielding Strain 
of Penicillium 

Beginning in September 1943, Mrs. San- 
some and M. Demerec, in collaboration 
with Dr. A. Hollaender, of the National 
Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 
started experiments to produce, by means 
of X-ray and ultraviolet irradiations, strains 
of Penicillium that would give high yields 
of penicillin. Experiments were conducted 
on a small scale until May 1944, when a 
contract with the War Production Board 
became effective and funds were made 
available for additional equipment and 
special assistants to carry on routine tests. 
At that time Dr. H. E. Warmke joined 
the group. The work was continued at 
the Department until November 1944. 
Since early in 1944, similar work, also 
under contract with the War Production 
Board, had been going on at the labora- 
tories of Stanford University, the Univer- 
sity of Minnesota, and the University of 
Wisconsin. 

Penicillin may be obtained from a cul- 
ture medium when Penicillium is grown 
on its surface, or when it is submerged 
and aerated by shaking or by bubbling air 
through the medium. At the time we 
joined the project it was known that high 
surface yielders may not be high yielders 
in submerged cultures, and vice versa. 
Manufacturing experience had indicated 
also that submerged culturing is more 
efficient and economical than surface cul- 
turing. Therefore, the aim of the project 
was to develop high-yielding strains with 
submerged culturing. Since a considerable 
amount of equipment is necessary for com- 
plete tests of the yielding capacity of sub- 
merged strains, it was decided to divide 
the work so that the irradiation and the 
preliminary rough screening tests to iso- 
late possible high yielders would be carried 
out at our laboratory; further tests for 



!j8 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

yielding capacity would be made at the thought worth while to investigate the 

University of Minnesota laboratory, where possibility that the pellets formed in shaker 

large shaking machines were already avail- flasks originate from single spores, in 

able; and the final tests would be carried which case the penicillin-producing capac- 

on at the University of Wisconsin in 80- ity of single pellets could be tested directly, 

gallon tanks. An experiment designed to test this possi- 

For efficient planning of experiments, it bility revealed that pellets are formed from 

was essential to acquire certain funda- a mixture of mycelia originating from 

mental knowledge about the reaction of several spores. 

Penicillium to X-rays. It is known that After experimentation with various tech- 

the frequency of mutations is propor- niques, a standard procedure for making 

tional to the dosage, and also that the rate tests was developed. Spores of Penicillium 

of killing of the treated spores increases chrysogenum were X-rayed on agar slants 

with the dosage. The most efficient dosage with 75,000 r-units. The irradiation was 

for our experiments, therefore, was that given by Mr. L. D. Marinelli at the Me- 

which would produce a sufficiently high morial Hospital in New York, at an in- 

frequency of mutations and at the same tensity of 2420 r per minute. Treated 

time leave enough survivors. spores were spread on the surface of potato- 

In order to establish this dosage, the dextrose-agar plates; and immediately after 
mutation rate and killing rate were deter- germination they were isolated into test 
mined on spores treated with 25,000, 50,000, tubes containing 2 cc. of liquid culture me- 
75,000, and 100,000 r-units. Spores were dium. These were put into the shaker ma- 
treated both dry and in saline suspension, chine, which had a 4-inch horizontal stroke 
Detailed results of these experiments are and operated at 250 strokes per minute, 
published in last year's report (Year Book The tubes we used had an inside diameter 
No. 43, p. 113). On the basis of these re- of 10 mm. and were no mm. long. The 
suits, a dosage of 75,000 r-units was selected size of tubes and the amount of nutrient 
for our experiments. in each tube is determined by the properties 

Tests were also conducted to find out of the shaker. After 5 days of continuous 

whether the mutation rate or the germina- shaking, a sample of the medium taken 

tion rate of treated spores deteriorates when from each tube was diluted 100 times 

they are stored in a refrigerator. Since it and assayed for penicillin content by the 

was found that deterioration does not cup method, using Staphylococcus aureus 

occur, it was possible to treat large batches (NRRL strain B313). Tubes showing a 

of spores and to store them for subsequent high yield were saved and the fungus 

use. growing in them was cultured; the re- 

The majority of cultures obtained by ir- maining tubes were discarded. In this way 
radiation of a high-yielding strain may be about 90 per cent of the cultures were 
expected to have the same high-yielding eliminated as low or average yielders, and 
capacity as the original strain. Conse- 10 per cent were saved as possible high 
quently, the quick assay methods designed yielders and were shipped to the Division 
to screen out low yielders are not applicable of Plant Pathology, University of Minne- 
to these cultures. What is needed is a sota, St. Paul, for further tests. All to- 
quick assay method which will pick out gether, 504 selected strains were sent to 
the exceptional high yielders. In a search Minnesota. One among these was the 
for such a quick screening method it was strain now known as X-1612, which yields 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



II 9 



about twice as much penicillin as the strain 
1951.B25 from which it originated. This 
new high-yielding strain is now used in 
production of penicillin. 

Aerosol Method for Chemical Treat- 
ment of Drosophila melanogaster 

In the course of extensive studies deal- 
ing with the induction of mutations in 
Drosophila by means of X-radiation, effi- 
cient methods have been developed for 
detecting induced as well as spontaneously 
occurring mutations. Dr. H. J. Muller de- 
veloped the most useful one, which is 
designed to detect lethal mutations occur- 
ring in the sperm of male flies. The great 
advantage of this method is that one treat- 
ment reaches a large number of mature 
sperms, which may easily be tested for 
induced changes. 

For many reasons it would be desirable 
to have a similar method for use in studies 
that attempt to induce mutations by means 
of various chemicals; specifically, a method 
whereby the male gonads could be reached 
without excessive injury to the flies and 
without its being necessary for the chemi- 
cals to pass through the digestive organs, 
where they might undergo change. 

It has been shown by Auerbach and 
Robson (Nature, vol. 150, p. 80, 1944) that 
mutations may be induced in Drosophila 
sperm by exposing males to mustard oil 
vapor. It appears likely that the vapor 
enters the gonads through the numerous 
tracheae present in these organs. Now, if 
genetic changes in the sperm may be in- 
duced by materials entering the gonads 
through the tracheae, then it might be pos- 
sible to affect sperm by using an aqueous 
solution of any chemical, in the form of 
an aerosol consisting of very fine droplets. 
With the aid of experience obtained dur- 
ing the past three years in a problem in- 
vestigated at the Biological Laboratory, ap- 



paratus was devised for exposing flies to 
aerosols having droplets less than 1.5 mi- 
crons in diameter. 

During the summer of 1945, M. Dem- 
erec, in cooperation with Wilton E. 
Baty, of the staff of the Huntington High 
School, and Zlata Demerec, carried on 
extensive experiments with aqueous aero- 
sols of thirty chemicals, including oxidiz- 
ing, reducing, and wetting agents and 
stains. In some cases brief exposure to an 
aerosol killed the flies, and in other cases 
the flies were not injured by long exposure. 
Experiments are now under way to deter- 
mine whether or not genetic changes were 
produced in the sperm of treated males. 

The utility of aerosols in attempts to 
alter the genetic constitution of Drosophila 
by chemical means depends on their mode 
of entry and the disposal of the substances 
in the fly. If aerosols enter as gases do, 
through the tracheae, the chemicals con- 
tained in them have almost immediate 
access to the heavily tracheated gonads; 
if not, they may be subject to the various 
methods of detoxification provided by the 
other portals of entry (alimentary, body 
surface). Accordingly, it seemed advisable 
to observe the fate of a group of dyes, 
whose presence in the different organs of 
flies exposed to aerosols made with these 
dyes could easily be detected on dissection. 
By using dyes known to be intravital 
stains, the penetration into the cells could 
be studied. Dr. Jack Schultz, of the Lan- 
kenau Hospital Research Institute, Phila- 
delphia, who was working at the Bio- 
logical Laboratory, participated in these 
studies and made most of the microscopic 
observations. 

The dyes used were the familiar toluidine 
blue, neutral red, janus green, trypan blue, 
among the vital stains. In addition, tests 
were made with acriflavin, because of its 
known effects on amphibian sperm; with 



120 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



the chromatin stains crystal violet, methyl 
green, and safranin O; and with the cyto- 
plasmic and chromosomal counterstain fast 
green. Adult wild-type flies were subjected 
to aerosols containing maximal concentra- 
tions of these dyes, and observed for vari- 
ous periods following the beginning of 
treatment. The atmosphere of the culture 
bottle was renewed every half-hour, so that 
concentration of the aerosol was main- 
tained at an approximately constant level. 

These experiments, then, gave a picture 
of the course of entry of the dyes. Almost 
invariably, the first region to show the dye 
was the crop. Later, in the case of tolui- 
dine blue, neutral red, and acriflavin, the 
stain was visible in the cells of the midgut, 
with characteristic differences in detail. 
The staining was not uniform in all cells 
of the gut, but bands of cells at intervals 
were affected, indicating either a rhythm 
in the release of the material from the 
crop, or the existence of periodicities in the 
receptivity of the cells to the dye. At later 
stages, these dyes were observed in the 
Malpighian tubules and — most interesting 
— in the pigment granules of the testis 
sheath and in cysts of spermatogonia 
(moribund?). With other stains no ab- 
sorption was evident; the dye was simply 
passed along the lumen of the gut for ex- 
cretion. The final picture in all treatments 
was one of excretion of masses of pigment 
from the lumen of the hindgut. 

It appears, then, that intake occurs via 
the proboscis and the alimentary tract. In- 
deed, the proboscis itself was often seen to 
be colored by the dye. Tests were made 
to determine the intake when the flies were 
prevented from feeding on the surface of 
the culture bottles. Following a sugges- 
tion of Dietrich Bodenstein, flies were 
mounted, according to the technique de- 
veloped by Chadwick for studying the fre- 
quency of wing beat, by an attachment to 
the dorsal surface of the abdomen which 



left the fly suspended in air with its legs 
and wings freely movable. Under these 
circumstances staining was similar to that 
observed in unmounted controls, although 
less intense. A few trials were made with 
flies mounted in the way described but 
with their front legs cut of! to minimize 
the amount of dye obtained by licking from 
the surface of the body. The intake was 
further decreased, but still observable. The 
impression is therefore strong that chem- 
icals are taken in by feeding on the film at 
any exposed surface, and also by swallow- 
ing aerosol. 

The use of mutants that cannot fly pro- 
vided evidence from a converse set of con- 
ditions. Crawling on the surface of the 
vessel, the mutant vestigial took in as 
much dye as the wild-type, or possibly 
more. A similar picture is presented by the 
mutant Dichaete, in which an alteration 
of the wing musculature extends the wings 
at right angles to the body. One additional 
point of interest appeared in the experi- 
ments with Dichaete : with toluidine blue, 
the crop rarely became inflated, the dye 
appearing only in the crop duct. This was 
not the case with other dyes — for example, 
neutral red — and constitutes an interesting 
problem on the physiology of the crop. 

Whether there are other modes of in- 
gress than by the alimentary tract was 
tested by the use of the mutant probosci- 
pedia. In this mutant, Dobzhansky and 
Bridges showed, the proboscis is trans- 
formed into a leglike structure, with the 
opening to the buccal cavity completely 
overgrown in the extreme cases. As might 
be expected from the foregoing, those flies 
with closed proboscises showed no intake 
into the gut. They did, however, after 
being exposed for some time, show some 
concentration of dye near the tracheal end- 
ings around the ovary, for example; pig- 
ment could also be seen in the Malpighian 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



121 



tubules. Since previous treatments had 
shown that aerosols of mercuric chloride 
kill wild-type flies, the lethal effect of this 
aerosol on proboscipedia was tested. The 
mutant flies were susceptible to approxi- 
mately the same degree as the wild-type, 
indicating that penetration of the mercuric 
salt into the gut is not required for the 
lethal effect. It would seem, therefore, 
that in proboscipedia, and hence probably 
also in wild-type, there is some intake, of 
certain aerosols at least, through either the 
tracheae or the thinner parts of the body 
surface. 

The occurrence of stained regions in the 
testis is, of course, of major interest. An 
attempt was made to study these more 
closely by the use of the white-eyed mu- 
tant, which lacks pigment in the testis 



sheath and Malpighian tubules; because in 
flies where pigment granules are present 
they absorb the dye selectively. In the 
white-eyed flies, the dye was eliminated 
from the cells more rapidly, when it was 
absorbed at all, and became evident as a 
diffused staining of the cytoplasm. No 
obvious changes in the frequency or loca- 
tion of stained areas in the testis were seen. 
Aerosols furnish a simple technique for 
feeding adults with specific substances, 
without the introduction of the complica- 
tions involved in the use of culture media. 
The presence of stained regions in the 
testis indicates that aerosols of at least 
some chemicals reach the germ cells. The 
genetic study of treated flies will show 
whether this technique is effective in pro- 
ducing mutations. 



CYTOGENETICS OF DROSOPHILA 

Berwind P. Kaufmann and Helen Gay 



Modification of X-Ray-Induced Chromo- 
somal Rearrangements 

Use of near infrared radiation. Although 
radiation geneticists have outlined the 
more general aspects of the process where- 
by the activating energy of ionizing radia- 
tion induces alterations within a chromo- 
some that culminate in its eventual break- 
age, the sequence of molecular changes by 
which this end is reached remains un- 
known. Since breakage may be followed 
by recombination, it follows that the proc- 
ess of disruption by X-rays involves a 
loosening rather than a destruction of 
those bonds that normally serve to main- 
tain the linear continuity of the chromo- 
some. The experimentally induced recom- 
bination types show such patterns of re- 
alignment of parts as presumably have 
occurred in phylogeny, but the techniques 
used have failed so far to furnish a clear 
understanding of the methods by which 
these changes have occurred in nature. 



Certain aspects of the cycle of chromo- 
some breakage and recombination have 
been elucidated by altering the conditions, 
such as rate and temperature, under which 
the ionizing radiation was delivered. On 
theoretical grounds it appears possible, 
therefore, to modify the capacity for re- 
attachment of the bonds loosened by the 
ionizing radiation if supplementary treat- 
ment is given prior to the time that new 
combinations are established. Drosophila 
appears to be especially well suited for 
experiments of this type, since irradiated 
chromosomes of the mature spermatozoa 
do not combine to form new arrangements 
until after the sperm has entered the egg 
in the process of fertilization (Year Book 
No. 39). Irradiated males can be kept for 
several days before mating, so that long 
intervals of time are available in which 
efforts may be made to alter experimentally 
the capacity of the regions of breakage to 
recombine or to undergo restitution. Any 



122 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



factor promoting restitution prior to the 
time of recombination should decrease the 
number of potential breaks, and thereby 
increase the frequency with which sperms 
transmit in fertilization an unaltered group 
of chromosomes. Supplementary treat- 
ment, if it were effective in disrupting the 
chromosome and "sealing" the broken end, 
would likewise reduce the proportion of 
detectable alterations. 

Proceeding on these assumptions, a series 
of experiments were initiated (Year Books 
Nos. 41, 42) to measure the effects of the 
ultraviolet and near infrared parts of the 
spectrum on X-ray-induced chromosomal 
rearrangements. The projects were carried 
out in cooperation with Dr. Alexander 
Hollaender, of the National Institute of 
Health, who designed the apparatus used 
for treating the flies. The method of bio- 
logical assay involved cytological analysis 
of the salivary-gland chromosomes of the 
Fi larval progeny of irradiated fathers 
mated with virgin females of the same 
(Oregon-R) stock of D. melanogaster. 

In the first experiments (Year Book No. 
41) 4000 roentgens of X-rays were given in 



when intercalated between the two frac- 
tions of X-ray treatment, it was effective 
in reducing the frequency of chromosomal 
rearrangements in proportion to the time 
of treatment. Subsequent experiments have 
shown that the reduction with time is to 
be attributed to an accelerating effect of 
the near infrared radiation on those proc- 
esses that make available for copulation 
sperm that was not mature at the time of 
X-ray treatment. 

Post-treatment with near infrared does 
not seem to be effective, therefore, in elimi- 
nating or modifying the potential breaks 
induced by X-rays. But a repetition of the 
fractionation experiment so designed as to 
test only spermatozoa that were mature 
at the time of treatment gave a frequency 
of rearrangement in excess of that observed 
in the X-ray controls. Inasmuch as frac- 
tionation of the X-ray dose involves pre- 
treatment as well as post-treatment with 
near infrared, a series of tests was run in 
which exposure to near infrared preceded 
4000 roentgens of X-rays. The combined 
data from 5 series of experiments are pre- 
sented in the accompanying table. 



Frequency of chromosome breakage 



Type of treatment 


Total 
sperms 
tested 


No. with 
rearrange- 
ments 


Per cent sperm 
showing changes 


No. of 

breaks 

observed 


Breaks 
per 100 

sperms 


Mean no. of breaks 


Near infrared fol- 
lowed by 4000 r 
4000 r alone 


721 
549 


312 
169 


43.27 ± 1.84 
30.78 ± 1.97 


850 
435 


117.89 
79.23 


2.72 ± 0.064 
2.57 ± 0.075 


Diff. %/S. E.... 


12.49/2.70 = 4.6 0.15/0.098 = 1.5 



two equal fractions at 16-day intervals, and 
in the intervening period the flies were ex- 
posed to near infrared radiation for either 
72, 144, or 216 hours. The near infrared 
radiation when used alone produced no 
detectable chromosomal changes in a sam- 
ple of 100 pairs of glands examined; but 



There seems to be little question, from 
these data, that pre-treatment with near in- 
frared is a method of increasing the yield 
of detectable chromosomal alterations in 
Drosophila. The frequency of rearrange- 
ment and that of breaks per total sperm 
tested are of the same order of magnitude 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



123 



as those induced in earlier experiments by 
a dose of 5000 roentgens of X-rays. But 
when a comparison is made, using the x 2 
test, of the proportions of simple and com- 
plex rearrangements, they resemble a 5000-r 
treatment less than they do one of 4000 r. 
Thus the effect of the exposure of male 
flies to near infrared seems to be to sensi- 
tize the chromosomes of the sperm so that 
the number of potential breaks induced 
by 4000 r of X-rays, and the consequent op- 
portunities for recombination, are increased 
without altering the proportions of 2-break, 
3-break, and multiple-break combinations 
characteristic of a 4000-r treatment. A con- 
sideration of the distribution of the in- 
duced breaks indicates, moreover, that the 
increased yield of chromosomal aberrations 
is not due to selective sensitization of any 
one chromosome or part thereof. 

Breaks that are detectable by analysis of 
salivary-gland chromosomes represent but 
a residue of the larger number of potential 
breaks induced by the X-rays, since some 
patterns of recombination lead to unbal- 
anced, inviable nuclei in subsequent gen- 
erations. An effective measure of these 
"dominant lethals" may be obtained by 
determining the proportion of individuals 
that die in embryonic stages. Since only 
about 15 per cent of the eggs hatched fol- 
lowing an X-ray dose of 4000 r, a dose of 
2000 r was used following exposure of the 
males to near infrared rays. The accom- 
panying table presents data of all egg 
counts. 

Hatchability of eggs 



Type of treatment 


Total 

eggs 

deposited 


Unhatched 

36 hrs. 

later 


Per cent 

failing 

to hatch 


None (controls) .... 
Near infrared alone 

(48 hrs.) 

2000 r alone 

Near infrared (48 

hrs.) + 2000 r. . . 


7,047 

14,272 
9,214 

9,562 


478 

1,901 
4,480 

5,096 


6.8 

13.2 
48.6 

53.3 



Near infrared radiation of sperm, al- 
though inducing no appreciable number 
of chromosomal rearrangements (none 
among 100 sperms tested), slightly increases 
the percentage, in comparison with the 
controls, of eggs that fail to hatch. The 
end result is such as might be obtained if 
a small percentage of the sperm were in- 
activated and, although penetrating the 
egg, were unable to ensure fertilization. 
We have not sectioned a series of eggs to 
determine whether those that fail to hatch 
have been fertilized, but inactivation of 
some spermatozoa does not account for 
the augmented break frequency obtained 
following the combined treatment, nor 
does differential inactivation seem prob- 
able when we recall that adult male flies 
exposed to near infrared rays for as long 
as 216 hours show no apparent physiologi- 
cal disturbances or reduction in viability. 
Another possible mode of action of near 
infrared radiation is the rearrangement of 
certain molecular configurations within the 
chromosome so that the bonds maintain- 
ing the linear continuity of the chromo- 
some are uncoupled more readily by the 
ionizing radiation than if such pre-treat- 
ment had not been given. Near infrared 
radiation does increase the body tempera- 
ture of Drosophila during the period of 
exposure. By means of a thermocouple de- 
signed by Dr. J. Gordon Carlson, working 
with Dr. Hollaender at the National Insti- 
tute of Health, it has been determined that 
the temperature of the fly during exposure 
is elevated about y° C. The flies used in 
the studies here reported attained tempera- 
tures of at least 29 to 30 C, but survived 
for as long as 9 days without loss of fertil- 
ity. This is made possible by the design of 
the treatment chamber, which is fitted 
within a coil that carries circulating water 
(temperature, 19 C.) and prevents ex- 
cessive accumulation of heat in the cul- 
ture medium or enclosed air. 



124 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Since near infrared radiation provides 
a method that essentially increases the tem- 
perature range within which normal viabil- 
ity of Drosophila is maintained, its effect 
on irradiated chromosomes at the time 
of their recombination has also been meas- 
ured. Females inseminated by sperm from 
X-rayed males were exposed to the beam 
of near infrared rays during oviposition. 
The eggs deposited by these females com- 
pleted the early cleavage stages while ex- 
posed to the radiation, and gave a signifi- 
cantly higher frequency of chromosomal 
rearrangements than those held at i8° C. 



recommend its use in experiments de- 
signed to alter the frequency of X-ray- 
induced breakage (see Year Book No. 41). 
Accordingly, males of the Oregon-R stock 
of D. melanogaster were given 4000 r of 
X-rays and exposed shortly thereafter to 
ultraviolet radiation of wave length 2537 A 
for 10 minutes. To facilitate penetration 
of the ultraviolet rays, the abdomens of the 
flies were flattened between quartz plates so 
as to bring the testes closer to the ventral 
body surface. Frequencies of chromosomal 
breakage are presented in the accompany- 
ing table. 



Frequency of chromosome breakage 



Treatment 

(X-ray, 4000 r; 2537 A, 

10 mins. exposure) 

Ultraviolet alone 

X-ray alone 

X-ray + ultraviolet: 

(a) 

(b) 

(c) 

(d) 

(e) 

(0 

Total X-ray + ultraviolet 



Total no. 


No. with 


sperm 


rearrange- 


tested 


ments 


146 




128 


38 


55 


8 


51 


8 


49 


12 


44 


12 


39 


11 


51 


16 


289 


67 



Per cent sperm 
showing changes 



No. of 


Breaks 


breaks 


per 100 


detected 


sperm 


108 


84.4 


20 


36.4 


27 


52.9 


25 


51.0 


33 


75.0 


24 


61.5 


39 


76.5 


168 


58.2 



Mean no. of 
breaks 



29.7 ± 4.04 

14.5 db 4.75 
15.7 ± 5.09 
24.5 db 6.14 

27.3 ± 6.72 
28.2 ± 7.21 

31.4 db 6.50 

23.2 ± 2.48 



2.84 ± 0.19 



2.51 db0.13 



during the same period. (See Year Book 
No. 42.) These results suggest that the 
higher temperature accelerates those move- 
ments of the chromosomes that facilitate 
chromosome recombination. In this con- 
nection it is interesting to note that eggs 
exposed to a temperature of 28 ° C. show 
values in frequency of recombination 
and in the complexity of the resulting 
rearrangements intermediate between the 
18 C. and the near infrared samples. 

Effect of ultraviolet radiation of wave 
length 253J A. The selective absorption 
of monochromatic ultraviolet radiation by 
various components of the chromosome 



The considerable variability in the fre- 
quency of chromosomal alterations ob- 
tained following the combined treatment 
is presumably attributable to varying de- 
grees of penetration of the ultraviolet 
quanta. Nevertheless, when the total data 
are compared with those for the X-ray 
controls, the difference in the percentages 
of altered sperms is 1.9 times its standard 
error, and therefore at the threshold of 
significance. In respect to the proportions 
of various types of rearrangement observed, 
the results of the combined-treatment 
series (4000 r + 2537 A) approximate more 
closely those of a 3000-r X-ray treatment 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



125 



than those of a 4000-r treatment alone 
(P = ca. 0.95 when obtained from x 2 )- 

Despite our inability to determine with 
any degree of precision the amount of 
energy reaching the mature spermatozoa 
of the testes, we feel that the data here 
presented indicate that ultraviolet radia- 
tion that penetrates spermatozoa previ- 
ously exposed to ionizing radiation may 
so affect the chromosomes as to produce 
fewer chromosomal rearrangements than 
would have been obtained if ultraviolet 
radiation had not been used. 

Whether the ultraviolet alters the chro- 
mosomes by inhibiting recombination or 
by increasing the amount of restitution 
may possibly be determined by measuring 
the frequency of dominant lethals. Counts 
of numbers of eggs that fail to hatch have 
been made for both the ultraviolet and 
X-ray controls, but data from the com- 
bined treatments are at present too meager 
to present a satisfactory answer to the 
problem. 

Ultraviolet of wave length 2537 A is 
absorbed primarily by nucleic acids, but 
whether the action here reported may 
be attributed to absorption by the ribose 
nucleic acid — as Swanson (Genetics, vol. 
27, 1942) suggests to explain the effects of 
wave length 2537 A on X-ray-induced 
breaks in the pollen-tube chromosomes of 
Tradescantia — or by the desoxyribose nu- 
cleic acid or other components of the chro- 
mosome remains to be determined. The 
spermatozoon of Drosophila presumably 
has a high content of the desoxyribose type, 
and, according to Schultz, is not affected 
by ribonucleose under conditions that per- 
mit digestion of the matrix of the salivary- 
gland chromosomes. Answers to problems 
of this type can possibly be given by an 
extended study of the comparative effects 
of ultraviolet radiation of different wave 
lengths. 



Spontaneous Mutation Rate in 
Drosophila 

Radiation genetics has given many 
clues, if not an answer, to the problem 
of the nature of the mutation process. 
Further information may be gained by 
analysis of various factors influencing spon- 
taneous mutation rates. Ten years ago 
N. W. Timofeeff-Ressovsky presented data 
showing that the percentage of mutations 
occurring in the chromosomes of Dro- 
sophila varies with the age of the sperma- 
tozoon. We have carried out similar ex- 
periments during the past year with the 
assistance of Miss Katherine Tulloch and 
Mr. B. N. Kaufmann. The frequency of 
lethal mutation in the X chromosome of 
the Swedish-b stock of D. melanogaster 
was determined by the standard C1B 
method. All stocks and experimental ma- 
terials were kept at 22 ° C. Males were 
selected within a few hours of their 
emergence, stored for either 1 day, 16 days, 
or 32 days, and then placed for 1 day with 
virgin females of the ClB stock. The 
sperm from males 1-2 days after emer- 
gence gave 5 lethals out of 3545 sperms 
tested (0.141 ± 0.063 per cent) ; that from 
males 16-17 days after emergence, 11 
lethals out of 3471 (0.317 ± 0.095 P er 
cent) ; and that from males 32-33 days 
after emergence, 30 lethals out of 5248 
(0.5716 ± 0.104). The 1-2-day and the 
32-33-day samples are significantly dif- 
ferent; together with the 16-17-day ma- 
terial they indicate a relation of mutation 
to passage of time that is essentially a 
linear proportionality. These data were 
obtained by testing mature sperms (which 
presumably are neither resorbed nor ejacu- 
lated while the males are stored), so that 
we may be measuring mutation rate in 
nondividing chromosomes. Other experi- 
ments bearing on this problem are now in 
progress. 



126 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Chromosome Breakage and 
Recombination 

In the analysis of the chromosome re- 
arrangements obtained in the experiments 
outlined in the preceding pages, the posi- 
tions of a considerable number of breaks 
have been determined. For the X chromo- 
some more than 1400 points of breakage 
have been localized with respect to the 
lettered subdivisions of Bridges' salivary- 
gland-chromosome map. Details concern- 
ing the distribution of the greater part 
of this total were presented in Year Book 
No. 43. Analysis of the accumulated data 
has been continued, with a view to deter- 
mining the patterns of recombination be- 
tween these breaks and those in other 
chromosomes. Data accumulated in an 
earlier study (Year Book No. 37) had led 
to the conclusion that breaks are distrib- 
uted among the chromosomes essentially 
at random (assumedly in accordance with 
the random distribution of the ionizing 
radiation), but that the opportunity for 
recombination at any region of potential 
breakage depends on spatial relations 
that favor exchange within a chromosome 
limb (intrabrachial inversion) as com- 
pared with exchange between limbs (inter- 
brachial inversion and reciprocal translo- 
cation). With the large body of data now 
available we are in a better position to 
ascertain whether the breaks determined 
by analysis of salivary-gland chromosomes 
represent a random sample of the potential 
breaks originally induced. 

The breaks involved in interchanges 
with the X chromosome are scattered 
among the autosomes essentially at ran- 
dom with respect to length either of 
mitotic chromosomes or of salivary-gland 
chromosomes. The proportion of re- 
arrangements restricted to the X chromo- 
some is larger, however, as compared with 
exchanges between the X chromosome and 



the autosomes, than would be expected if 
recombination were at random. Moreover, 
the ratio of number of X-chromosome in- 
versions to number of translocations be- 
tween the X and the autosomes differs 
markedly according to whether hetero- 
chromatic or euchromatic regions are in- 
volved. The analysis — which up to the 
present has included only two-break cases, 
and requires further confirmation — sug- 
gests that differences may exist in the time, 
with respect to the movement of the chro- 
mosomes, at which potential breaks in 
euchromatin and heterochromatin first be- 
come available for the initiation of re- 
combination. 

The pattern of recombination within the 
chromosome may be measured by deter- 
mining frequencies of inversions of differ- 
ent lengths. Considered in terms of units 
as large as the division, the frequencies 
depart only slightly from values expected 
if recombination were at random (P from 
X 2 is almost 0.03) . When one break occurs 
in the proximal heterochromatic region 
(division 20), the separated ends appar- 
ently may combine with equal facility with 
any other available broken ends within 
divisions 1 to 19. Inverted sections re- 
stricted to these divisions can be meas- 
ured in terms of numbers of subdivisions 
encompassed. Plotted against values ex- 
pected on random distribution, a P of 
ca. 0.005 1S obtained, which suggests that 
the data do not adequately fit this hypoth- 
esis. Of the various possible lengths (rang- 
ing from to 113 subdivisions), the highest 
frequencies were found in the inversions 
of 12 or 13, of 25 or 26, and of 42 or 43 sub- 
divisions in length. This suggests that 
a pattern of coiling may exist within 
the X chromosome at the time of recom- 
bination that increases the chances of re- 
union of parts separated by the distance 
of one full turn. This increase is slight, 
however, since an inversion was observed 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



I2 7 



in which both breaks occurred in the 
same subdivision, another as long as 11 1 
subdivisions, and others of almost all inter- 
mediate lengths. 

The extensive data of the present study 
enable us, therefore, to interpret more ade- 
quately the conclusions reached in earlier 
work. It is now clear that patterns of break 
distribution and recombination that were 
obscured by analysis in terms of the divi- 
sions of the salivary-gland chromosome 
are revealed when smaller units such as 
the subdivisions are considered. By plot- 
ting the distribution along the X chromo- 
some of breaks involved in exchanges 
with other breaks in either proximal or 



intercalary heterochromatic regions, it was 
found that the broken ends produced by 
a break in heterochromatin may combine 
freely with all other regions within the 
chromosome, either euchromatic or hetero- 
chromatic. These conditions suggest that 
the breaks identified by analysis of salivary- 
gland chromosomes represent in their dis- 
tribution essentially a random sample of 
the potential breaks originally induced. 
For a more complete understanding of the 
various factors involved in recombination, 
studies paralleling those here summarized 
will be required for the limbs of the vari- 
ous autosomes. 



GENETIC STRUCTURE OF NATURAL POPULATIONS 

Th. Dobzhansky, Columbia University, New Yor\ 



Evolutionary changes in nature are 
mostly too slow to be perceived within a 
human lifetime. This fact was recognized 
by pioneer evolutionists, and most biolo- 
gists took it for granted until recently. 
Darwin pointed out that the transforma- 
tions brought about in domestic animals 
and plants by artificial selection are rela- 
tively rapid, but he conceded that the 
process of evolution in the wild is some- 
thing to be inferred rather than observed. 
This concession need no longer be made. 
Under some conditions rapid changes do 
occur in nature. Recent work on micro- 
organisms shows that the long-recognized 
phenomena of bacterial adaptation resolve 
into the same mutational and selectional 
components that bring about evolutionary 
changes in other organisms. Entomologists 
have recorded the occurrence of genetic 
changes in some insect pests; these changes 
adjust the insects to the environment as 
altered by man. Finally, some wild species 
have been shown to undergo rapid genetic 
changes, which are geared to the annual 
climatic cycle, and which represent adap- 



tive responses to seasonal alterations in the 
milieu. The results of studies on a case of 
this last category have been mentioned in 
Year Books Nos. 39, 40, and 43, and they 
are reviewed below jointly with new data. 
This case has the unique advantage that 
the changes known to take place in nature 
can be reproduced in part in laboratory 
experiments. 

Seasonal Changes in the Genetic 
Composition of Populations 

Populations of the fly Drosophila pseudo- 
obscura which inhabit the Andreas Can- 
yon, Pinon Flats, and Keen Camp localities 
on Mount San Jacinto, California, have 
been sampled repeatedly during four con- 
secutive breeding seasons (1939-1942). 
Three types of third chromosome — called 
Standard, Chiricahua, and Arrowhead — 
are found commonly, and two further 
types rarely, in all the populations. These 
chromosomal types differ in inversions of 
blocks of genes. The carriers of the differ- 
ent types interbreed at random; inversion 



128 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



homozygotes and heterozygotes occur in 
nature. The relative frequencies of the 
chromosomal types are different in the 
three populations. The most important 
fact for us, however, is that these fre- 
quencies change from month to month, 
the changes being cyclic. The data for the 
four years of observation at Pifion Flats 
are summarized in the accompanying table. 

Frequencies (in per cent) of the three 

common chromosomal types in the 

Pinon Flats population 



Month 


a) 
U3 


u 

o 


T3 
a; 

o 

u 
u 

< 


w 

1) 

B 

O 
05 

O TJ 

o .5 

. X 
o <w 


March 


47.2 


28.6 


18.1 


496 


April 


46.2 


23.6 


24.9 


449 


May 


33.6" 


31.3 


29.0 


642 


June 


29.2 


35.9 


30.6 


630 


July-August 


42.3 


27.3 


26.3 


388 


September 


47.3 


26.6 


22.2 


338 


October 


54.1 


16.6 


25.3 


150 


November- December . 


41.7 


25.0 


27.8 


180 



It can be seen that Standard chromo- 
somes are frequent during autumn and 
winter, become less prevalent in spring, 
reach a minimum in June, and increase in 
frequency during the summer. Chiricahua 
chromosomes follow a path opposite to 
that of Standard. The behavior of Arrow- 
head is erratic. The population at Andreas 
Canyon undergoes changes qualitatively 
similar to those at Pinon Flats. No sea- 
sonal changes have been observed at Keen 
Camp, although this locality is only about 
15 miles distant from Pinon and from 
Andreas. 

As indicated in Year Books Nos. 40 and 
43, these data suggest that, in the Pinon 
Flats and Andreas Canyon populations, 
the flies with Standard chromosomes are 



better adapted to the summer environment 
than flies with Chiricahua chromosomes, 
whereas in spring the conditions are re- 
versed. Accordingly, natural selection aug- 
ments the frequency of Standard chromo- 
somes in summer, and of Chiricahua 
chromosomes in spring. In autumn and 
winter, the three chromosomal types are 
equivalent. 

The data given in the table above show 
that the frequency of Standard chromo- 
somes decreases by about one-third be- 
tween March-April and June, and in- 
creases by about one-half between June 
and August-September. Although Dro- 
sophila pseudoobscura breeds rapidly for an 
insect, the time intervals just indicated can 
correspond to hardly more than three gen- 
erations. The intensity of natural selection 
necessary to bring about changes so great 
in so short a time must be very high; i.e., 
the survival or reproduction rates of the 
carriers of the different chromosomal types 
must be quite different. The selection co- 
efficients involved here must be of a higher 
order of magnitude than those customarily 
assumed by theorists to be' effective in 
bringing about evolutionary changes in 
nature. This is very fortunate indeed, be- 
cause high selection differentials may be 
verified in experiments, whereas the small 
ones are not detectable experimentally; this 
latter circumstance has been, ever since 
the time of Darwin, the weakest point of 
the theory of natural selection. 

Natural Selection in Artificial 
Populations 

Artificial populations with different pro- 
portions of flies having the three chromo- 
somal types mentioned above have been 
kept in the "population cages" described 
briefly in Year Book No. 43. Suffice it to 
state here that the populations in such 
cages grow rapidly to a maximum size 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



129 



compatible with the amount of food sup- 
plied, and remain more or less constant in 
numbers thereafter. The numbers of eggs 
deposited in a cage, however, are very 
much greater than the numbers that can 
develop to adult insects. Hence, the com- 
petition for survival is keen in the popu- 
lation cages. If the original population 
consists of two or more genetic types 
with unequal adaptive values, the strong 
types increase, and the weak ones dwindle 
in numbers. Nineteen experiments with 
population cages have been completed up 
to the present, all with flies whose an- 
cestors were collected at Pinon Flats, Cali- 
fornia. In some experiments the composi- 
tion of the natural population of Pinon 
Flats has been artificially reproduced, as 
far as relative proportions of the chromo- 
somal types are concerned. 

The data summarized in the next table 
(p. 130) are representative of all those ex- 
periments carried at constant or fluctuating 
temperatures above 21 C. Population cage 
no. 18 was started on October 23, 1944, 
with an initial population of about 20 per 
cent Standard, 36 per cent Chiricahua, and 
44 per cent Arrowhead chromosomes. By 
late February of 1945, the proportion of 
Standard had approximately doubled, and 
that of Chiricahua had been reduced to 
around 25 per cent. Cage no. 19 was 
started on November 15, 1944, with about 
38 per cent Standard, 62 per cent Chirica- 
hua, and no Arrowhead chromosomes. By 
late February of 1945, the proportions of 
Standard and Chiricahua chromosomes 
had been approximately reversed. If the 
initial mixture contains Standard and 
Arrowhead, but no Chiricahua, Arrow- 
head is displaced by Standard. But in a 
mixture of Arrowhead and Chiricahua 
without Standard, Arrowhead displaces 
Chiricahua. 

These changes observed in population 
cages are obviously analogous to those 



taking place in the natural population of 
Pinon Flats in summer — Standard displac- 
ing Chiricahua chromosomes, and Arrow- 
head more or less holding their own. Pre- 
cisely what physiological properties of flies 
with Standard chromosomes make them 
superior to those with Chiricahua chro- 
mosomes in population cages kept at tem- 
peratures above 21 ° C. is not known; nor 
is it known whether or not these same 
properties are responsible for the differ- 
ential survival of the flies in the natural 
populations. It may be regarded as an 
established fact, however, that the carriers 
of Standard, Arrowhead, and Chiricahua 
chromosomal types possess sharply differ- 
ent adaptive values in at least some en- 
vironments. The relative frequencies of 
these types in populations are governed by 
natural selection. 

Quite different is the outcome of experi- 
ments carried on at low temperatures. The 
relative frequencies of the chromosomal 
types remain constant, within the limits 
of experimental errors, in population cages 
kept at 16.5 C. Therefore, the adaptive 
values of the different chromosomal types 
seem to be approximately alike at 16.5 C, 
although, as we have seen, they are sharply 
different at higher temperatures. This re- 
sult agrees very well with the known be- 
havior of the natural populations of Pinon 
Flats and Andreas Canyon, where the 
chromosomal types remain nearly constant 
in frequency during autumn and winter, 
when the temperatures in the environment 
of the flies are low. During spring the 
natural populations undergo a different 
type of change; the frequencies of Chirica- 
hua chromosomes increase and those of 
Standard decrease. Attempts to reproduce 
these changes in population cages have 
been unsuccessful so far. In all the experi- 
ments at the low temperature the relative 
frequencies of the chromosomal types re- 
mained constant, whereas at high tempera- 



12 



130 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Changes observed in artificial populations kept at fluctuating temperatures 

AVERAGING ABOUT 26° C. The FIGURES SHOW THE FREQUENCIES, IN PER CENT, 

OF THE CHROMOSOMAL TYPES 



Time 



Experiment 18 



Standard Chiricahua 



Arrowhead 



Experiment 19 



Standard 



Chiricahua 



October 23, 1944.... 
Mid-November 1944 
Mid- December 1944. 
Mid-January 1945 . . 
Late February 1945. 
Late March 1945 .. . 

Late April 1945 

Early June 1945.... 



19.9 
33.3 
37.7 
39.3 
44.3 
42.0 
46.7 
56.4 



36.5 
39.3 
33.7 
30.7 
25.7 
19.0 
23.0 
16.3 



43.6 
27.3 
28.7 
30.0 
30.0 
39.0 
30.3 
27.3 



38.3 
53.0 
63.3 
60.3 
65.3 
65.3 
70.4 



61.7 
47.0 
36.7 
39.7 
34.7 
34.7 
29.6 



tures the frequencies of Standard rose and 
those of Chiricahua declined. This oc- 
curred regardless of whether the tempera- 
tures were constant or fluctuating, whether 
the cages were exposed to light or kept in 
the dark, whether fresh food was intro- 
duced into the cages at short or at long 
intervals. 

The mode of action of natural selection 
on the chromosomal types is interesting. 
A mathematical analysis of the data has 
been made by Professor Sewall Wright, of 
Chicago. He found that, at high tempera- 
tures, the adaptive value of Standard/ 
Chiricahua heterozygotes is highest, that 
of Standard homozygotes lower, and that 
of Chiricahua homozygotes lowest. Such 
being the case, Standard chromosomes can 
never replace Chiricahua completely in any 
population. The end result of the selection 
process is the establishment of an equilib- 
rium between Standard and Chiricahua 
chromosome types. The relative frequen- 
cies of heterozygotes and homozygotes at 
equilibrium are such that the population as 
a whole attains the optimal adaptive level. 
Thus, if only Standard and Chiricahua 
chromosomes are present, the equilibrium 
is established when 65-70 per cent of the 
chromosomes are Standard and 30-35 per 



cent Chiricahua. It follows that, at high 
temperatures, in population cages with 
initial mixtures containing more than 70 
per cent Standard and less than 30 per cent 
Chiricahua chromosomes, the frequencies 
of Standard must diminish, and those of 
Chiricahua must rise. This expectation 
must be tested experimentally. 

The Genetic Basis of the Selective 
Differentials 

Two hypotheses may be put forward 
concerning the differences in adaptive 
value observed between carriers of the 
different types of third chromosome. First, 
the gene arrangement in a chromosome 
may influence the properties of the organ- 
ism through position effects. Inversions of 
blocks of genes change the gene arrange- 
ment in the chromosome, and hence may 
change the properties of the body. Second, 
a chromosomal type may become asso- 
ciated, in a given population, with a cer- 
tain constellation of genes. The adaptive 
properties of a chromosomal type would, 
then, be determined by the genie variants 
which it happens to carry. 

According to the first hypothesis, the 
chromosomes of a given type must have 
similar adaptive properties wherever found. 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



131 



If the second hypothesis is correct, chro- 
mosomes of the same type found in popu- 
lations of different geographic origin may 
possess different properties. Since all the 
experiments so far have been done with 
chromosomes derived from the Pifion 
Flats population, neither hypothesis can 
be regarded as established. The second 
hypothesis is favored, however, by the 
fact that no cyclic seasonal changes in the 
frequencies of the chromosomal types are 
known at Keen Camp. The population of 
this locality contains the same chromo- 
somal types as those found at Pinon Flats 
and Andreas Canyon, where changes do 
occur. Furthermore, chromosomes with 
different gene contents are known to be 
present in these populations. The experi- 
ments to be reported below show how 
great is the variety of these chromosomes. 
Many chromosomes found in natural 
populations carry recessive genes which, 
when homozygous, reduce the viability of 
their carriers. The reduction may vary 
from a barely perceptible diminution of 
the viability to complete lethality. Further- 
more, the effects of a given chromosome 
on viability are often modified very greatly 
by the environment (see Year Book No. 
41). For example, individuals homozygous 
for the second chromosome no. 1015 from 
Andreas Canyon have a viability only 
slightly below normal at 16.5 ° C, but they 
are semilethal at 21 °, and completely 
lethal at 25.5 °. Here, then, is a good 
analogy with the behavior of the different 
types of third chromosome; for, as we 
know, flies with the Standard gene ar- 
rangement have a higher adaptive value 
than those with the Chiricahua arrange- 
ment in summer, a lower value in spring, 
and an equivalent one in winter. On the 
other hand, homozygotes for the second 
chromosome no. 975 from Andreas Can- 
yon, or for no. 863 from Pinon Flats, are 
normally viable at all three temperatures. 



By means of appropriate crosses, flies 
were obtained which carried (were hetero- 
zygous for) both second chromosomes 
Andreas 1015 and Pinon 863. Such flies 
may transmit to their offspring either the 
chromosome Andreas 1015, or Pinon 863, 
or chromosomes compounded from seg- 
ments of these two by crossing over. 
Ninety-six males were taken at random 
from among the offspring of females of 
the genetic constitution just indicated. The 
second chromosomes of these males were 
examined for their effects on the viability 
of homozygotes. When the experiment 
was done at a temperature of 25.5 ° C, 
35 out of the 96 chromosomes tested proved 
to be lethal when homozygous. These 
chromosomes seem to resemble the an- 
cestral Andreas 1015. Only 8 chromosomes 
gave normally viable homozygotes, resem- 
bling the ancestral Pinon 863. Of the re- 
mainder, 21 chromosomes were extreme 
semilethals, 13 were less extreme semi- 
lethals, and 9 gave subnormal viabilities 
outside the semilethal range. The 56 chro- 
mosomes that behaved as complete lethals 
at 25.5 ° were retested at 16.5 C. In this 
experiment, 47 chromosomes gave almost 
normally viable homozygotes. Their be- 
havior is thus identical with that of An- 
dreas 1015. Three chromosomes, however, 
remained lethal, and 6 chromosomes gave 
distinctly subnormal viabilities at the low 
temperature. 

A great variety of chromosomal types 
with quite different reaction norms, there- 
fore, can be produced by crossing over 
between two chromosomes obtained from 
natural populations. An even more strik- 
ing example of this phenomenon is offered 
by the cross involving the second chromo- 
somes Andreas 975 and Pinon 863. As 
was stated above, both of these chromo- 
somes give homozygotes that are normally 
viable at the three temperatures tried. Yet, 
among 22 crossover chromosomes tested, 



132 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



3 chromosomes proved to be lethal and 3 
others semilethal at 25.5 ° C. It follows 
that chromosomes which are lethal when 
homozygous can be produced through re- 
combination of the genes of chromosomes 
which normally give viable homozygotes. 
Such lethals, obtained by recombination, 
may be called "synthetic lethals." 

The variety of chromosomes with dif- 
ferent gene contents actually available and 
potentially possible in natural populations 
is evidently enormous. Even if only a few 
chromosomes were available to begin with, 
crossing over would constantly supply new 
gene combinations. Some of these gene 
combinations may be favorable in certain 
environments, other combinations in other 
environments, and still others may be un- 
favorable. Although it is obviously ad- 
vantageous to the organism to have the 
favorable gene combinations retained, a 
gene combination formed by crossing over 
is just as easily dissolved by another cross- 
ing over. The dissolution may be delayed 
or prevented, however, if an inversion hap- 
pens to occur in the chromosome carrying 
the favorable combination. Inversions may 
bind together gene combinations present 
in a chromosome, because they suppress 
crossing over. In this manner, chromo- 
somal types that arise through inversions 
may acquire different adaptive properties 
and different selective values. 

It should be kept in mind that the ex- 
periments with population cages showed 
that flies heterozygous for two chromo- 
somes with different gene arrangements 
have higher adaptive values than do the 
homozygotes. It follows that natural selec- 
tion, in wild populations of Drosophila 
pseudoobscura, favors gene combinations 
which give optimal results in heterozygous 
compounds with other gene combinations 
present in the same populations. The gene 
combinations that insure the highest de- 
gree of hybrid vigor are, evidently, those 



in the third chromosomes bound by the 
inversions. Now, different gene combina- 
tions may be more or less favored in 
localities with different environments, even 
though these localities may be as near each 
other in space as Keen Camp and Pinon 
Flats. The different behaviors of the Keen 
Camp population on the one hand, and of 
the Pifion Flats and Andreas Canyon popu- 
lations on the other, may thus be accounted 
for. Further experiments are needed to 
settle this problem. 

Interspecific Hybridization in 
Population Cages 

Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosoph- 
ila persimilis are two closely related species. 
They are almost indistinguishable in ex- 
ternal morphology, yet are easily recog- 
nized by their chromosomes as seen in 
the salivary-gland cells. Their geographic 
ranges are distinct but overlapping, and 
the two species live side by side in an ex- 
tensive territory. They show a partial 
sexual isolation; that is, when females of 
both species are confined with males of 
one of them, a greater proportion of con- 
specific than of non-conspecific females is 
inseminated. If, however, an interspecific 
mating has taken place, hybrids of both 
sexes are easily produced, and these hy- 
brids seem to be as vigorous as individuals 
of the pure parental species. The Fi hy- 
brid males are completely sterile. The Fi 
hybrid females oviposit abundantly, and, 
if inseminated by males of either parental 
species, give rise to backcross progenies. 
The viability of the backcross progenies, 
however, is more or less strongly reduced 
on account of a deleterious maternal effect 
(the eggs of mothers with hybrid chromo- 
somes are somehow injured). In labora- 
tory experiments, it is possible to transfer 
sections of chromosomes of Drosophila 
pseudoobscura to Drosophila persimilis, 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



133 



and vice versa. Nevertheless, no hybrids formed by cross-mating of pure pseudo- 

have been so far encountered in nature, obscura and persimilis flies, and backcross 

and the available evidence is against the hybrids derived from the Fi hybrid females 

supposition that these species exchange formed in the previous generation and 

genes in natural populations. This is but mated to males of the pure species. Back- 

an illustration of the general rule: hy- cross hybrids might have either wild-type 

bridization in captivity is no proof of or orange eyes; the Fi hybrids would be 

hybridization in nature. all wild-type. They are not always dis- 

The "population cages" offer a technique tinguishable by examination of the testes, 
whereby conditions that obtain in natural but many of them can be told apart in this 
populations can be approached more way. In reality, the 50 orange-eyed males 
closely than is otherwise possible (no claim dissected were all pseudoobscura, whereas 
is being made, however, that natural con- among the 117 wild-type males 114 were 
ditions are duplicated). The problem, persimilis and only 3 hybrid, probably be- 
then, is: to what extent will Drosophila longing to the Fi generation. On May 2, 
pseudoobscura and Drosophila persimilis the cage contained 133 orange and 1247 
exchange genes if they live together in wild-type flies. All the orange males (62) 
the same population cage for several gen- were dissected, and proved to be pseudo- 
erations? Late in December 1944, 600 obscura. Of 200 wild-type males dissected, 
wild-type individuals of persimilis and 200 193 were persimilis and 7 were in all prob- 
orange-eyed pseudoobscura were put in ability Fi hybrids. 

one cage, and 600 wild persimilis and The absence of backcross hybrids is sug- 

300 orange pseudoobscura in another cage! gestive. As was stated above, they can 

The first cage was placed at a temperature be obtained in laboratory experiments, al- 

of 21 C, and the second at 16.5 C. though their viability is low. Their failure 

On February 3, 1945, the cage kept at to appear in the population cages indicates 

21 contained 4689 adult flies, 464 of them that the lowering of the viability is lethal 

with orange eyes and 4225 with wild-type under the conditions of crowding and in- 

eyes. Since orange is an autosomal reces- tense competition that obtain in the popu- 

sive gene, the orange-eyed flies were ob- lation cages, and probably in natural popu- 

viously pure Drosophila pseudoobscura. lations as well. The Fi hybrid females are 

The wild-type flies may have been either mostly fertile in the laboratory, but they 

persimilis or hybrid. The hybrid males are likely to be completely sterile in nature, 

can be distinguished from the nonhybrids This makes gene exchange between the 

by dissection and microscopic examination species impossible. 

of their testes. Out of 170 males so ex- The second population cage, kept at 

amined, 10 were hybrids and 160 were 16.5 C, provides, for two reasons, a rigid 

persimilis. In the total population of the test of the validity of the above conclusion, 

cage, approximately 5.3 per cent were hy- First, low temperatures frequently permit 

brids and 94.7 per cent pure species. The otherwise weak or nonviable types of Dro- 

flies were returned to the cage, which was sophila to survive. Second, the sexual iso- 

then placed at room temperature. lation between pseudoobscura and per- 

On March 14, 1945, this cage contained similis, as Dr. Ernst Mayr has discovered, 

1321 wild-type and 486 orange-eyed flies, is very weak at low temperatures; conse- 

Two kinds of hybrids could now be ex- quently, many more hybrids will be pro- 

pected in the cage: Fi generation hybrids duced. On February 3, 1945, this cage 



134 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



kept in the cold room contained 2971 
wild-type and 1083 orange flies. The latter 
were obviously pseudoobscura. Among the 
200 wild-type males dissected, 134 were 
persimilis and 66 were hybrids. It is easy 
to compute that the total population of the 
cage consisted of approximately 76 per cent 
pure species and 24 per cent hybrids. On 
March 30, the cage had 3987 wild-type and 
2634 orange flies. The 200 orange males 
dissected were all pseudoobscura. Among 
200 wild-type males, 169 were persimilis 
and 31 were apparently Fi hybrids. It can 
be computed that the proportion of hybrids 
in the total population of the cage dropped 
to about 9 per cent. The experiment was 
discontinued on June 11, when the cage 
contained 3390 wild-type and 1937 orange 
flies. No hybrids were found among 200 
orange males dissected. Only 17 hybrids, 
apparently Fi, were among 300 normal- 
eyed males examined. This amounts to 
about 3.6 per cent of hybrids in the cage 
population as a whole. 

Apart from the production of some first- 
generation hybrids, apparently no gene 
exchange takes place between Drosophila 
pseudoobscura and Drosophila persimilis 
in population cages. The proportion of 
hybrids in the population of a cage does 
not increase from generation to generation. 



As a matter of fact, the cage kept at 16.5 
C. showed a fairly rapid decrease in the 
incidence of hybrids with time. If con- 
firmed in further experiments, this progres- 
sive reduction of hybridization with time 
will be a very important finding. For it 
would constitute an experimental verifica- 
tion of the hypothesis according to which 
natural selection should strengthen re- 
productive isolating mechanisms between 
populations that are exposed to hybridiza- 
tion and that produce hybrids with a low- 
ered reproductive potential. 

Dispersion Rates of Drosophila 
pseudoobscura 

Field experiments on the rate of disper- 
sion of Drosophila pseudoobscura (see Year 
Books Nos. 41 and 43) had to be discon- 
tinued for a time because of war condi- 
tions. They were resumed during the sum- 
mer of 1945 at Mather, Tuolumne County, 
California, using some of the facilities of 
the Division of Plant Biology of the Car- 
negie Institution. The writer wishes to ex- 
press his most sincere appreciation to Drs. 
}. Clausen and H. A. Spoehr, of that Divi- 
sion, for their hospitality at Mather. The 
experiments should, according to plan, take 
two years; results will be reported later. 



MOUSE LEUKEMIA 

E. C. MacDowell, J. J. Biesele, G. Gasic, M. J. Taylor, and T. Laanes 



During the past year, active work on 
spontaneous leukemia has been confined 
to the maintenance of experiments pre- 
viously started. This has been the neces- 
sary result of not having a histological 
technician or a diagnostician, and of hav- 
ing an insufficiency of mice. A major 
proportion of the mice produced by the 
unique leukemic strain C58 have been 
contributed to a wartime medical research 
program. 



Spontaneous Leukemia in Strain Balb 

It has long been supposed from casual 
observation that strain Balb was largely 
resistant to spontaneous leukemia. The 
breeding period is long in these mice, and 
large numbers far older than the most 
frequent age for leukemia in strain C58 
have been handled. The first actual deter- 
mination of the incidence of leukemia in 
a given sample of Balb mice has recently 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



135 



been completed, with the surprising result 
that, according to the diagnoses of gross 
autopsies, nearly 70 per cent have died 
with leukemia. We are grateful to Dr. 
M. N. Richter, of New York Post Gradu- 
ate Medical School and Hospital, for con- 
firmatory microscopic diagnoses of a ran- 
dom sample of 22 of these mice. The 
reason that this high incidence of leu- 
kemia was not anticipated is that the leu- 
kemia (as indeed all causes of death) is 
much later in appearing in this strain than 
in strain C58. This fact is indicated by 
the accompanying comparison of average 
length of life and incidence of leukemia 
in inbred females of three strains. This 
table furnishes new evidence of the inde- 





Leuke- 
mics 

(%) 


Total 

NO. OF 

MICE 


Length of life (days) 


Strain 
(females) 


Non- 
leukemic 


Leukemic 


Balb* . . . 
Balbf. . . 
StoLif... 
C58f.... 


69.3 
68.0 
15.1 
90.5 


88 
25 
33 
40 


632.0 
655.5 
678.9 
482.0 


692.3 
679.8 
688.0 
360.3 



* Virgin females. 

t Females which had produced young in connection with 
the foster-nursing experiment previously described. 

pendence of longevity and incidence of 
leukemia, a subject discussed a year ago, in 
that the relatively long-lived mice of strains 
Balb and StoLi differ so greatly in the 
incidence of leukemia, and in that the 
many leukemics in strains C58 and Balb 
differ so greatly in length of life. 

Steroid Hormones and Transplanted 
Leukemia 

Gasic has carried out various experi- 
ments with steroid hormones and trans- 
planted leukemia, with the purpose of in- 
vestigating the possible influence of these 
hormones on the time of survival and the 
pathological picture of inoculated mice. 



Pellets of hormone, pure or mixed with 
cholesterol, were inserted subcutaneously 
into normal males and females and spayed 
females of strain C58 at the age of one 
month; the spaying was done at the same 
time. The cholesterol and the pure hor- 
mones — desoxycorticosterone acetate, pro- 
gesterone, and testosterone propionate — 
were generously provided by the Schering 
Corporation. In most of the experiments, 
leukemic cells of line I were used in doses 
diluted to 1/256 of standard, which doses 
are 100 per cent lethal in normal mice of 
this strain. These doses were given 10, 21, 
32, and 60 days after the hormone pellets. 

The results indicate that the mice treated 
with testosterone propionate 32 and 60 
days before leukemic inoculation survived 
a little longer than the controls. In differ- 
ent experiments the averages were from 
12 to 18 hours longer. The other two hor- 
mones showed no effect on the time of 
death. 

Most of the effects of the hormones on 
the anatomical pictures at autopsy were 
those indicated in the literature on normal 
organs. In mice with pellets of desoxycor- 
ticosterone, however, the leukemic spleens 
were unaccountably large. And in spayed 
females the small hemorrhages that appear 
in the lungs very shortly before death 
from line-I leukemia were reduced in 
frequency and size; this effect was partially 
overcome by progesterone and eliminated 
by testosterone propionate. Histological 
study reveals that these pulmonary hemor- 
rhagic spots are caused by thrombi rich in 
leukemic cells; but the pathological mecha- 
nism concerned, and the manner in which 
sex hormones act upon it, are questions 
for investigation. 

Incidental observations showed that total 
body weight of females was increased by 
spaying, so that it surpassed that of males 
by 32 days after the operation. Pellets of 
testosterone propionate considerably coun- 



136 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



teracted the effect of spaying. Progesterone 
has a similar but less striking effect. In 
leukemic mice the correlation between 
weights of entire body and liver was high; 
it was lower between body and spleen; 
but thymus weights showed no correlation 
with body weight. The spleen of the leu- 
kemic female at death weighed less than 
that of the male, but spaying females 
eliminated this difference. 

Alarm Reaction 

In the course of the preceding work, 
Gasic noted that mice of strain C58, inocu- 
lated with leukemic cells of line I, showed 
a severe involution of the thymus. This 
observation had been made previously, in 
experiments on immunity to leukemic cells 
in this laboratory. But Gasic recognized 
that this involution and other conditions 
associated with it were characteristic of a 
general syndrome described by Selye as 
the "alarm reaction," which may be elicited 
by a variety of deleterious conditions and 
substances. Selye's 1940 list of stimuli 
known to induce this reaction does not 
include malignant growths. 

After a period of incubation, the inocu- 
lated animals show a clinical syndrome re- 
sembling shock : lowered temperature, lack 
of muscular tone and of appetite, sweat- 
ing, drooping eyelids, and frequently a 
white lachrymal secretion. Anatomically, 
the chief features of the well developed 
alarm reaction are : hypertrophy and other 
gross changes of the adrenal, involution 
of the thymus, atrophy of the pancreas, 
general hyperemia, edema of the serosa, 
and, less frequently, ulcers and erosion 
of the digestive tract accompanied by 
hemorrhages. 

The defensive importance of the in- 
volution of the thymus, under immediate 
control of adrenal hormones, has recently 
been brilliantly elucidated by the experi- 



ments of Dougherty, White, and Chase. 
Not only are antibodies delivered to the 
blood stream by a hormonal control of 
the thymus, but normal lymphocytes may 
transfer specific antibodies to, and receive 
them from, malignant cells of a trans- 
planted lymphosarcoma. The appearance 
of the gross phenomenon of thymic involu- 
tion in certain leukemic hosts raises the 
question of the possible part this phenome- 
non may play in induced resistance to 
leukemic cells. 

In approaching the significance of this 
reaction for the interpretation of leukemic 
processes as well as for the mechanism of 
resistance to leukemia, Gasic has studied 
different experimental conditions and spon- 
taneous cases. He has varied the genetic 
constitution of the host and the size of 
the dose of inoculated leukemic cells of 
lines differing in virulence, number of 
transfers, and other specific characteristics. 
In general, the strength of this reaction 
increases as the survival time is reduced. 
In spontaneous cases and early transfers, 
which are relatively chronic with large 
tumorous lesions, the alarm reaction is 
mostly undemonstrable. As the acuteness 
increases in the course of successive trans- 
fers, the leukemic lesions become progres- 
sively smaller and the alarm reaction more 
and more distinct. But even with an ex- 
tremely virulent line of cells, the survival 
time may be lengthened by reducing the 
dose. This increases the size of the leu- 
kemic lesions and diminishes the expres- 
sion of the alarm reaction. Certain combi- 
nations of genetically foreign hosts and 
acute leukemias show extreme alarm reac- 
tions, with minimum invasion of leukemic 
cells. The gross changes in adrenal and 
thymus are somewhat more evident in fe- 
males than in males. Subsequent study will 
trace the alarm reaction during the proc- 
esses of resisting lethal doses of leukemic 
cells and development of immunity. Does 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



137 



a lethal dose in an immunized mouse occa- 
sion involution of the thymus, without con- 
ditions that in themselves might be respon- 
sible for death? How different are the 
causes of death in chronic and acute cases ? 
Does resistance to the destructive aspects 
of the alarm reaction also destroy leu- 
kemic cells ? Is the increase in toxic action 
in the course of successive transfers a 
result of the increasing proportion of large 
cells, or a change in a toxic agent carried 
by the cells? 

Chromosomes in Leukemia 

In previous years, Biesele had found the 
chromosomes of many neoplastic tissues to 
be larger than, and usually about double 
the volume of, chromosomes of normal 
cells of the tissues of origin. Because the 
number of chromosomally carried plasmo- 
somes in many of the resting nuclei of the 
neoplasms had doubled, and the frequency 
of polyploid mitoses in some tumors was 
low, it had been tentatively concluded that 
the enlarged chromosomes of malignant 
cells were structural multiples of the chro- 
mosomes of normal cells. 

The new work has tested this conclusion 
by a study of chromosomes of leukemic 
and normal tissues of different ages. 

In the study of chromosome size in nor- 
mal tissues, some 11 00 metaphase figures 
have been drawn from 50 albino rats of 
6 age groups. The animals were provided 
by the Fels fund through the courtesy of 
Dr. E. J. Farris, of the Wistar Institute 
for Anatomy and Biology. Up to the 
present, the following scheme of variability 
in chromosome size has been disclosed. In 
late embryos chromosomes of the chief 
organs all measured about one-half cubic 
micron; the thymus chromosomes, how- 
ever, were two or three times smaller. After 
birth the variability was greater : in lymph 
nodes, spleen, and intestinal epithelium the 



chromosomes became smaller with age, in 
epidermis and lung they remained con- 
stant, in kidney they increased in size, 
and in liver their relative increase was 
enormous, up to 20 times the size of the 
smallest thymus chromosomes. The order 
of tissues in adult rats, according to rela- 
tive values based on average chromosome 
volume, is as follows: lymph nodes and 
spleen, 2; intestinal epithelium, 2+; epi- 
dermis and lung, 3; kidney, 4+; liver, 8. 
This seriation confirms one published ear- 
lier from more limited material. 

These data yield a provocative insight 
into the nature and possible function of 
somatic chromosomes, especially as the two 
series are paralleled by others, from the 
literature, dealing with the over-all enzyme 
activities of adult rat organs and the con- 
centrations of B vitamins, most of which 
are known to be associated with enzyme 
systems. The parallelism extends to em- 
bryonic organs. In view of the growing 
knowledge of the relation between gene 
and enzyme, it seems permissible to repeat 
here the suggestion that normal chromo- 
somes, in proportion to their mitotic size, 
might be instrumental in the synthesis of 
protein apoenzymes of the cell. This 
would suggest a possibly qualitative dif- 
ferentiation of chromosomes in size and 
function, according to cell type and age. 

These generalizations can probably be 
applied to the mouse. For example, livers 
of C58 adults, regenerating after partial 
surgical removal, contained chromosomes 
much larger than those in embryonic liver. 

It is known, however, that malignant 
tissues often show reduced enzyme activi- 
ties and vitamin concentrations. Is the 
presumed productive effort of the enlarged 
chromosomes in cancers abortive, being di- 
verted to the benefit of the competitive 
altered enzyme or "cancer virus" of V. R. 
Potter's theory? Or is the enlargement of 
chromosomes in neoplasms of a different 



^8 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

sort from that in normal tissues, perhaps the normal lymphatic tissues; but this case 

involving the less specific heterochromatin had other odd features, such as a great 

instead of euchromatin? But if the en- deal of aneuploidy and polyploidy instead 

larged chromosomes of cancers are actually of the usual uniform diploidy. Evidently 

abnormally multiple in structure, each one in the majority of dividing C58 leukemia 

must consist essentially of a number of cells there are chromosomes whose size 

smaller chromosomes, and hence the eu- is equaled at some stage in the ontogenetic 

chromatin could not have undergone the history of normal lymphocytes. Since it 

differentiational enlargement suggested as is possible that equality of size of chromo- 

leading to big chromosomes in normal somes could disguise an underlying dis- 

cells. similarity of structure or material, our 

Our knowledge of the processes occur- present observations hardly give us basis 

ring in the enlargement of chromosomes for choice between J. S. Potter's concept 

in malignancies is augmented in several of an altered rate of differentiation as the 

ways by the study of chromosomes in leu- fundamental malignant change and the 

kemia of C58 mice. theory of "tangential" differentiation of 

First, we find that the development of some other oncologists, 

leukemia reverses the reduction in size of Second, our study demonstrates that the 

lymphocyte chromosomes, which normally enlargement of chromosomes in malig- 

goes on rapidly in early life but more nancies may not be absolute and irrever- 

slowly with age. Thus in spontaneous leu- sible, since the size of chromosomes in 

kemias in 12 animals about 40 weeks old, leukemias appears to be environmentally 

the average chromosome size in the en- modifiable. In each of the six transplanted 

larged mesenteric nodes and spleens was lines, the over-all mean of chromosome 

one-third to two-thirds greater than that volumes in specimens taken from female 

in 3 coeval controls (0.37 cubic micron) . hosts was smaller by about one-fourth than 

With respect to chromosome size the the mean for male specimens. There was 

whole population of dividing leukemic some overlapping, however. That this sex 

cells seems to have been shifted upward, difference in size of leukemic-cell chromo- 

yet in this regard the leukemic popula- somes may have a hormonal basis is sug- 

tions of the 40-week-old mice were hardly gested by examination of Gasic's material, 

distinguishable from the normal lympho- For example, in spayed females, half of 

cyte populations of 9 males about 2 months which bore implanted 12-mg. pellets of 

old. Likewise, the average chromosome pure testosterone propionate for 1 month 

volumes in the six current lines of long- before inoculation with leukemic cells, the 

transplanted leukemia were about 0.8 cubic average chromosome volume in leukemic 

micron, much the same as the average for lesions of the 6 animals receiving the hor- 

the spleen of the newborn C58. Although mone was significantly greater than that 

the upper limit of chromosome size in the in the 7 untreated animals. The ranges 

six lines exceeded that in the newborn of chromosome size scarcely overlapped, 

spleen, there is evidence that its peer may and the leukemic-cell chromosomes in the 

be found in the primitive blood cells of spayed females without added testosterone 

embryonic liver. In but one leukemia, a pellets were the size of normal lymphocyte 

spontaneous case in a 2-year-old hybrid chromosomes in intact males at 7 weeks, 

female, were there chromosomes of a size The above observation indicates that in 

(up to 2.0 cubic microns) unparalleled in lesions even of highly virulent lines, cells 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



139 



with small chromosomes may be leukemic. 
In addition, the smallest chromosomes 
found in the supposedly totally leukemic 
lesions of liver were usually but little larger 
than the mean size of lymphocyte chromo- 
somes within uninoculated animals. 

The third contribution made by these 
studies of leukemia to our knowledge of 
chromosomes in malignancies is the reali- 
zation that their enlargement may be 
gradual. With the exception of the aber- 
rant case mentioned above, the frequency 
distributions of metaphases according to 
average chromosome volume in the 60 
leukemic specimens studied are interpret- 
able as unimodal, rather than polymodal 
as in many cancers. The increase in chro- 
mosome volume from the normal condi- 
tion through chronic spontaneous leu- 
kemia to its highly virulent transplanted 
derivative also promises to be a continuous 
one. A slow hypertrophy of the chromo- 
somes in mouse leukemia, rather than a 
sudden doubling in volume such as occurs 
in mouse skin painted with carcinogenic 
hydrocarbons, would suggest that a more 
subtle change than an abrupt structural 
modification by doubling of strand num- 
ber may be responsible, not only in leu- 
kemic cells but also in cells of other types 
of malignancy. 

Direct studies of structure on the chro- 
matid level, by uncoiling chromosomes 
and allowing sister chromatids to fall 
free of one another, are in progress. 
Should it be determined that the chromo- 
somes of leukemic cells contain no more 
than two chromatids, as would seem likely 



from the earlier observations of Claude 
and Potter on chromatin threads isolated 
from leukemic cells, and that the leu- 
kemic-cell chromatid gives no visible evi- 
dence of a more complex structure than 
that of the normal lymphocyte chromatid, 
then the explanation of larger size of chro- 
mosomes in leukemic cells would have to 
be sought on a level other than that of the 
chromatids or their immediate precursors 
— perhaps ultimately on the level of mo- 
lecular amount or kind. On this level a 
gradual size increase would be readily ex- 
plicable, but it should not be interpreted 
offhand as the exact reversal of the onto- 
genetic diminution. 

In summary, we are left with the sug- 
gestion that the enlarged chromosomes of 
C58 leukemia are either immature normal 
chromosomes or products of differentia- 
tion in an abnormal direction. If the latter 
•view be accepted, it is not clear what form 
the hypertrophy has taken, nor whether 
the chromosomes are structurally or ma- 
terially altered. The size of the chromo- 
somes is fairly labile and responsive to cer- 
tain environmental conditions. Apart from 
the question of leukemia, the demonstra- 
tion that the size of mouse chromosomes 
can be influenced by means of hormones 
would seem to be of importance in chro- 
mosomal physiology. This is especially 
true in view of the suggestion that there 
is a differentiation of chromosomes accord- 
ing to cell type and age, in which the size 
of the chromosomes reflects their activity 
in some part of the manufacture of intra- 
cellular enzymes. 



ENDOCRINE STUDIES 

O. Riddle, W. F. Hollander, M. R. McDonald, E. L. Lahr, and G. C. Smith 

During the past year most members of research. In March Mr. Lahr left to be- 

this group have shared in the conduct of come associated with the School of Dentis- 

research, and also assisted in the prepara- try of New York University. At intervals 

tion of manuscripts dealing with previous during the year Professor Hoyt S. Hop- 



140 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



kins, of the Department of Physiology, 
New York University, rendered further 
assistance in summarizing the results of 
our extended study on heat production in 
doves and pigeons. Manuscripts constitut- 
ing a small volume, "Studies on carbohy- 
drate and fat metabolism, with especial 
reference to the pigeon," were completed 
in January. These studies by Riddle and 
associates will appear as publication 569 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washing- 
ton. Manuscripts dealing with our pro- 
longed studies on races of doves and 
pigeons, "Endocrines and constitution in 
doves and pigeons," were completed later. 
In July, substantially the whole of our 
program of research was brought to a 
conclusion. 

The Effect of Reproduction and Estro- 
gen Administration on the Parti- 
tion of Calcium, Phosphorus, and 
Nitrogen in Pigeon Plasma 

A partial report was made last year on 
the partition of those plasma components 
that might be capable of binding the large 
increases in calcium observed in pigeon 
plasma during periods of egg production 
or after injection of estrogens. These 
studies by McDonald and Riddle have 
now been completed and the results pub- 
lished. Changes in the various calcium, 
phosphorus, and nitrogen components of 
plasma were studied (a) in 75 adult female 
pigeons during the reproductive cycle and 
(b) in 31 normal, 4 fasted, 13 parathy- 
roidectomized, and 4 hypophysectomized 
pigeons injected with estrogens. Birds of 
both sexes, varying in age from 1.5 months 
to 5 years, were used in the latter study; 
65 additional pigeons (46 normal, 13 para- 
thyroidectomized, and 6 hypophysectom- 
ized) were used as controls. 

No significant differences occurred in 
either ultranltrable calcium, ultrafiltrable 



inorganic phosphorus, or nonprotein nitro- 
gen during the reproductive cycle or after 
the injection of estrogens. Nonultrafil- 
trable calcium, nonultrafiltrable inorganic 
phosphorus, lipid phosphorus, and protein 
phosphorus all increased markedly from 
4 days before the ovulation of the first 
ovum until 2 days after the ovulation of 
the second (last) ovum. Similar, and even 
greater, increases resulted (in all the types 
of pigeons studied) from the daily injec- 
tion of from 0.25 to 0.5 mg. estradiol ben- 
zoate for from 4 to 25 days. Small in- 
creases in protein nitrogen were noted 
under these conditions. Endogenous estro- 
gens, as postulated by Riddle in 1927, 
are probably responsible for the increased 
plasma calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen 
found during the reproductive cycle. 

Calculations of the regression equations 
and correlation coefficients between the 
various plasma components that increased 
owing to endogenous or administered es- 
trogens showed that the nonultrafiltrable 
calcium of pigeon plasma exists in three 
forms: (a) colloidal calcium phosphate, 
(b) calcium bound to the phosphoprotein, 
serum vitellin, and (c) calcium bound to 
the plasma proteins other than vitellin. 
Increments in (a) and (b) accounted for 
all the estrogen-induced increases in non- 
ultrafiltrable calcium. The changes found 
in the partition of the latter as it in- 
creased during reproduction or under the 
influence of administered estrogens are 
summarized in figure 1. In 72 control 
pigeons, 36 per cent of the nonultrafiltrable 
calcium occurred as colloidal calcium phos- 
phate, 12 per cent was bound to vitellin, 
and 52 per cent was bound to the plasma 
proteins other than vitellin. In 102 estro- 
gen-treated pigeons, however, 37 per cent 
of the nonultrafiltrable calcium was in the 
form of colloidal calcium phosphate, only 
8 per cent was bound to the plasma pro- 
teins other than vitellin, and 55 per cent 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



I 4 I 



was bound to vitellin. Calculations of the 
calcium-binding capacity of serum vitellin 
showed that 1 gram of this phosphoprotein 
can apparently combine with more than 
7 mg. of calcium — a value 8 to 9 times 
greater than that of the other plasma 
proteins. 



trable phosphorus; protein phosphorus was 
responsible for 36 per cent, and nonultra- 
filtrable inorganic phosphorus for the re- 
maining 8 per cent. 

Benjamin and Hess (1933) noted that 
barium sulfate adsorbs from plasma a 
part of the nonultrafiltrable calcium. They 



2 60 
o 

-J 

< 

o 

uj 50 

_i 

CD 
< 

J 40h 

U. 

< 

DC 

h- 

3 30 



O 20 



UJ 

o 

UJ 
CL 



10 - 



T 



VITELLIN-BOUND CALCIUM 



_o— ©- 



<!> / 



COLLOIDAL CALCIUM 




\PR0TEIN (total less vitellin)- BOUND 
*- CALCIUM 



5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 

MG. NONULTRAFILTRABLE CALCIUM PER 100 ML. PLASMA 

Fig. 1. Analysis, on a percentage basis, of the partition of nonultrafiltrable calcium in pigeon 
plasma. Each point represents the average of 10 to 29 determinations. 



No evidence was obtained for the pres- 
ence of a phospholipid-calcium complex in 
the plasmas of pigeons with hypercalcemia 
due to administered or endogenous estro- 
gens. Lipid phosphorus accounted for 93 
per cent of the nonultrafiltrable phos- 
phorus in the plasmas of the control 
pigeons, but for only 56 per cent of the 
estrogen-induced increases in nonultrafil- 



assumed that this procedure separates the 
nonultrafiltrable calcium into at least two 
fractions: protein-bound calcium and an 
unknown adsorbable complex. Their pro- 
cedure has been widely used in other labo- 
ratories, but the possibility that barium 
sulfate might also adsorb protein has ap- 
parently been neglected. Results obtained 
in this laboratory on 31 samples of pigeon 



142 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



plasma confirmed the fact that part of 
the nonultrafiltrable calcium was adsorbed 
by barium sulfate. The latter, however, 
also adsorbed part of the phosphoprotein, 
serum vitellin. It is therefore impossible 
to separate, by the procedure of Benjamin 
and Hess, protein-bound calcium from the 
adsorbable complex. There is probably a 
partial adsorption of all the nonultrafil- 
trable calcium fractions rather than a com- 
plete adsorption of one or more specific 
fractions. 

Action of Thyroxine on Estrogen- 
Induced Changes in Blood Chem- 
istry and Endosteal Bone 

Estrogens, in addition to increasing the 
calcium, phosphorus, and lipid content 
of bird plasma, also induce growth of 
the oviduct and formation of endosteal 
bone. Fleischmann and Fried (1944-1945) 
made the important observation that thy- 
roxine, when administered to immature 
chicks simultaneously (in equal amounts 
by weight) with estradiol dipropionate, 
greatly reduces the ability of the estrogen 
to increase the plasma calcium, inorganic 
phosphorus, vitellin, phospholipid, and 
cholesterol, but does not inhibit the estro- 
gen-induced growth of the oviduct. 

Experiments were undertaken in this 
laboratory to determine (a) whether the 
results obtained with simultaneous dosage 
of thyroxine and estrogen in fowl could 
be duplicated in pigeons, (b) whether 
such treatment prevents the increase in 
plasma neutral fat which follows the use 
of estrogen alone, and (c) whether endos- 
teal bone can be formed under the simul- 
taneous administration of thyroxine and 
estradiol benzoate. The results obtained 
have been published. It was found that 
thyroxine prevented the marked estrogen- 
induced increases in plasma neutral fat, 
calcium, inorganic phosphorus, lipid phos- 



phorus, protein phosphorus, and total ni- 
trogen. It did not measurably inhibit the 
ability of estrogen to induce formation of 
endosteal bone or growth of the oviduct. 
It therefore seems improbable that thy- 
roxine is a physiological antagonist of 
estrogens. Its inhibiting action on the 
estrogen-induced increases in plasma con- 
stituents is probably a secondary effect 
associated with increased metabolism and 
excretion of calcium, phosphorus, and 
nitrogen. 

The data from these experiments af- 
forded further proof that all the nonultra- 
filtrable-noncolloidal calcium not bound by 
the normal plasma proteins is bound by 
the phosphoprotein, serum vitellin. When 
the nonultrafiltrable-noncolloidal calcium 
values for the thyroxine-treated pigeons 
were plotted against those for protein 
phosphorus, all the points were found to 
lie on the regression line previously calcu- 
lated for 104 estrogen-treated pigeons. 
When such data for nonultrafiltrable-non- 
colloidal calcium were plotted against lipid 
phosphorus, however, none of the points 
fell on the regression line calculated for 
31 normal pigeons injected with estrogen. 

Solubility of the Plasma Proteins 
in Alcohol 

It was noted last year that at least one 
of the plasma proteins had the peculiar 
property of being soluble in acidified mix- 
tures of 3 parts ethanol and 1 part ether. 
Further investigation of this unusual phe- 
nomenon has been possible through the 
courtesy of Dr. John T. Edsall, who has 
kindly supplied us with several of the 
plasma products developed by the Depart- 
ment of Physical Chemistry of the Har- 
vard Medical School from blood collected 
by the American Red Cross. The study 
has not been completed, but the results 
thus far obtained are extremely interest- 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



143 



ing. They suggest that, if investigations 
are made over a wide range of pH, it may 
be found that alcohol solubility is a much 
more common property of proteins than 
has previously been postulated. 

Crystalline serum albumin was found to 
be highly soluble in 95 per cent ethanol 
or mixtures of 3 parts ethanol and 1 part 
ether, in the presence of small amounts of 
hydrochloric, nitric, lactic, acetic, or tri- 
chloracetic (but not sulfuric) acid. The 
effect of trichloracetic acid is especially 
noteworthy, since it completely precipitates 
albumin from aqueous solutions. Albumin 
precipitated by trichloracetic acid can still 
be dissolved by acidified 95 per cent 
ethanol or ethanol-ether mixtures. The 
range of pH in which albumin is soluble 
in 95 per cent ethanol extends from below 
pH 1.5 to about pH 4.5. 

Some, but not all, of the several a (or 3) 
globulins were also found to be soluble in 
acidified 95 per cent ethanol and, to a 
lesser degree, in ethanol-ether mixtures. So- 
lutions of these fractions, however, unlike 
those of albumin, are unstable, and the 
globulins slowly precipitate. The y-globu- 
lins and fibrinogen appear to be insoluble 
in 95 per cent ethanol in the range of pH 
thus far studied. 

Attempts have been made to develop a 
method, based on the above observations, 
for the quantitative determination of al- 
bumin and globulin. The results to date 
are extremely promising. Further refine- 
ments of technique should yield a sim- 
ple procedure for the analysis of these 
components. 

Partial Melanism Associated with 
Parathyroid Enlargement 

Melanism arising from physiological dis- 
turbance has not previously been reported 
for domestic pigeons. A few cases of 
partial melanism have been observed in 



the pigeon colony of this department 
under circumstances that suggest the na- 
ture of the factors intimately associated 
with the belated appearance of this condi- 
tion. Hollander and Riddle have found 
that, on the diet supplied to birds of this 
colony, a deficiency of sunlight regularly 
leads to enlargement of the parathyroids 
and also seems to be concerned in the oc- 
casional onset of partial melanism. This 
melanism had the following characteris- 
tics: (a) it was observed only in adult 
female pigeons of essentially wild-type 
coloration — gray-blue with black bands on 
tail and wings; (b) it was definitely partial 
rather than complete; (c) it first appeared 
after one or more molts; (d) when the 
blackening did not involve entire feathers 
it produced transverse bands on the feath- 
ers, not longitudinal streaks such as are 
typical of mosaic effects. 

Five cases of this type of nongenetic 
partial melanism were observed in adult 
female domestic pigeons. One similar case 
was observed in an old male hybrid 
(Zenaida X Zenaidurd) dove after it be- 
came unable to fly. Two physiological con- 
ditions, slight exposure to sunlight and 
enlargement of the parathyroids (3 to 6 
times normal), were known to be asso- 
ciated with all these six cases of melanism. 
It is considered probable that these condi- 
tions were also responsible for previously 
reported instances of melanism in caged 
wild birds. In two instances, plucked mela- 
nistic feathers were replaced by normal 
feathers following the administration of 
a concentrate of cod-liver oil (vitamin D) . 

Parathyroid enlargement was shown to 
occur regularly in young pigeons reared 
on a mixed-grain diet in the absence of 
direct sunlight (vitamin D deficiency). 
Grossly defective ossification of the bones 
(rickets) of many such pigeons was also 
noted. These conditions have been ob- 
served repeatedly by others in fowl. 



i 4 4 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Rachitic squabs never have shown mela- 
nism even when their parathyroids were 
very large. A more prolonged deficiency, 
or an element of aging, therefore, seems to 
be necessary for the appearance of mela- 
nistic feathers. Something more than 
chance is probably responsible for the fact 
that this type of melanism has not been 
observed in a male pigeon. It should be 
noted that the male's supply of calcium 
and vitamin D is not subject to the special 
drains and losses that necessarily accom- 
pany egg production in the adult female. 

Intersexuality in Male Embryos of 
Pigeons 

A transient intersexuality in male em- 
bryos of certain species of birds has been 
reported by various investigators. The 
species in which this condition has been 
observed include the fowl, English spar- 
row, blackbird, and pheasant, hawks, and 
ring doves. This anomaly involves a 
temporary development of ovarian cortex 
on the left testes, but usually not on the 
right testes, of genetic male embryos. 
Lahr and Riddle investigated the question 
whether this type of intersexuality exists in 
the pigeon, and also made a comparison 
of the conditions found in normal breeds 
of pigeons with those existing in the spe- 
cial strain of hermaphrodite-producing pi- 
geons developed in this laboratory. 

Ovarian cortical tissue is present on the 
left testes of all pigeons examined at the 
14th and 15th days of incubation. In testes 
from normal races of pigeons (33 cases), 
ovarian tissue showed degeneration be- 
tween the 14th day of incubation and the 
end of incubation (18 days) ; in such testes 
the ovarian tissue disappeared completely 
at or before the time of hatching. 

Testes derived from embryos of the 
hermaphrodite strain (28 cases) differed 
from those of normal type in showing a 
delay in the time at which atrophy of the 



cortical tissue begins; this atrophy was first 
observed, in 2 of 7 cases examined, on day 
17. This tissue had disappeared in only 1 
of 4 embryos at day 18, and in only 3 of 6 
embryos examined at 5 days after hatching. 
Birds that retain large amounts of ovarian 
tissue at and after hatching are presumably 
the ones that have been observed to possess 
a left ovotestis and (or) a left oviduct in 
adult life. 

Miscellaneous 

Dr. Hollander has prepared various 
papers or items for publication. The titles 
of these communications will be found in 
the bibliography for this year or next year. 
One of these papers provided an extensive 
review of "Mosaic effects in domestic 
birds"; another study, conducted on the 
flock of pigeons personally maintained by 
Dr. Hollander, resulted in the paper, "A 
lethal achondroplasia in the pigeon." 

Mrs. Smith has developed and published 
a technique for the complete removal of 
the parathyroid glands of pigeons. Several 
studies conducted in this laboratory during 
the past two or three years on medullary 
bone formation, and on factors affecting 
calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood, 
have required an extensive use of this tech- 
nique. Riddle, Rauch, and Smith earlier 
found that the parathyroid tissue of cer- 
tain pigeons (e.g., Carneaux) lies wholly 
external to the thyroids; in these animals, 
therefore, parathyroidectomy is of special 
interest, since it involves no injury to or 
reduction of thyroid tissue. 

Endocrines and Constitution 

Manuscripts describing the results of 
Riddle's twenty-four-year study of the re- 
lation of endocrines to constitution in 
doves and pigeons have been completed. 
Several of the more important results of 
that study have been indicated in Year 
Books of the past eighteen years. The 



DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



145 



additional facts that have emerged under a 
final analysis of the data cannot be prop- 
erly considered here; they are presented 
in one or another of the eighteen chapters 
which provide a full account of one of the 
Institution's most prolonged experimental 
studies. The present statement, however, 
will refer to one result that hitherto was 
unsuspected, and will in addition discuss 
briefly the nature and significance of the 
entire study. 

An unusual "selection" experiment, con- 
ducted principally on twenty-four pairs of 
ring doves (and on their progeny), will be 
discussed further in later paragraphs. The 
final data show that at least two of these 
twenty-four derived dove progenies, or 
"races," differed from other races with 
respect to a sex difference in body weight. 
Normally, male doves are heavier than 
females; but the present tests led to the 
establishment of two races in which this 
condition did not exist, and also to the 
establishment of still other races in which 
this sex difference was more marked than 
in other races. It should be stated that 
these differences were not consciously 
sought, but were a by-product of other 
selection. Since various measurements 
were made continuously on all the races 
(progenies), the data thus obtained might 
be expected to provide information con- 
cerning the relation of endocrine status 
to the presence or absence of this sex 
difference in body weight. This expecta- 
tion was fulfilled only in small measure. 
Good, though perhaps inadequate, evi- 
dence indicated that races which show no 
difference in body weight have the high- 
est rate of heat production and therefore 
probably a high level of thyroid function; 
again, races with unusually large sex 
difference in body weight had unusually 
low rates of heat production. Less con- 
sistent evidence indicates that in races 
which show no sex difference in body 

13 



weight the females attain sexual maturity 
at a more advanced age than do the fe- 
males of races which exhibit a sex differ- 
ence in body weight. 

The primary purpose of the study now 
completed was to learn whether certain 
of the individual differences of doves could 
be established as racial characteristics, and, 
if so, whether hormonal differences are 
associated with one or another of such 
racial differences. It would seem that facts 
derivable from a study of this kind should 
have nonnegligible implications in regard 
to both individual and racial differences 
in man. In the long and complicated task 
of recognizing, measuring, and evaluating 
human constitutional differences — as in the 
similar and, we believe, better-performed 
task concerning human origin — it seems 
clear that experimental animals must be 
expected to supply some basic principles 
and much indispensable information. A 
variety of reasons led to the acceptance of 
doves and pigeons as species especially 
suitable for one such study. For example, 
the degree of mongrelization present in 
each of these species is apparently com- 
parable with that in the human population 
of an American city, and many findings 
relating to constitutional factors in these 
birds are probably applicable to man. Sup- 
port for that early view has accumulated 
during the twenty-four years that have 
elapsed since the present study was started. 

During the progress of this study it 
became evident that we were, in fact, then 
dealing with physiological and structural 
inequalities of related groups of individuals 
(races). It should be observed that the 
word "inequalities," not "differences," is 
used in the preceding sentence. Since 
physical conditions could here be virtually 
leveled — substantially equalized — and since 
social, educational, and related influences 
are wholly improbable in this material, it 



146 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



is concluded that the highly important dis- 
tinction between "inequalities" and "differ- 
ences" is implicit in the results of this 



investigation. 



Whether the segregated groups should 
be called "races," "breeds," "stocks," or 
"types" is immaterial. It is wholly prob- 
able that numerous humans carry and 
transmit genetic factors predisposing to the 
extremes of most or all of the several 
traits studied in doves. And the strong 
presumptive evidence that similar segre- 
gates are (theoretically) obtainable within 
Homo sapiens is not contradicted by any 



valid evidence of which the writer is 
aware. The results of the present investi- 
gation thus provide direct experimental 
support for the view, now prevalent among 
anthropologists, that the products of en- 
docrine glands do much to shape the 
anatomical variants with which their meas- 
urements usually deal. These results also 
lend support to those few anthropologists 
who conclude that it is not alone "under- 
privilege which makes the underdog." 
Widespread genetic inequalities of indi- 
viduals and groups characterized the or- 
ganisms here subjected to tests. 



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DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS 



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— V. M. Rauch, and G. C. Smith. Action 
of estrogen on plasma calcium and endosteal 
bone formation in parathyroidectomized 
pigeons. Endocrinology, vol. 36, pp. 41-47 

(i945)- 
Changes in medullary 

bone during the reproductive cycle of female 

pigeons. Anat. Rec, vol. 90, pp. 295-305 

(1944). 

— and J. P. Schooley. Tests indicating 
absence of progesterone in certain avian 
ovaries. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 34, pp. 
341-346 (1944). 

— See Hollander, W. F.; Lahr, E. L.; 



McDonald, M. R. 
Sansome, E. R., M. Demerec, and A. Hol- 
laender. Quantitative irradiation experi- 
ments with Neurospora crassa. I. Experi- 
ments with X-rays. Amer. Jour. Bot., vol. 
32, pp. 218-226 (1945). 

See Hollaender, A. 

Schooley, J. P. See Riddle, O. 

Smith, G. C. The technique of parathyroidec- 
tomy in pigeons. Anat. Rec, vol. 92, pp. 81- 
86 (1945). 

See McDonald, M. R.; Riddle, O. 

Streisinger, G. See Dobzhansky, Th. 
Taylor, M. J. See MacDowell, E. C. 
Warmke, H. E. The effect of tetraploidy on root 

weight and rubber content in the Russian 
dandelion. (Abstract) Amer. Jour. Bot., 
vol. 31, pp. 6S-7S (1944). 

Experimental polyploidy and rubber 

content in Taraxacum \o\-saghyz. Bot. 
Gaz., vol. 106, pp. 316-324 (1945). 

Zimmer, E. See Hollaender, A. 



NUTRITION LABORATORY 

Boston, Massachusetts 
THORNE M. CARPENTER, Director 

The activities of the Nutrition Labora- understood, but has consisted in funda- 

tory during the past year have been de- mental studies on basal metabolism and 

voted almost exclusively to investigations heat production as a basis for determining 

on war research projects under a contract the requirements of energy in nutrition 

of the Office of Scientific Research and to meet the needs for heat for body proc- 

Development with Harvard University, esses and muscular activity. Only occa- 

These studies are conducted in cooperation sionally have prescribed diets, digestibility 

with the Harvard School of Public Health, studies, and analyses of foods been em- 

The investigation that was started on Janu- ployed. Special studies on food composi- 

ary i, 1943 was finished during the past tion have occasionally been made, such as 

year. Several other projects have been com- analyses of Bengali foods, foods of the 

pleted or are rapidly approaching comple- Maya, foods of the Navajo Indians, and 

tion. Three reports have been prepared for the common everyday extra foods eaten at 

the Office of Scientific Research and De- other times than regular meals, 

velopment. With the resignation of mem- From the beginning, emphasis has been 

bers of the staff and the almost complete laid upon exchange of information with 

absorption of the remaining staff mem- workers in other countries. Periodic trips 

bers in the war researches, all other scien- were made to Europe, to become ac- 

tific activities have ceased. With formal quainted with investigators in similar lines 

conclusion of the Laboratory's work in of work, to gain a more intimate knowl- 

immediate prospect, a review of its contri- edge of their researches, and to acquire 

butions during the past thirty-eight years newly developed apparatus that would be 

is made part of this report. useful in investigations in the Laboratory. 

The Nutrition Laboratory was estab- Information regarding experimental work 

lished in 1907 with Dr. Francis G. Bene- in progress in the Laboratory was im- 

dict as Director, and he continued in this parted freely to other workers, and on 

capacity until 1937, when he retired. The several trips series of lectures were given 

building was completed early in 1908 and gratuitously on the latest studies in the 

active work on construction of apparatus Laboratory. Foreign workers were invited 

and the carrying out of investigations be- to spend the greater part of an academic 

gan at that time. year at the Nutrition Laboratory as re- 

The primary purpose of the Laboratory search associates. The funds for most of 

was to conduct fundamental scientific in- these were provided by special grants from 

vestigations in vital activity with special the Institution, and occasionally by grants 

reference to the laws governing total from other organizations. Many other 

metabolism, heat production, heat elimina- workers came to the Laboratory for periods 

tion, and heat regulation. Although the of varying length to become acquainted 

undertaking was designated as the Nutri- with the various forms of apparatus and 

tion Laboratory, the main part of its work the problems on which the Laboratory was 

has not been in nutrition as popularly engaged. Many American investigators 

149 



150 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



also, who participated later in cooperative 
studies, came to the Laboratory to be 
trained in the apparatus and techniques. 

Cooperation with other workers and 
other institutions and universities has 
had a prominent role all through the 
investigations of the Laboratory. In the 
first year of active construction of ap- 
paratus, 1908, a cooperative study on the 
metabolism of diabetes mellitus in man 
was begun with Dr. Elliott P. Joslin, of 
the New England Deaconess Hospital. 
This cooperation with him and with his 
colleagues was carried on almost continu- 
ously until 1943. Other cooperative in- 
vestigations are mentioned below. 

A major part of the activities of the 
Laboratory has been the development and 
testing of various types of apparatus for the 
measurement of heat production, heat 
elimination, respiratory exchange, and sur- 
face and internal body temperature. The 
earliest project was the construction of 
four respiration calorimeters for human 
subjects for special purposes, and more 
particularly for periods shorter than 24 
hours. The comparison of direct and in- 
direct calorimetry was an outstanding 
problem; it was found that the measure- 
ment of respiratory exchange in short 
periods gave a reliable measure of heat 
production, and consequently the use of 
calorimeters was gradually diminished. 
The necessity for a more sensitive type 
of calorimeter for measuring rapid changes 
in heat elimination such as might occur 
in studies of heat regulation led to the 
development of the emission respiration 
calorimeter for animals in 1916 and for 
humans in 1920. At the time of writing, 
with the finding that direct calorimetry 
is no longer necessary for the majority of 
problems in total metabolism, only the 
emission calorimeter for humans is still 
in functioning condition. 



From the beginning the development 
of respiratory apparatus for measurement 
of very short periods was also an object 
of investigation. This resulted in an ap- 
paratus by which reliable results could be 
obtained in as short a period as one-quarter 
hour. This apparatus has been simplified 
more and more, and now devices based 
on the principles involved are widely used 
in thousands of clinics and hospitals for 
determination of basal metabolism of hu- 
man patients. Various types of apparatus 
were also originated for determining the 
respiratory exchange of animals of various 
sizes and species. The standard European 
types of apparatus for measurement of total 
metabolism were obtained. For many years 
one of the most important phases of the 
work of the Laboratory was the study of 
the use of these apparatus — also of ap- 
paratus devised in American laboratories 
— and of their technical difficulties, relia- 
bility, and accuracy, in comparison with 
the apparatus originated in the Laboratory. 

Most of the earlier respiration appa- 
ratus devised in the Laboratory were 
based on the closed-circuit principle. In 
1922, however, a gas analysis apparatus 
was developed which permitted the an- 
alysis of atmospheric air and air coming 
from open-circuit respiration apparatus 
with an extraordinarily high degree of 
accuracy. Thereafter, more and more the 
open-circuit principle of measurement of 
respiratory exchange was applied, par- 
ticularly in studies on animals of various 
sizes, and in studies where exact informa- 
tion was needed on the respiratory quo- 
tient as an index of the character of body 
material and the rapidity with which true 
basal condition was obtained, and on the 
effect of food on the character of the 
metabolism. The use of the open-circuit 
principle with gas analysis made possible 
the measurement of total metabolism of 



NUTRITION LABORATORY 



151 



animals with which the use of the closed- 
circuit system would have been imprac- 
ticable. 

The necessity for establishing standards 
of basal metabolism of normal human sub- 
jects of both sexes was early recognized, and 
this project constituted one of the major ac- 
tivities of the Laboratory. Gradually large 
enough numbers of adult human subjects 
were studied so that standards were de- 
vised based on height, weight, age, and 
sex instead of body surface. This accumu- 
lation of measurements also furnished ma- 
terial for derivation of basal metabolism 
standards in other ways by other workers. 
It is now customary for students of basal 
metabolism to use the Nutrition Labora- 
tory standards as well as other standards 
for the estimation of the normality and 
abnormality of basal metabolism results. 
The studies on the normal basal metabo- 
lism were also extended to comprehensive 
series on human subjects from birth to 
old age, so standards are now available 
for all ages of both sexes of humans. Spe- 
cial researches were made on the condi- 
tions that may affect basal metabolism, 
such as position of the body, temperature, 
vegetarian diet, athletic activity, environ- 
ment, season, fatigue, and the neutral bath. 
As several members of the staff either have 
been on the staff for a number of years or 
were available for periodic measurements, 
information has been obtained on the 
progressive effects of age on this factor. 

In 1912, a notable study was made of 
the total metabolism, heat regulation, and 
balance of energy and of materials in a 
31-day fast of a human male subject. 

In 1913, an extensive program on the 
physiological and psychological effects of 
ethyl alcohol was inaugurated, and for a 
number of years this constituted a sub- 
stantial part of the activities of the Labora- 
tory. Even after the advent of the prohi- 



bition law the study of the physiology and 
chemistry of alcohol in man and animals 
was continued in special researches. 

In 1917-1918, a comprehensive investiga- 
tion was made of the physiological and 
chemical aspects of a group of young men 
of the International Y. M. C. A. College in 
Springfield who underwent undernutri- 
tion for an extended period. This resulted 
in considerable information on the ability 
of young men to carry on the physical 
and mental activities of normal life on a 
submaintenance diet. 

The finding in 1925 that the basal me- 
tabolism of Oriental women living in the 
United States was lower than that found 
for American women led to an intensive 
and cooperative campaign on the study of 
race metabolism. A special apparatus was 
devised, compact and easily transportable, 
for the determination of basal metabolism 
in field studies and anthropology. Workers 
from other laboratories were trained at 
the Nutrition Laboratory and subsequently 
carried on studies of the basal metabolism 
of races in various parts of the world. The 
studies included the blacks and browns in 
Jamaica, the Maya in Yucatan, women of 
various races in southern India, the aborig- 
ines of Australia, natives of Manchuria, 
types of Chinese in eastern and western 
China, and various races and mixtures 
of races in the Hawaiian Islands. The 
results have been brought together in a 
large number of publications on race me- 
tabolism and have shown clearly that some 
races have a definitely higher metabolism 
and some a lower metabolism than that of 
the Caucasian race. 

It was early recognized that our infor- 
mation regarding quantitative and quali- 
tative aspects of the factors that go to 
make up the total metabolism of man 
could be supplemented by studies of the 
metabolism of animals. The research on 



152 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



undernutrition in man in 1917-1918 led cold-blooded ones. The investigation con- 
to a study of the possibility of the sub- cerned its total metabolism, the qualitative 
sistence of cattle on a submaintenance aspects of its metabolism, and its heat regu- 
diet, followed by an investigation of the • lation during periods of normal activity, of 
subsequent realimentation. In the latter going into hibernation, and of change from 
part of 191 8 work was begun in coopera- the hibernating state to the state of normal 
tion with Professor E. G. Ritzman, of activity. The basal metabolism and heat 
the University of New Hampshire, on this regulation of the rabbit was extensively 
problem in the study of the total metabo- studied; other animals investigated there 
lism of undernourished steers. In 1922 were canaries, sparrows, wild rats, frizzled 
similar work was done with fasting steers, fowl, and mice. The basal metabolism of 
This cooperative effort proved most profit- the chimpanzee was studied at the Yale 
able and was continued until 1938. Steers, Anthropoid Experiment Station, Orange 
cows, horses, sheep, goats, and pigs were Park, Florida; that of the rhesus monkey, 
used in research on the basal metabolism at the Department of Embryology of the 
and the effect of food ingestion on total Carnegie Institution, in cooperation with 
metabolism in both qualitative and quan- Dr. G. L. Streeter and Dr. C. G. Hart- 
titative aspects, and on the effect of season, man; that of various races of doves and 
of variations among breeds, and of ex- pigeons, in cooperation with Dr. O. C. 
ternal environment. These researches have Riddle at the Department of Genetics of 
been supplemented by studies on surface the Institution. An investigation on the 
and internal body temperature under dif- total metabolism of a 4-ton elephant was 
fering environmental conditions. supplemented by several researches on var- 
Researches on the basal metabolism of a ious phases of the physiology of the ele- 
great variety of animals have been con- phant, using single elephants and groups 
ducted, usually covering a number of years, of elephants. 

Rats were studied at Columbia University In all these investigations on the basal 

in cooperation with Professor H. C. Sher- metabolism and the various factors af- 

man and Professor Grace MacLeod, and fecting it, special stress was laid on the 

at Yale University with Professor L. B. necessity for finding the point of thermic 

Mendel. Studies at the New York Zoologi- neutrality— that is, the environmental 

cal Park on wild animals in captivity in- temperature at which the metabolism was 

eluded birds from the 600-gram bittern lowest — and on the complete absence of 

to the 17-kilogram cassowary, and cold- muscular activity. These two factors have 

blooded animals from the gopher tortoise not always been recognized in studies by 

to the 132-kilogram tortoise as well as other investigators. 

lizards, snakes, and pythons of various The total heat production of any animal 
weights and sizes. At the Laboratory, valu- is, in general, made up from the combus- 
able information was gained from a re- tion of the three groups of food corn- 
search project on the woodchuck, which ponents, proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, 
forms a link, so to speak, between the When these are burned in the body, each 
warm-blooded and the cold-blooded ani- group produces a characteristic ratio be- 
mals in that at various periods it is in a tween the volumes of carbon dioxide given 
condition like that of warm-blooded ones, off and of oxygen consumed. This ratio 
and during hibernation it simulates the is called the respiratory quotient. When 



NUTRITION LABORATORY 



153 



the total respiratory exchange is known, 
and the nitrogen in the urine due to the 
destruction of protein is known, it is pos- 
sible to compute the amounts of the three 
substances burned in a given period. As 
a contribution to our information regard- 
ing the source of the substances furnish- 
ing the fuels for combustion that make 
up the total heat production, a knowl- 
edge of the respiratory quotient is of the 
utmost importance. The development of 
the gas analysis apparatus in 1922 made 
possible a more exact determination of 
the respiratory quotient and of the vari- 
ous factors affecting it in both animals 
and man than had previously been feasible. 
The finding, early in the studies with 
the simple sugars, dextrose, levulose, and 
galactose, into which the carbohydrates of 
the diet are for the most part resolved 
in digestion and absorption, that the re- 
sponse of the respiratory quotient after 
their ingestion by man differed widely, 
led to an intensive study of the factors 
that might cause these variations. The 
finding by other workers that the response 
of the respiratory quotient in rats seems 
to differ widely from that in man led to a 



series of studies by means of the open- 
circuit apparatus and gas analysis on the 
variations in the changes in the respira- 
tory quotient after the ingestion of these 
three sugars by various species of animals, 
including the mouse, rat, canary, monkey, 
goat, and cat. The results show that there 
are wide variations in the metabolism of 
carbohydrates with these three sugars, 
both qualitatively and quantitatively. Al- 
though animals in general burn carbohy- 
drates, fats, and proteins as does man, 
the manner in which these processes are 
carried out, both qualitatively and quan- 
titatively, differs widely in the different 
species, so that it is not safe to transfer the 
results from one species to another without 
some qualifications. 

The results of the various investiga- 
tions of the Laboratory are presented in 
35 monographs published by the Institu- 
tion and in 414 articles that have appeared 
in scientific journals. 

Since the beginning of 1941 the purely 
scientific activities of the Laboratory have 
gradually lessened because of the partici- 
pation of the members of the staff in war 
researches. 



STAFF NOTES 



Mr. Robert C. Lee, a member of the 
staff since January 1929, resigned August 
31, 1944. Miss Elsie A. Wilson, since 
September 1913 a member of the staff, 
resigned November 30, 1944. Mr. George 
Lee, a member of the staff since September 
1929, resigned January 31, 1945. Mr. 
George Lee was an expert gas analyst and 
photographer. Mr. Robert C. Lee con- 
ducted a large amount of experimental 
work and in recent years contributed sub- 
stantially to the published output of the 
Laboratory. Miss Wilson has been of in- 
estimable value as secretary and editor and 
has aided very materially in the prepara- 
tion of many manuscripts for publication. 



Miss Evelyn Barenberg was employed as 
secretary from November 20, 1944 to June 
1, 1945. 

The entire time of Mr. Robert C. Lee 
and Mr. George Lee until they resigned 
was employed in the war activities. Mr. 
V. C. Coropatchinsky has been engaged 
exclusively the entire year in the construc- 
tion of newly developed apparatus for 
the war researches. About a month of 
Miss Wilson's time was spent on the 
preparation of reports on the war activities. 
On March 23, 1945, Dr. Carpenter gave 
his annual lecture on basal metabolism 
before students of the Harvard Medical 
School. 



154 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



LITERARY WORK 



The following articles have been com- 
pleted for publication in scientific journals: 

"The basal metabolic rates of South 
American Indians," by Elsie A. Wilson. 
(Accepted for publication in the Hand- 
book on the Indians of South America.) 

"The respiratory quotient and blood 
pyruvate and lactate responses after oral 
ingestion of glucose and fructose in dia- 
betes mellitus with and without insulin," 
by Howard F. Root, Elmer Stotz, and 
Thorne M. Carpenter. (Accepted for pub- 



lication in the American Journal of Med- 
ical Sciences.) 

"The effects of the dietary supply of 
carbohydrate upon the response of the 
human respiratory quotient after glucose 
administration," by Howard F. Root and 
Thorne M. Carpenter. (Accepted for pub- 
lication in the Journal of Nutrition.) 

"The respiratory quotients (R.Q.) of 
diabetic subjects after meals," by Howard 
F. Root and Thorne M. Carpenter. 



PUBLICATIONS 



(i) A new method for studying breathing with 
observations upon normal and abnormal 
subjects. Leslie Silverman, Robert C. Lee, 
and Cecil K. Drinker with the coopera- 
tion of Francis M. Rackemann. Jour. 
Clin. Investig., vol. 23, pp. 907-913 (1944). 

A new pneumotachograph^ device is de- 
scribed for making a graphic record of the 
velocity of air movement during inspiration 
and expiration. The inspiratory and expira- 
tory air currents cause the deflections of fine 
wires, deflections that are recorded photo- 
graphically by a moving paper camera. 
Typical illustrations of the resulting curves 
are presented, showing the results on one 
normal individual and on five patients with 
respiratory difficulties. The total minute 
volume and the instantaneous air flow can 
be obtained from the records made by the 
instrument. 

(2) The effects of glucose, fructose, and galactose 
on the respiratory exchange of the goat. 
Ernest G. Ritzman and Thorne M. Car- 
penter. Jour. Nutrition, vol. 28, pp. 71-79 
(1944). 

The respiratory exchanges of four male and 
five female adult goats were determined 40 
hours after withdrawal from food (1) under 
basal conditions and (2) in eight successive 
^-hour periods after the administration by 
stomach tube of 250 ml. of water at 37 — 38 ° 
C, or of 25 gm. of glucose, fructose, or galac- 



tose dissolved in 125 ml. of water and an addi- 
tional 125 ml. of water for rinsing. Water pro- 
duced a slight but somewhat delayed in-, 
crease in the R.Q. Fructose caused the great- 
est increase in the R.Q. and the greatest in- 
crease in the metabolism of carbohydrates. 
Glucose was next in these effects, and galac- 
tose had the least effects. Qualitatively these 
results much resemble those found with man 
with these sugars. There was evidence of a 
slight amount of fermentation after the in- 
gestion of galactose and of fructose by the 
goats. 

(3) The effects of sugars on the respiratory ex- 
change of cats. Thorne M. Carpenter. 
Jour. Nutrition, vol. 28, pp. 315-323 
(1944). 

The respiratory exchange was measured in 
successive ^-hour periods for 4 hours with 
five cats in the basal state, after ingestion of 
75 ml. of water, after ingestion of 10 gm. 
of glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, mal- 
tose, or lactose, and after ingestion of a com- 
bination of 5 gm. each of glucose and fructose 
or of glucose and galactose. The values of 
the basal R.Q. were uniform, for the most 
part, and did not show a marked tendency to 
change during the eight ^-hour periods of 
measurement. The ingestion of water resulted 
in a rise in R.Q. with one cat for the entire 
4 hours, but with the other cats only in the 
first J-hour period. Glucose caused the great- 



NUTRITION LABORATORY X rr 

est rise in R.Q., and the peak occurred in the often higher or lower than the normal stand- 
sixth and seventh ^-hour periods. All the ards for the white population in the United 
other sugars, disaccharides as well as mono- States. Many investigators believe that these 
saccharides, caused definite rises in the R.Q. differences are ascribable to race and that 
On the assumption that in the control experi- this factor must be considered in addition to 
ments with water only fat and protein were age, weight, height, and sex. Other investi- 
metabolized and that in the experiments with gators claim that race plays no role, but that 
the sugars the protein metabolism of a given the deviations from the normal standards for 
cat was the same as its average protein North American whites can be explained by 
metabolism in the experiments with water, differences in nutritive condition, climate, 
it was calculated that the metabolism of car- and other factors. 

bohydrates was highest after glucose and This review of the literature on the basal 

lower after galactose and fructose in the order metabolism of different human races discusses 

named. The cats were able to metabolize these conflicting opinions and points out the 

the disaccharides nearly as well as would be many different conditions entering into the 

expected, in view of their constituent mono- measurements that make it difficult to decide 

saccharides formed by hydrolysis. When whether race itself is or is not a factor in 

combinations of hexoses equivalent to 10 gm. basal metabolism. Among these are differ- 

of sucrose or lactose were ingested, the re- ences in physical activity and degree of mus- 

sultant metabolism of carbohydrates was cular relaxation, differences in body size and 

greater than would be expected from the body configuration, differences in diet, differ- 

sum of the amounts metabolized after in- ences in climate and seasons of the year, and 

gestion of the respective hexoses given sepa- differences in anthropological and constitu- 

rately. Cats resemble men in the metabolism tional types. Another complication is that 

of the monosaccharides in that they show the normal standards of basal metabolism are 

increases in R.Q. and in carbohydrate commonly related to body size, particularly 

metabolism after ingestion of these sugars, the surface area of the body, and the formula 

but they differ from men in that the peak for calculating this area worked out for 

does not occur so promptly and, qualitatively, whites may not necessarily apply to all races, 

the order of magnitude of the effect is not Moreover, different methods have been used 

the same. in measuring the basal metabolism of the 

various races studied, instead of one and the 

(4) Basal metabolism from the standpoint of same method 

racial anthropology. Elsie A. Wilson. a 1 1 • c 1 1 

A T Tii » 1 1 1 -A tabular summary is given or the results 

Amer. Jour. Phys. AnthropoL, n. s., vol. 3, r . ... . . . . . . . 

/ \ or those racial investigations in which basal 

metabolic rates above the normal American 

From many hundreds of metabolism meas- standards have been found. Another sum- 

urements on normal men, women, and mary is given of the results of those investiga- 

children of the white population of the United tions in which minus values of more than 

States, average values or normal standards of 10 per cent have been found, and still a third 

basal metabolism have been derived showing summary of the results of racial studies made 

the energy needs of normal people. These between 1940 and 1942. 

normal standards vary, depending on age, One of the striking findings is that most 

weight, height, and sex. When other racial of the groups having basal energy needs 

groups besides North American whites were distinctly higher than the standards for 

studied, for example Chinese students in the normal whites belong to the Mongolian race. 

United States, Maya Indians of Yucatan, and These groups include Eskimos and American 

various races in South America, India, Aus- Indians. 

tralia, and other parts of the world, it was From this survey it is evident that so many 

discovered that their basal energy needs were different factors may play concurrent roles in 



156 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



affecting the basal metabolism that it is im- 
possible at the present time to say whether 
the different basal metabolic levels noted for 
the various races thus far studied are reflec- 
tions of a racial characteristic or are the re- 
sults of a combination of some or all of the 
factors mentioned. The desirability of fur- 
ther studies on different races with the use of 
the same technique of measurement in all 
cases is urged, to rule out the factor of dif- 
ference in technique. The suggestion is 
made that sufficient measurements be made 
to establish a normal standard for each 
individual race, based on measurements of 
normal individuals of the race in their 



native country. When such standards have 
been established for many different races, 
a comparison of these with the present-day 
American and European standards should 
throw more light on the role played by race 
in basal metabolism. 

(5) The respiratory quotient and blood pyruvate 
and lactate after ingestion of glucose or 
fructose by diabetic patients. Thorne M. 
Carpenter, Howard F. Root, and Elmer 
Stotz. Federation Proc, vol. 4, pp. 152- 

153 (i945)- 

A preliminary communication of results 
to be published in full subsequently. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Carpenter, Thorne M. The effects of sugars 
on the respiratory exchange of cats. Jour. 
Nutrition, vol. 28, pp. 3i5"3 2 3 ( I 944)« 

Howard F. Root, and Elmer Stotz. 

The respiratory quotient and blood pyruvate 
and lactate after ingestion of glucose or 
fructose by diabetic patients. Federation 
Proc, vol. 4, pp. 152-153 (i945)- 
See Ritzman, Ernest G. 



Drinker, Cecil K. See Silverman, Leslie. 

Lee, Robert C. See Silverman, Leslie. 

Rackemann, Francis M. See Silverman, Leslie. 

Ritzman, Ernest G., and Thorne M. Carpen- 
ter. The effects of glucose, fructose, and 
galactose on the respiratory exchange of the 



goat. Jour. Nutrition, vol. 28, pp. 71-79 
(1944). 

Root, Howard F. See Carpenter, Thorne M. 

Silverman, Leslie, Robert C. Lee, and Cecil K. 
Drinker, with the cooperation of Francis 
M. Rackemann. A new method for study- 
ing breathing with observations upon normal 
and abnormal subjects. Jour. Clin. Investig., 
vol. 23, pp. 907-913 (1944). 

Stotz, Elmer. See Carpenter, Thorne M. 

Wilson, Elsie A. Basal metabolism from the 
standpoint of racial anthropology. Amer. 
Jour. Phys. Anthropol., n. s., vol. 3, pp. 1- 
19 (1945)- 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 

T. H. Morgan, Alfred H. Sturtevant, and Lilian V. Morgan, California Institute of 
Technology, Pasadena, California. Maintenance of a Drosophila stoc\ center, in 
connection with investigations on the constitution of the germinal material in re- 
lation to heredity. (For previous reports see Year Books Nos. 15 to 43.) 



The results of the work of A. H. Sturte- 
vant on chromosome types of Drosophila 
melanogaster are reported as follows: 

The fourth chromosome of Drosophila 
melanogaster is usually given as 0.2 units 
long. This value is evidently too high; 
there is probably less than 0.05 per cent 
crossing over between any of the known 
loci. When linkage experiments are car- 
ried out, it often happens that the design 
is such that nondisjunction will simulate 

TABLE 1 

Crossing over in diplo-IV triploid females 
of Drosophila melanogaster 



Loci 


Total no. flies 


No. crossovers 


Percentage 


gvl ey 

gvl sv 

ci ey 

ci sv 


1513 
680 
965 
158 


40 

22 
15 

7 


2.6 
3.2 
1.6 

4.4 



crossing over, and this confusion has prob- 
ably led to the value usually given. 

Recent experiments have, however, 
shown that crossing over in this chromo- 
some is greatly increased in triploid fe- 
males, as shown in table 1. Most triploid 
strains carry only two fourth chromosomes, 
and the data were derived from such 
females. Crossing over in triplo-IV trip- 
loids is more difficult to analyze, and, there- 
fore, few counts have been made from 
them; a few crossovers were, however, 
present in the small numbers obtained. 

These experiments have resulted in the 
production of three new multiple stocks, 



that are of value in studies on this chromo- 
some: gvl sv 11 , ci sv n , and gvl sv n ey R . It 
should be added that the two latter are 
inconvenient to work with, owing to an 
unexplained high incidence of male 
sterility. 

The construction of a crossing-over map 
has encountered an unexpected difficulty, 
namely, that the data indicate that some 
of the crossovers obtained have resulted 
from double crossing over. This is so un- 
expected, for a section showing so little 
total crossing over, that the result must be 
thoroughly checked before any confidence 
can be placed in it. All that can be said 
at present is that most of the observed 
crossing over occurs in an interval lying 
between the loci of gvl and ci on the one 
hand, and those of sv and ey on the other, 
but that occasional crossovers also occur 
between the members of each of these two 
pairs of loci. 

These studies are being continued and 
the preference properties of the crossover 
chromosomes are also being determined. 

Dr. K. W. Cooper, of Princeton Univer- 
sity, has carried out studies, partly in this 
laboratory, on the effects of inversions on 
crossing over and chromosome disjunc- 
tion. Some of the data are in press, and 
other experiments are still in progress. 
These studies,, like those on preference 
properties of fourth chromosomes, are 
aimed at throwing light on the mechanics 
of chromosome behavior — a field that has 
recently been somewhat neglected by 
geneticists, but in which the material avail- 
able in Drosophila melanogaster makes it 



157 



158 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



possible to carry out critical tests with a 
precision and efficiency nowhere else at- 
tainable. 

The fourth-chromosome recessive char- 
acter sparkling (spa), described in the re- 
port of i 942-1943, has been further studied 
by L. V. Morgan in experiments designed 
to test the correlation between the mani- 
festation of spa and relative amounts of 
heterochromatin and euchromatin. 

Spa is manifested primarily by rough- 
ness and brightness of the eye and by 
other conditions such as shape and con- 
vexity. Roughness seems to be in part 
due to irregularity in the rows of omma- 
tidia, which sometimes vary in size. 

In order to facilitate comparison of dif- 
ferent degrees of spa, an arbitrary scale of 
7 grades was chosen. An eye of grade 6 
is exceedingly rough, has no fleck, and is 
often bulging, round, and small. In grade 
1 roughness is very slight, sometimes not 
involving all of the eye, sometimes dis- 
cernible only in certain positions in relation 
to the source of light; it scarcely differs 
from grade or "smooth." Grade 2 is 
evidently spa. When feasible, one parent 
in the mating was heterozygous for spa 
and for its wild-type allelomorph in a 
chromosome marked by the dominant 
wing mutant cubitus interruptus dominant 
(ci D ). Thus homozygous spa eyes could 
be compared in the same conditions 
directly with wild-type eyes, which some- 
times are of a granular texture rather than 
entirely smooth. As there is no actual 
division between grades, the classification 
of borderline cases varies. For this reason 
and because spa is probably sensitive to 
genetic modifiers, the controls were present 
whenever possible in the same culture in 
which spa was rated, or sibs were used as 
Pi flies. 

Temperature affects the grade of spa, 
which is enhanced when the flies are raised 



at 1 7-1 9 C, the range chosen for the 
experiments. When first found, spa was 
raised at room temperature. In extracted 
homozygous flies spa was easily seen in 
females, but did not show in males. Raised 
at 19 , females were of higher grades and 
males showed low grades of spa. 

Females have been found to be of higher 
grades than their brothers in every experi- 
ment in which the females were XX and 
the males were XY (possibly excepting 
flies carrying a deficiency for chromo- 
some 2). But females carrying normal 
X's and also a Y chromosome do not 
show spa as observed in the regular class 
of attached-X females which are XXY. 
Their exceptional XXO sisters are spa 
and of higher grades than are the regular 
XY males. Sons of XXO females which 
are XO males show the highest grades 
of spa (6 and 5), exceeding even the 
grades of the few XXO females found in 
the same stocks of flies. These observa- 
tions show a lowering of the grade of spa 
in the presence of a Y chromosome. 

A correlation has also been found be- 
tween the presence of differing amounts 
of heterochromatin in the X and the 
expression of spa. The X deficient for 
X heterochromatin and for the locus of 
bobbed found by Gershenson (Df G) 
was used (symbol X - ). The grades of 
offspring of females heterozygous for X 
and X - mated to XY males are recorded 
in table 2 under A. Both females and 
males deficient in X heterochromatin are 
of higher grades than are the correspond- 
ing flies carrying the normal X's. 

In another class of females (X~X"Y) 
which carried two deficient X's and a Y 
chromosome, there were smooth-eyed flies 
and flies of grade 1 (table 2 under B). 
This indicates that two X deficiencies have 
an effect on spa which is opposite to and 
nearly balances the effect of Y. An extra 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 



159 



Y in a deficient male (X"YY) suppresses 
spa as seen in the males of the class that 
had received a Y from each parent. The 
result is similar to the suppression of spa 
by Y in XXY and XY as compared with 
XXO ancTXO. 

There are other examples of effects on 
spa of different amounts of heterochro- 
matin in the X and the Y chromosomes. 
An X chromosome known as bobbed lethal 
{bb 1 ) is probably deficient for the locus 

TABLE 2 

Number of flies of different grades of spa 
(X - stands for deficient X of Gershenson) 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 



A. Grades of spa in offspring of X~X by XY 

WITH AND WITHOUT X~ 



X"X 










16 


38 


29 


X"Y 




49 


55 










XX 






13 


33 


52 


14 


3 


XY 


70 


8 













B. Grades of spa in offspring of X X Y by X~Y 



X-X-Y. 
X"Y... 

X"YY. 



42 


48 


2 










2 


33 


43 


13 


3 


64 













of bb, and an X chromosome found by 
Dobzhansky (Df D) is deficient for the 
locus of bb and for a heterochromatic 
region. Each of these showed an effect on 
spa in XX" females and in XY males. 
The females showed spa to a high degree 
and the males were only slightly spa. The 
grades were not rated by the scale, but in 
comparisons made at long intervals of 
stocks of the three deficiencies, Df G 
appeared to be the most effective in en- 
hancing spa, and bb 1 the least effective. 
The stocks were unrelated, so there were 
no checks on modifiers except ci D , which 
was present in some instances. 



In X"X~Y females that carried Df D, 
spa was less evident even than in corre- 
sponding Df G females, which are of low 
grade. When a normal X is present in 
place of one deficient X, the females 
(X"XY) carrying either deficiency do not 
show spa, though XX females are of high 
grades. 

When a deficient Y, known as Y sterile 
(Y st ), which is probably the long arm of 
Y, is combined with bb 1 deficiency in 
X"X~Y st females, spa is of a high order. 
Another Y, "Y bobbed deficiency" (Y b& "), 
is deficient for bb and for about one-third 
of the short arm of Y, but males carrying 
it are fertile. It has less effect on the sup- 
pression of spa than has a normal Y. In 
attached-X females that are XXY bb ~, spa 
is evident, and XY &&_ males are even more 
spa than the females, but less spa than are 
XO males. 

It was found further that duplication 
of X heterochromatin has an effect op- 
posite to that of a deficiency and in the 
direction of the effect of Y. Flies carry- 
ing a largely heterochromatic fragment 
of X, Dp(i ;f) 101, in addition to the normal 
complement of X, produced smooth dupli- 
cation males (XX Dp Y) and XY males 
which were slightly spa; and 84 per cent 
of XX females were of grades 4 and 3, 
while 82 per cent of the females carrying 
the duplication (XXX Dp ) were of the 
lower grades 2 and 1, although a common 
effect of duplication is slight roughening 
of the eyes. 

Another deficiency for heterochromatin, 
Df(2)M-Sio, was tested. It is a deficiency 
for a heterochromatic region of the right 
arm of chromosome 2, which produces a 
dominant mutant effect (M) and is lethal 
when homozygous. The Minute offspring 
(M) of flies heterozygous for the deficiency 
are conspicuously more spa than are their 
normal sibs. This is true especially of the 



:6o 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



males, which run into the highest grades 
as do the females. Of the not-M offspring, 
lower in grade, the males are less spa than 
the females. 

The effect on the fourth-chromosome 
character spa of the presence of different 
amounts of heterochromatin is in agree- 
ment with the effect of heterochromatin 



on variegations in other chromosomes 
which has been described by Schultz. The 
experiments with spa give consistent re- 
sults in the sense that when heterochro- 
matin of X or of Y is increased, the mani- 
festation of spa is diminished, and when 
heterochromatin of X, Y, or 2R is de- 
creased, spa is enhanced. 



H. C. Sherman, Columbia University, New York, New York. Research on influ- 
ence of nutrition upon the chemical composition of the normal body. (For 
previous reports on this and directly preceding researches, see Year Books Nos. 
32 to 41 and 43.) 

The fact that a normal bodily chemistry beings, and enough faster so that they 
may yet be improved by a more scientific complete their normal life cycles in about 



adjustment of the nutritional intake has 
opened a far-reaching field of research 
into the effects of food upon life processes 
and life histories. The present research 



one-thirtieth of the time. Rat families in 
our laboratory colony are now thriving 
in the sixtieth generation on our basal 
diet A, which in the sense here described 



deals, as has been briefly explained in pre- is already adequate, yet capable of im- 
vious reports, with the effects of such provement at more than one point, as 
nutritional improvements. These are in- doubtless are the dietaries on which a 
duced in some cases by adjustments of large proportion of people are living, 
the quantitative proportions of natural Hence such study of the influence of 
foods in the diet, and in other cases by food — upon the bodily chemistry and re- 
enrichment of the diet with chemically sultant nutritional well-being and life his- 
individual nutrients. tory — holds much of significance for the 

By the former method we found that a correlation of chemical composition and 

diet already adequate in the sense that it biological function, and for important hu- 

supports normal growth, health, and life man implications. 

histories through successive generations Our experiments with calcium as the 

can yet be so improved as to better the sole variable factor were summarized 

average status in each part of the life cycle, briefly in our report of 1 940-1 941 and more 

Our subsequent experiments with indi- fully in the journal articles there recorded 



vidual nutrients indicate that calcium, vita- 
min A, riboflavin, and protein each plays 
a part in the enhancement of an already 
normal status of nutritional well-being, 



(Year Book No. 40, pp. 287-288). 

At that time and in the following year 
(Year Book No. 41, pp. 245-246) progress 
reports were made upon our analogous 



with resultant improvement in the plane experiments with vitamin A, the data of 

of positive health, and the average length some of which are now being prepared 

of life. Rats are the experimental animals for journal publication. These experiments 

used in this work because, in all aspects are showing that a moderate surplus of 

of the nutritional chemistry with which vitamin A in the daily diet is even more 

we are here concerned, their processes run potent than previously supposed in the 

strikingly parallel with those of human support of bodily reserves of this nutrient 



SPECIAL PROJECTS: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 



161 



at all ages up to at least middle life. More- 
over, in families thus fed through suc- 
cessive generations, growth is stabilized 
and the period of full adult vigor appears, 
in the experiments thus far completed, to 
have been extended. We hope to carry 
these experiments into larger numbers at 
the higher levels of nutritional intake and 
the more advanced ages. 

Our experimental studies of the influ- 
ence upon body composition of different 
liberal levels of nutritional intake of ribo- 
flavin, both as sole variable and in con- 
junction with different levels of food pro- 
tein, are being continued. As was noted 
in last year's report, our work with ribo- 
flavin as sole variable yields a general 
picture of a riboflavin content of body 
tissue which varies with the nutritional 
intake at relatively low levels, whereas at 
higher levels of intake the concentration 
of riboflavin in the tissue reaches a "pla- 
teau" and thereafter remains essentially 
constant with further increase of riboflavin 
intake. This plateau level of riboflavin 
content of body appears, however, to be 
influenced by the protein content of the 
diet, consistently with the theory that ribo- 
flavin in body tissues exists largely in com- 
bination with protein. Thus in a series of 
five comparisons of the body concentra- 
tions of riboflavin and total nitrogenous 
compounds (quantitatively an essential 
measure of protein content) in rats that 
had been fed diets of the same liberal 
riboflavin content but with 12 per cent 
and 32 per cent, respectively, of protein, 
it was found that in every case the animal 
receiving food of higher protein content 
showed a higher body content of both pro- 
tein and riboflavin. The average results 
were: in animals from diet with 12 per 



cent protein, 5.70 micrograms of riboflavin 
per gram, and 16.95 P er cent °f protein 
in the body; and in animals from diet 
with 32 per cent protein, 6.63 micrograms 
of riboflavin, and 18.42 per cent of body 
protein. Such differences, of the order of 
one-tenth, in the amounts of these active 
factors of the life process in the body 
tissues clearly suggest that science is here 
developing a previously unappreciated po- 
tentiality for the modification of life 
processes and thus of life histories through 
nutritionally guided use of food. The 
quantitative investigation of these rela- 
tionships is complicated by the fact that 
the difference of nutritional intake influ- 
ences the amount of fatty and fatlike 
substances formed and retained in the 
body. This is consistent with the oxida- 
tion-enzyme nature of the riboflavin-pro- 
tein compound. Thus the situation de- 
serves fuller experimental study, both as 
to its scope from the standpoint of sys- 
tematically varied levels of the active fac- 
tors fed and as to the extension of such 
feeding experiments to cover longer seg- 
ments of the life histories. For such ex- 
periments the animals of our laboratory- 
bred colony, having known nutritional 
backgrounds for many generations, offer 
special advantages for conclusiveness of 
interpretation in the direct comparison of 
diets and also for the solution of the prob- 
lem of how far so-called adaptation to 
suboptimal food supply is a factor in 
responsiveness to better feeding. 

The generous and efficient service of 
those who have collaborated in the 
work here reported, whether as research 
assistants or as volunteers, is gratefully 
acknowledged. 



14 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 
A. V. KIDDER, Chairman 

Now that the war is over, several mem- Mrs. Morris, who possessed great abilities 

bers of the staff who have been serving in as a writer and an artist, was entrusted by 

the armed services or in other forms of war her husband, Earl H. Morris, with the 

work are expected soon to return, and it is copying of the extremely important fres- 

hoped that in the near future some at least coes discovered by him during the exca- 

of the interrupted activities of the Division vation of the Temple of the Warriors at 

may be resumed. Indeed, during the past Chichen Itza, and was co-author of the 



year it has been possible to undertake a 
limited amount of archaeological and 
ethnological field work. Most staff mem- 
bers not in service, however, have devoted 



monograph on that building. In later years 
she assisted Dr. Morris on his many ex- 
peditions in Arizona and New Mexico, 
making a specialty of the recording and 



themselves to the writing of reports. As a stu ^y oi pictographs. Her two books, 

result, the Division's investigations have Digging in the Southwest and Digging in 

been brought nearer to the stage of defini- Yucatan, which have had a large sale that 

tive publication than at any previous time, still continues, have done much to acquaint 

Dr. Leo F. Stock retired July 31, 1945, the public with the methods and aims of 

after thirty-five years of service with the archaeology. 

Department and Division of Historical Dr. Vaillant, formerly with the Ameri- 



Research. A member of the group of dis- 
tinguished scholars brought to the Depart- 
ment by Dr. J. Franklin Jameson, Dr. 
Stock has centered his research on the 
debates in the British Parliament regard- 
ing North America. His five volumes on 
this subject not only throw much factual 
light on events of the period treated, but 
also make clear the slow development of 
democratic processes in dealing with co- 
lonial possessions. They form a necessary 
introduction to the legislative history of 
the United States after its independence. A 
former president of the American Catholic 
Historical Association, Dr. Stock has been 
a valued agent of liaison between the In- 



can Museum of Natural History and at 
the time of his death Director of the Mu- 
seum of the University of Pennsylvania, 
was a member of Dr. Morley's staff at 
Chichen Itza in 1926. During that season 
he excavated the Temple of the Initial 
Series and, at the Temple of the Phalli 
and elsewhere, made stratigraphic studies 
which laid the foundation for subsequent 
ceramic research in Yucatan by H. B. 
Roberts and G. W. Brainerd. Dr. Var- 
iant's work for the American Museum on 
the early cultures of Mexico was a brilliant 
scientific achievement, and, like Mrs. Mor- 
ris' books, his Aztecs of Mexico has done 
much to promote an intelligent interest 



stitution and the very effective Catholic in archaeology. Throughout his career he 

historical organizations and institutions. kept closely in touch with the Division's 

With great regret we record the pass- work, giving freely of his time to visit our 

ing of two persons formerly connected excavations and advise with us as to prob- 

with the Division, Ann Axtell Morris and lems of mutual interest. 
George Clapp Vaillant. 

i63 



164 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



ACTIVITIES, 1944-1945 



Major H. E. D. Pollock, after three 
years with the photographic division of 
the Air Corps in North Africa and Italy, 
returned late in 1944 for duty in Wash- 
ington, and has recently been accorded 
inactive status. He will resume his studies 
of Maya architecture in the autumn of 
1945. Mr. Gustav Stromsvik enlisted in 
1943 in the Royal Norwegian Navy. He 
served on the North Atlantic convoys, 
took part in the invasion of Normandy, 
and, since the landings there, has held an 
administrative position at Norwegian head- 
quarters in Edinburgh. He has recently 
been discharged. Mr. Karl Ruppert, volun- 
teer in the American Field Service, was 
with the British Army during the Burma 
campaign and later in Italy. In the spring 
of 1945 his unit was transferred to north- 
ern Europe, where it was engaged until 
the end of hostilities in the evacuation of 
wounded and in helping to clear captured 
concentration camps. He has now resumed 
his position with the Division. Dr. G. W. 
Brainerd, who holds the rank of lieutenant 
in the Naval Reserve, is attached to the 
Special Devices Division of the Office of 
Research and Invention. His duties have 
taken him to India, Ceylon, and China. 
Miss Eleanor W. Ritchie, secretary of the 
Division, is a lieutenant (j.g.) in the Naval 
Reserve, on duty in Washington. 

In civilian capacities, several members 
have taken part in the war effort. Mr. 
E. M. Shook is in charge of the large qui- 
nine plantation of El Porvenir in Guate- 
mala. In the course of this work he has 
been able, as in past years, to make valu- 
able observations on sites in a region 
hitherto very little known archaeologically 
and to obtain photographs of monuments 
and of objects in private collections. Dr. 
A. M. Halpern has continued as director 
of the language program in the Civil 



Affairs Training School at the University 
of Chicago. Dr. R. S. Chamberlain, senior 
cultural assistant in the United States 
Embassy in Guatemala, has had oppor- 
tunity, during his four years at that post, 
to foster the close international intellectual 
relations which, we believe, have been a 
not unimportant by-product of the Divi- 
sion's more than three decades of activity 
in Mexico and Central America. He ex- 
pects to resume his historical studies in 
the near future. Mr. F. B. Richardson, in 
1944 legal attache at the Embassy in Ecua- 
dor, attended the conference at San Fran- 
cisco as adviser on Latin American affairs. 
Dr. S. G. Morley spent the winter in 
Yucatan, continuing his research on the 
Maya hieroglyphs. He has been in con- 
stant touch with Sr. Alfredo Barrera Vas- 
quez, whose translation and correlation of 
variant historical and ceremonial Maya 
texts — the so-called Books of Chilam Ba- 
lam — were carried on in 1 943-1 944 under a 
grant from the Rockefeller Foundation 
administered, at the Foundation's request, 
by Carnegie Institution. Mr. R. E. Smith 
continues in charge of the Division's office 
in Guatemala City. During the past win- 
ter he was informed that road work at 
Coban in Alta Verapaz had exposed a 
prehistoric midden. This he excavated, 
recovering a large collection of clay figu- 
rines and pottery fragments, many of the 
latter of a very beautiful incised ware of 
which only a few pieces had previously 
been known. Mr. Smith has also devoted 
much time to the installation of the 
archaeological collections in the Guatemala 
National Museum, which, under the di- 
rectorship of Sr. Flavio Rodas, is being 
transferred to new and larger quarters. 
As chairman of the advisory committee 
on the museum, he has been assisted by 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



l6 5 



Sr. Antonio Tejeda, artist of the Division, to give Srs. Tejeda and Rosales and such 

and Sr. Antonio Goubaud. aid in acquiring academic training as it has 

Sr. Tejeda continues to produce meticu- been able to procure for them and for Srs. 

lously accurate and beautiful paintings of Alfonso Villa and Antonio Goubaud — 

Maya pottery. Although only a relatively largely through the generous and ready 

small proportion of these can at present cooperation of the Rockefeller Foundation 

be used as illustrations in the Division's — is believed to be a most valuable contri- 

publications, it has been our policy to have bution to the development of anthropology 

such reproductions made of all important in Latin America, for although North 

pieces from our own excavations and of American students can accomplish a cer- 

those in museums and in private hands, tain amount of useful research, the major 

The archive thus being built up will be work must eventually be done by natives 

of very great value to students who cannot of the countries themselves, as it now is in 

see the material itself. It also serves as Mexico by the able group headed by Dr. 

insurance against loss of the originals Alfonso Caso. 

through dispersal of private collections or, During the past winter Mr. A. L. Smith 
in the case of museums, through destruc- and Sr. Cesar Tejeda made a survey of 
tion by earthquake, an ever present danger sites in the northwestern Guatemala high- 
in the Central American republics. This lands that are thought to date from late 
year Sr. Tejeda has been working on Mr. prehistoric times. Srs. Goubaud and Ro- 
Smith's Alta Verapaz pottery; on pieces sales, in the early months of 1945, corn- 
in the Dieseldorfif collection, now the prop- pleted the collection of data regarding food 
erty of the National Museum; and on habits and food consumption of the Gua- 
vessels recovered by Mr. S. H. Boggs in temala Indians and Ladinos. Dr. Kirk 
El Salvador. Bryan, professor of geology at Harvard 

Sr. Tejeda's younger brother, Cesar, first University, spent two weeks in Guatemala 

employed in 1942 as assistant to Mr. Shook studying physiographic conditions bearing 

at Kaminaljuyu, developed great ability upon the antiquity of human occupancy 

in mending and restoring pottery. During of that country. Reports on these investi- 

his work as preparator and in the field gations and on the ethnological work are 

with Mr. Shook and Mr. A. L. Smith, he appended. The Chairman was in Guate- 

showed outstanding promise as an archae- mala during January and February for 

ologist. When this was brought to the at- consultation with government authorities 

tention of the authorities, he was granted as to future undertakings. He also had 

a government fellowship for attendance opportunity to work in the Division office 

at the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia on archaeological collections made in 

in Mexico City, where he has now matricu- former years. Temporarily unsettled polit- 

lated. A fellowship was also given to Sr. ical conditions prevented his visiting Mr. 

Juan de Dios Rosales, for several years S. H. Boggs' excavations at Tazumal in 

assistant to the late Dr. Manuel Andrade eastern El Salvador, which are being car- 

and to Drs. Redfield and Tax in their ried on by the Salvadorean government, 

respective linguistic and ethnological in- and for which Carnegie Institution has 

vestigations and, more recently, to Sr. provided modest financial aid for the pros- 

Goubaud in the food survey. Such field ecution of certain stratigraphic studies, 

experience as the Division has been able The Chairman later went to Boulder, 



i66 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Colorado, to confer with Drs. E. H. Mor- 
ris and Anna O. Shepard regarding their 
work on Southwestern archaeology and 
ceramic technology; and to Albuquerque, 
New Mexico, to confer with Dr. F. V. 
Scholes. In California, he studied collec- 
tions at Los Angeles and Berkeley. 

At Cambridge, Mr. J. E. S. Thompson 
has begun the preparation of a compre- 
hensive monograph on the Maya hiero- 
glyphic writing. A report on certain aspects 
of this study appears below. Mr. Thomp- 
son has been awarded the Rivers Memorial 
Medal by Cambridge University for his 
contributions to Maya research. Miss Ta- 
tiana Proskouriakoff has begun a detailed 
analysis of dated Maya sculptures. This 
will not only lay a foundation for studies 
of other aspects of Maya art, but provide 
more reliable stylistic criteria than have 
hitherto been available for the dating of 
the many monuments which bear either 
no dates or illegible ones. Mrs. W. H. 
Harrison, in addition to her manifold du- 
ties as editor of the Division, has been com- 
piling a dictionary of terms applicable to 
Middle American archaeology. This should 
serve to standardize usage and clarify 
nomenclature. Her report on publications 
also appears below, as do those of Dr. 
L. F. Stock on his work in United States 
history and of Dr. George Sarton on the 
history of science. The report on Kami- 
naljuyu by the Chairman, Dr. J. D. Jen- 
nings, and Mr. Shook has been finished 
and is now in press. In the field of Maya 
history, Dr. Scholes and Mr. R. L. Roys 
have continued the writing of their report 
on the Acalan-Tixchel area. Dr. Scholes 
and Miss Eleanor B. Adams, who now 
make their headquarters at Albuquerque, 
have been provided with quarters and 
given every facility for the prosecution of 
their work by the University of New 
Mexico. 



Guatemala Highlands Project 
A. L. Smith 

During the winter of 1 944-1 945, Mr. 
A. L. Smith, assisted by Sr. Cesar Tejeda, 
spent four months in archaeological re- 
connaissance in the departments of Hue- 
huetenango and El Quiche. The purpose 
of the work was to obtain as much in- 
formation as possible, without intensive 
excavation, as to both hilltop and valley 
sites with a view to selecting representative 
examples of each type for future excava- 
tion. All sites were mapped, architectural 
details were recorded by drawings and 
photographs, and samples of pottery were 
recovered from inside or below construc- 
tions as well as from the surface. Special 
effort was made to locate refuse dumps. 

The trip was made in the Institution's 
station wagon, and local labor was em- 
ployed. The hiring of workmen was 
greatly facilitated by the cooperation of 
the Minister of Public Education, the 
governors of departments, and the mayors 
of the towns and villages visited. Seven- 
teen sites were examined, some large and 
some small, all within fairly easy access 
of a main highway. 

Huehuetenango, capital of the Depart- 
ment of Huehuetenango, was the first 
base used. In this region seven sites were 
investigated: Zaculeu, Cambote, Chicol, 
Piol, Xetenan, Cucal, and Pucal. Of these, 
Zaculeu, a fortified site surrounded by 
barrancas on three sides, proved to be by 
far the largest and most interesting. It 
lies about 4 km. northeast of Huehuete- 
nango. Considerable excavation has been 
carried on here in the past, the Guatemalan 
government in 1927 having excavated and 
partially restored the principal mound, a 
large pyramid surmounted by a temple. 
About ten days were spent at Zaculeu in 
recording materials for restored drawings 
of several buildings and a ball court. A 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



167 



large collection of potsherds was also made, four round columns, one off each corner, 
Cambote, directly south of Zaculeu and in and a later construction of four walls with 
plain view therefrom, rests on a tongue stepped tops. There is much pottery of 
of land but is not so well protected as all periods at Chalchitan. Xolchun, east 
Zaculeu. Very little masonry was showing of Chalchitan, is a good-sized hilltop site, 
here, and there was no ball court. Chicol, Its main features are a well preserved ball 
Piol, and Xetenan are all small hilltop sites court, terracing, block masonry, and a type 
practically surrounded by barrancas. All of late pottery with white geometric de- 
three have ball courts. Cucal is a small sign on a red slip. Chichoche is a small 
valley site without a ball court. At Pucal, a group of mounds in sight of Xolchun 
small hilltop site near Cucal, only one across the barranca to the southeast, 
mound remains, but there is evidence that Sacapulas, a village in the Department of 
there were several others which had been El Quiche about 37 km. east of Aguacatan, 
leveled for agricultural purposes, the stones was the last place used as a base. From 
being used in the building of modern here the ruins of Chutix Tiox, Chutinamit, 
fences. Pacot, Xolchun, Rio Blanco, and Xecataloj 
The next base of operations was the were studied. The best preserved of these 
village of Aguacatan, about 26 km. east is Chutix Tiox, a hilltop site extremely 
of Huehuetenango in the Department of well protected against attack, its only en- 
Huehuetenango, where a month was spent trance being blocked by a wall. The main 
investigating Huitchun, Chalchitan, Xol- group is on a high terrace with stairways 
chun, and Chichoche. Huitchun, some- on all sides. An interesting feature is a 
times called Chichun, rests on a low hill stucco jaguar in a crouching position at 
just west of the village. It is a small group the base of one of the several platforms, 
surrounding a court and has a ball court. It was possible to take measurements of 
Chalchitan, one of the largest sites visited, almost all the buildings. Chutix Tiox is 
and the one to which most of the month's similar to Xolchun in that it has the same 
work was devoted, lies in the valley just kind of ball court, a great deal of terracing, 
east of the village. Unfortunately a great and the same white-on-red pottery. Chu- 
many of the mounds had been dug into tinamit, just outside Sacapulas, is another 
by treasure hunters, causing much damage well protected hilltop site, almost corn- 
to inner constructions. There is still much pletely surrounded by barrancas. Its only 
left, however. One of the two ball courts entrance, on a narrow neck of land to the 
was excavated and found to cover an north, was protected by three parallel walls 
earlier ball court, within which there was stretching from barranca to barranca. Pa- 
evidence of still earlier construction. Two cot, also almost inaccessible, is small, but 
nicely carved stone heads, one of a serpent the buildings are well preserved. Xolchun, 
and the other of a jaguar, were recovered not to be confused with the Xolchun in 
from high up in the center of the playing the Department of Huehuetenango, lies 
walls of the earlier ball court. A tomb on the tongue of land formed by the 
with a corbeled vault was discovered in junction of the Rio Blanco and the Rio 
one of the largest mounds. This had been Negro. A stela, used as the capstone of a 
looted years ago. Probably the most in- tomb, was found in a small temple. Its 
teresting find was a building showing six upper part bore a well carved geometric 
distinct architectural phases, the most in- design. A most unusual structure was an 
structive of which were a platform with oval, almost circular, platform with seven 



r 68 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

terraces. Rio Blanco, a small valley site, in Guatemala studying recent deposits in 

shows several periods of construction, and the neighborhood of Guatemala City and 

the types of pottery found there indicate in the Motagua Valley. He also made a 

a long occupancy. Among the wares noted short trip to Lake Atitlan and Chichi- 

were plumbate and Utatlan. Xecataloj is castenango in order to acquaint himself 

a small valley group on the north bank with the more westerly highlands and ash 

of the Rio Negro about 1.5 km. east of basins. 

Sacapulas. The city of Guatemala is built in a wide 
It would appear that the well protected valley dissected by broad, deep gulches 
hilltop sites are later than the more vulner- (barrancas) and bounded by hills and 
able valley sites. Before definite conclu- mountains. It lies in the divide between 
sions are reached, however, the collections drainage to the Pacific and drainage to 
of potsherds, now in the Institution's office the Motagua River and thence to the At- 
in Guatemala City, must be studied. Prob- lantic. The valley floor is composed of tuff 
ably of significance is the fact that the that was deposited as successive showers 
white-on-red ware occurs only at hilltop of volcanic ash. The tufr filled the valley 
sites. Another point is the fact that those near the city to depths of 1000 feet or 
in the valleys all have several architectural more. It was also deposited on the hills 
periods, whereas in most cases the hilltop but was almost immediately washed off 
sites do not. The latter are characterized into the valleys. Eastward toward the 
by much terracing, ball courts with well Motagua each valley had a filling of ash 
marked end zones, and split stairways with successively finer in grain and shallower 
balustrades. The mounds are usually in depth. As the height of the fill decreases 
grouped about a plaza with one or more eastward, it appears that concurrently with 
small platforms in the center. Ball courts the filling of the valleys, runoff took place 
in the valley sites lack end zones. At pres- across the body of ash, so that there was 
ent the two groups that appear most de- a stream grade on the top of the ash of 
sirable to excavate are Chalchitan and about 4000 feet in 30 miles, or 13 feet to 
Chutix Tiox: Chalchitan because of its the mile. In the Motagua Valley there 
long occupation, its architectural and is a terrace of waterworn pumice frag- 
ceramic sequence, its accessibility, and the ments that rises about 200 feet above the 
availability of good labor at Aguacatan; present river grade. It seems to be the 
Chutix Tiox because of the excellent river-laid equivalent of the tuff fillings of 
preservation of buildings of various types the tributary valleys. One must suppose 
and because it could conveniently be that enormous quantities of ash were car- 
worked from a base at Sacapulas. Final ried by rainwash oft the slopes of the hills 
choice, however, should be postponed until into the valleys and thence to the Motagua. 
further reconnaissance of the highland Here the river transported most of the load 
region has been carried out. into the sea, but was itself overloaded to 

such an extent that it built up its grade 

Soils and Climatic Chronology in and formed the tuff terrace. 

Guatemala The origin of the ash showers is pre- 
sumed to be in one or more of the great 
volcanoes which fringe the southwestern 

Dr. Kirk Bryan, professor of geology border of the Guatemala highlands. The 

at Harvard University, spent two weeks tuff has not, however, been traced to any 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



169 



definite source. Toward the end of erup- 
tion the rate of fall decreased and became 
spasmodic. The upper measures of the 
tuff sequence near Guatemala City are 
distinctive. A typical section consists of the 
following members: 

Feet Inches 

Soil, dark brown to black . . o 6—8 

Subsoil, dark brown colum- 
nar or blocky; in low 
places, columnar black clay from 1 6 

to 2 o 

Disconformity, erosion of 
shallow valley 

Pumice tuff (upper sand or 

arena) 3 

Massive decomposed buff- 
colored tuff (talpetate) . . 60 

Pumice tuff (lower sand or 

arena) 4 

Decomposed buff -colored tuff 
grading down into mas- 
sive undecomposed tuff 

{talpetate fino) from o 6 

to 2 

White to gray tuff many 

feet 

The talpetate fino is an old land surface 
in which the previously deposited tuff was 
decomposed and converted into a massive 
yellow clayey layer of variable thickness. 
Over this surface pumice tuff was de- 
posited by fall from the air. The frag- 
ments of pumice range up to half an inch 
in diameter. The material is used as build- 
ing sand, hence its local name arena. The 
next layer is a decomposed tuff, very 
massive and compact. It is obviously a 
subsoil representing a long period of de- 
composition under a climate wetter than 
that of the present time. This compact 
massive material is used in local building 
as quarried blocks and as a constituent 
of sun-dried brick. It is therefore well 
known and is called talpetate, a word 
presumably related to the Mexican tepetate. 



The overlying pumice tuff is similar in 
all respects to the lower pumice tuff. 

These formations slope gently upward 
and, in places, extend to the slopes leading 
to the adjacent mountains. In particular, 
the upper pumice tuff mantles steep moun- 
tain slopes of older rocks along the Gua- 
temala-Lake Atitlan highway as far as 
Mixco. Near Guatemala City these three 
formations are eroded in broad shallow 
valleys, which drain into the deep bar- 
rancas. One of these valleys extends from 
northwest to southwest through the site of 
Kaminaljuyu. At its lowest points it reaches 
the talpetate fino. The surface soil is dark 
brown to black, blocky silty clay, or clay. 
Intensive cultivation by prehistoric and 
modern people has disturbed the soil 
nearly everywhere. Also there are numer- 
ous borrow pits from which the prehistoric 
people obtained material for pyramids and 
other structures. Many of these pits were 
back-filled with debris, and the area has 
since been cultivated. It is thus difficult 
to find truly natural conditions. Obviously, 
however, the soil was developed only in 
part by weathering of underlying material. 
It is usually an unconformable blanket 
over the underlying formations and has 
been largely built up by the gradual fall 
of ash from near-by volcanoes. The soil 
processes operating on this continually in- 
creasing layer have produced the deep 
humus-bearing subsoil. In the lower areas, 
where water has stood in the rainy season, 
the subsoil is a columnar black clay. On 
better-drained sites it is a blocky silty clay 
and in places shows fragments of the un- 
derlying pumice tuff or talpetate. 

It appears that the existing climate, with 
its strong dry season, produces a soil that 
accumulates calcium carbonate in the sub- 
soil. It is therefore a climate on the arid 
side. There is a break in the sedimenta- 
tion between the soil and subsoil and the 
upper pumice tuff represented by the ero- 



170 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



sion of the broad valley already referred 
to. One must suppose that the talpetate, 
which is an old subsoil of the ferric oxide- 
aluminous type, was formed in a climate 
wetter than that of the present. This 
epoch, however, was far anterior to the 
earliest known culture of the area. As 
shown by the excavations of the Carnegie 
Institution, the oldest pottery of the site, 
when found in undisturbed areas, occurs 
at the base of the soil just above the jointed 
clay. In many localities the soil, subsoil, 
and part of the underlying material — 
arena or talpetate — has been excavated. 
The back-fill may be 3 feet or more thick 
and may contain pottery of any age. The 
soil and subsoil appear to represent a con- 
tinuous period of growth by accretion of 
wind-borne volcanic dust and of soil forma- 
tion under a pine-grass cover. The soil 
phenomena of the remote past, as repre- 
sented by the talpetate and talpetate fino, 
record wetter conditions. Within the pe- 
riod of known prehistoric occupation no 
detectable change in climate is indicated 
by the soils. 

Hieroglyphic and Historical Research 
s. g. morley 

Dr. Morley left New Orleans for Merida, 
Yucatan, Mexico, on November 7, 1944, 
returning therefrom on May 3, 1945. He 
spent the summer at Santa Fe, New 
Mexico, his usual summer headquarters, 
where Dr. E. L. Hewett, Director of the 
School of American Research and the 
Museum of New Mexico, very kindly 
placed at his disposal office quarters in the 
Palace of the Governors at Santa Fe, now 
the Museum of New Mexico. He will 
return to Yucatan at the beginning of 
November. 

Dr. Morley has devoted the year to two 
principal research activities: preparation 
of the Maya hieroglyphic dictionary, and 



work on the Maya chronicles in the Books 
of Chilam Balam. 

For work on the hieroglyphic diction- 
ary, a full-time draftsman, Mr. Isaac Es- 
quiliano, of Merida, has been continuously 
employed for the past three years, drawing 
the individual glyphs of the Maya stone, 
stucco, and wood inscriptions under Dr. 
Morley's direction and supervision. Dur- 
ing this period Mr. Esquiliano, a Mexican 
of mixed Spanish and Maya descent, has 
developed a very high degree of skill in 
drawing the Maya glyphs. 

At the beginning of this enormous task 
it was decided to draw first all the glyphs 
of known meaning, and later those of 
unknown meaning. Further, in order to 
facilitate accurate representations, it was 
decided to concentrate on one glyph at a 
time, drawing all known occurrences of 
this particular glyph before proceeding to 
another. In this way, in the case of par- 
tially effaced and badly eroded glyphs, 
the draftsman would have the benefit of 
previous experience and familiarity with 
better-preserved examples of the same 
glyph. 

The first section of the dictionary is thus 
devoted to the Initial Series introducing 
glyph, a highly important character in 
the Maya inscriptions, which not only 
stands at the head of most inscriptions 
where it occurs, but whose principal 
element indicates the name of the patron 
deity of the Maya month in which the 
accompanying date falls. This first section 
is about finished, barring a few odd ex- 
amples of this sign, chiefly in inscriptions 
from Campeche. 

The next eight sections of the dictionary 
are being devoted to the different examples 
of glyphs G and F of the Initial Series 
and to the six different signs of the Sup- 
plementary Series — glyphs E, D, C, X, B, 
and A — all of which deal with the moon. 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



171 



Of these, the examples of glyphs E, D, C, 
and X are also nearly completed. 

The drawings of the different occur- 
rences of glyph D have brought to light 
important new variants and have made 
possible a number of corrections in de- 
cipherment of the corresponding moon 
ages expressed by that character. 

With the cumulative experience gained 
in repeatedly drawing the same glyph, we 
have been able to get more out of par- 
tially effaced inscriptions than was for- 
merly possible, and although only a begin- 
ning has been made, the project may be 
said to be off to a good start. 

The Maya chronicles project deserves a 
brief word of introduction. There have 
been preserved in certain native Maya 
manuscripts known as the Books of Chi- 
lam Balam, which are written in the letters 
of Spanish script but in the Maya lan- 
guage, five chronicles or rescripts of Maya 
preconquest history. These chronicles are 
of varying degrees of merit, and there is 
strong internal evidence that three of them 
have been copied from a single source, 
probably an ancient Maya historical manu- 
script in the hieroglyphic writing, the 
original of which Is now either lost or 
destroyed. 

These five chronicles contain practically 
all that has survived on the documentary 
side (i.e., as opposed to the stone, stucco, 
and wood inscriptions) of ancient Maya 
history. Laconic as the chronicles are, they 
nevertheless present a fairly accurate pic- 
ture with a solid chronological background 
of the main events of Yucatan history 
from the early fifth to the late seven- 
teenth century; and, as primary historical 
source material of the very highest im- 
portance, they have long merited the ex- 
haustive and critical study now being given 
them by Dr. Morley and Dr. Alfredo Ba- 
rrera Vasquez. 



Dr. Barrera Vasquez, now working un- 
der a grant from the Colegio de Mexico 
but having formerly held both Guggen- 
heim and Rockefeller fellowships, has been 
collaborating with Dr. Morley on a de- 
finitive translation of these Maya chron- 
icles into both Spanish and English, and 
on an interpretive study of their contents. 

For the past decade, under the auspices 
of the above agencies and others, Dr. 
Barrera Vasquez has been devoting a 
major portion of his time, first, to making 
a reconstructed text, filling the lacunae 
in one chronicle from another and includ- 
ing all variant versions; and, second, to 
translating the original Maya into Span- 
ish. For the past two years he has spent a 
month in Yucatan each spring working 
with Dr. Morley on this investigation. The 
Barrera Vasquez reconstructed Maya text 
of the chronicles has been translated di- 
rectly into English, which language, it has 
been found, renders the original Maya 
more exactly than does Spanish. Dr. Mor- 
ley has written a commentary on the 
chronicles, incorporating therein the re- 
sults of his own epigraphic studies during 
the past thirty years in so far as the latter 
concern the course of ancient Maya his- 
tory in the northern half of the Yucatan 
Peninsula. 

The history of Yucatan, as set forth in 
the Maya chronicles, begins with the dis- 
covery of the province of Ziyancaan Bak- 
halal (the region around the modern Lake 
Bacalar in southeastern Yucatan) by a 
group of ancient Maya called the Itza, 
probably proceeding from some Old Em- 
pire site in what is now northeastern Peten, 
Guatemala, in 9.0.0.0.0 8 Ahau 13 Ceh 
of the Maya era, or a.d. 435, and closes 
with the fall of Tayasal, the last Itza 
capital, in central Peten, in a.d. 1697, more 
than twelve and a half centuries of docu- 
mented Maya history. 



172 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Hieroglyphic Research 
J. E. S. Thompson 

In the previous report a brief description 
was given of a new approach to the prob- 
lem of the decipherment of the Maya 
hieroglyphs. This method, which involves 
comparison of glyphic texts with the con- 
tent of the Books of Chilam Balam, con- 
tinues to yield interesting results. 

In the various Books of Chilam Balam 
occurs the expression u xocol haab ti la\in, 
"the count of the year to the east," and 
one may safely assume that similar phrases 
involving the other world directions were 
current in Yucatan in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. In the hieroglyphic 
texts of the monuments, the four world 
direction glyphs are frequently followed 
by a glyph which consists of an element 
previously identified as a symbol for count- 
ing, and the sign for year. The whole 
is surmounted by a well known superfix 
of unknown meaning. There can be no 
doubt that these pairs of glyphs mean "To 
the east [north, west, or south] the count 
of the year." The whole supplies a close 
parallel to the Books of Chilam Balam save 
that the world direction is given first, 
not last. 

A problem which has vexed Maya 
archaeologists for some fifty years is that 
of the meaning of the "spectacle glyph" 
which is attached to month signs on occa- 
sions which can be proved arithmetically 
to fall the day before the first day of a 
month. This sign has been generally read 
as zero. There are two serious objections 
to this reading. First, signs with a mean- 
ing approximating that of zero are known, 
but are never substituted for the spectacle 
glyph. Secondly, the spectacle glyph is 
combined with the winged Cauac (the 
haab or year sign), which, if the interpre- 
tation as zero were correct, could only 
mean zero approximate years. There are 



cases, however, where this glyph occurs 
with dates which end 13 approximate 
years. The interpretation is thus obviously 
at fault. 

In the Books of Chilam Balam one fre- 
quently finds the phrases u cutal Pop, u 
cutal Uo, etc., "the seating of Pop," "the 
seating of Uo," etc., set opposite the first 
day of each month. On page 7 of the 
Chilam Balam of Tizimin is the expression 
ti cutal ti tun, "at the seating of the ap- 
proximate year." Interpretation of the 
spectacle glyph as "the seating of" fulfills 
all the demands of the various contexts, 
and agrees with Maya phraseology. This 
interpretation led to the identification of 
two new glyphs, variants of the spectacle 
glyph, which record whether the addition 
of a distance number leads to the end of a 
tun or merely to an odd day. The glyphs 
must mean respectively "[leading] to the 
seating of the tun" and "[leading] to the 
seating of the day." More and more evi- 
dence accumulates that the hieroglyphic 
texts closely parallel the spoken word. 

Little success has hitherto attended ef- 
forts to interpret affixes, and variations in 
those attached to glyphs of known mean- 
ing have for the most part been ignored, 
or dismissed as artistic variations. As an 
example of slight variations in meaning 
which they reflect, one might cite the three 
common suffixes of period glyphs. The 
geometric forms of the katun and tun 
usually stand on three small circles when 
these glyphs occur in Initial Series or as 
period endings. When these glyphs (and 
other period glyphs) are used as distance 
numbers, the suffix takes the form of two 
or three circles between two inverted cres- 
cents. Thus, if one finds a period glyph 
with this form of suffix, one knows that it 
is part of a distance number. Rarely, the 
simple suffix of three circles is retained, 
and the suffix indicative of a distance 
number is placed beneath it. 



Robert Redfield and Associates 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 7.73 

A rare suffix, the "bundle" element, is glyphs has made some progress. Among 

used with the katun and tun only to new glyphs recognized is a rare head 

record anniversaries; that is to say, the variant of the introductory sign to the 

completion of a number of tuns or katuns distance number, there being a very fine 

from some important date that is not a example on Temple n, Copan. A section 

tun ending. An example of this is on of the Dresden Codex has been found to 

Lintel 3, Piedras Negras. The Initial Series treat of the burner period, prominent in 

9. 15. 18.3. 13 is followed by the katun glyph the Books of Chilam Balam. Several new 

with a "count" prefix and the bundle readings of dates have been made in addi- 

suffix. This date is precisely one katun tion to those published in various papers 

later than a date prominent at Piedras during the period covered by this report. 

Negras. Mr. Thompson is now engaged in a 

The suffix with three circles may be comprehensive survey of Maya epigraphy, 

ornamental, or its meaning must be gen- The first volume of this study should be 

eralized; the other two suffixes are indie- completed during 1946. 
ative of the way the periods are being 

used. There are somewhat similar dis- Social Anthropological Research 
tinctions in the Books of Chilam Balam. 

The Maya language has a great num- 
ber of numerical classifiers, each object No notable single accomplishment 
or group of objects having its classi- marked the advance made in social an- 
fier. In English there are a few such thropological research of the Division 
numerical classifiers, e.g. head of cattle, during the past year; no outstanding dis- 
loaves of bread, sheets of paper, but the covery in the field is to be reported; and 
system is with us vestigial. The Maya of no new unit of investigation was begun. 
Yucatan used te as a numerical classifier The members of the group were engaged 
inter alia with years and months. In the in terminal or transitional activities. Dr. 
hieroglyphic texts there is a small prefix Redfield made a short visit to Yucatan 
which is sometimes placed between the and to Guatemala; in Yucatan he reviewed 
numeral and the period or month glyph, the circumstances that would attend a pro- 
but which never occurs with day signs, posed restudy of Chan Kom, one of the 
The fact that it sometimes appears as a Yucatecan communities studied a decade 
suffix of head variants of numerals shows ago; and in Guatemala he carried forward, 
that it is connected with the number, not in consultation with members of the staff 
the period or month sign. It almost surely and with representatives of the new gov- 
corresponds to te. This surmise is further ernment of the Republic, various pieces of 
strengthened by the absence of the prefix business incidental to the Division's re- 
from day signs, since in spoken Maya the search program in that country. Dr. Tax's 
numbers with day names do not take this time was borrowed in large part by the Uni- 
classifier. Its absence or presence seems to versity of Chicago; nevertheless, for Car- 
depend on the space available. It is most negie Institution he brought nearer corn- 
frequent with low coefficients, where its pletion a nontechnical book on the Indian 
presence serves to prevent undue distor- culture of Panajachel. Sr. Antonio Gou- 
tion of the accompanying glyph; it is al- baud concluded a period of special employ- 
most unknown with high numbers. ment, and completed a monograph con- 

The normal work of identification of taining the results of the study of diet in 



jja CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

rural Guatemalan communities which he of east central Quintana Roo, Publication 

carried on in the field in 1944 with the 559, 1945); publications on a town of 

assistance of Sr. Juan Rosales and Sr. mixed population and marginal in char- 

Agustin Pop. Sr. Alfonso Villa Rojas acter to village and city (The fol\ litera- 

prepared for microfilm reproduction his ture of a Yucatecan town, Publication 456, 

extensive notes on Tzeltal communities of Contribution 13, 1935, and Disease and its 

Chiapas, and in June came to Chicago to treatment in Dzitas, Yucatan, Publication 

write comparative monographs. The pub- 523, Contribution 32, 1940) ; and, in 1941, 

lication, during the year, of Sr. Villa's book a summary and concluding volume ex- 

The Maya of east central Quintana Roo pressing the more general conclusions of 

provides the student with the last expected the study (The fol\ culture of Yucatan, 

monograph resulting from the Yucatan University of Chicago Press), 

project, the first of the two research pro- This project had the following principal 

grams carried on by this group of workers, results. Sources of information on the 

and so brings this first project to a close, present-day Yucatec Maya were provided 

while the Guatemalan project is still in that exceed in both quantity and quality 

progress. everything else on the subject that had 

The brevity of this annual report pro- previously appeared or has since been' pub- 

vides opportunity here to review what has lished. The ethnography of the region 

been done during the past fifteen years, was assembled in a single synthesis, in 

By 1930 the Institution had already for The fol\ culture of Yucatan. The student 
many years been carrying on researches of Maya history was provided with a full 
in Maya archaeology. In that year, there account of the present-day pagan cult, 
was initiated a new program in which including texts of prayers. It was fairly 
problems of the Maya area were to be well established that the culture of Quin- 
attacked by specialists representing many tana Roo is a reintegration of elements of 
kinds of scientific interest. Ethnology was custom both pagan and Christian, and it 
included, and Dr. Redfield formed a plan was shown that processes of culture growth 
to study the living people of Yucatan, which move toward consistency operate 
Because the Maya of Yucatan are all much indifferently on European and on Indian 
the same in language and in native custom, elements. From ethnographic facts almost 
a project was proposed, and carried out, exclusively, a historical hypothesis was 
to investigate four communities chosen to offered as to the course of development 
represent different degrees of exposure to of conventional attitudes between racial 
modern urban influence. The project was groups and status groups in the peninsula, 
so conceived as to serve two interests : that For what was probably the first time, a 
in the ethnography of the Maya, and that study of a regional American Indian field 
in the effects of contact with modern civili- was (virtually) opened with a project 
zation of simpler and more isolated socie- directed by concepts and questions of gen- 
ties. The program was realized in every eral interest to students of society and of 
particular except that a promised publica- social change and was carried through 
tion on the city of Merida was not pro- to completion. Conceptions and hypoth- 
duced. There were published: a mono- eses as to the natural association of cer- 
graph on a peasant village (Chan Kom, tain characteristics of human living in 
a Maya village, Publication 448, 1934) ; isolated folk societies, formed by earlier 
another on a tribal community (The Maya writers, were restated and clarified, and 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



175 



the power of these ideas to guide the 
acquisition of new knowledge was demon- 
strated in terms of a large body of well 
reported fact. A number of general propo- 
sitions as to society and its changes were 
enunciated and given some support from 
this body of fact. Interdependence between 
heterogeneity of population and the secu- 
larization of life was demonstrated for this 
case, and it was shown that in Yucatan 
religion has tended to pass over into magic. 
The role of sorcery in expressing the in- 
security of a member of a disintegrated 
society was strongly suggested. These are 
some of the many conclusions of general 
interest which were reached. 

While the Yucatan project was still in 
progress, the work of this group was ex- 
tended into the western highlands of Gua- 
temala, then into the adjoining highlands 
of Chiapas, and finally into the eastern 
highlands of Guatemala, so that all parts 
of America occupied by Maya-speaking 
peoples, save the Huaxtec area of north- 
eastern Mexico, were included in the field 
of study. In the development of the Gua- 
temalan investigation, the principal part 
has been played by Dr. Tax. Beginning 
in 1934 with Santo Tomas Chichicaste- 
nango, Dr. Tax, with or without asso- 
ciates, studied Cakchiquel or Zutugil com- 
munities on Lake Atitlan, and made 
briefer studies of Chord, Pokomam, and 
Mam communities in Guatemala, and of 
Tzotzil communities in Chiapas. To 
Alfonso Villa fell the task of making 
studies, of long duration and intensity, of 
the difficult Tzeltal Indians of Chiapas. 
In 1942 Dr. John Gillin, of Duke Uni- 
versity, became associated with the ethno- 
logical program of the Institution, making 
observations on Pokomam communities in 
eastern Guatemala. His work there was 
supplemented by that of Dr. Melvin M. 
Tumin. Dr. Gillin extended his research 



to a non-Maya people, the Xinca of Guaza- 
capan, Guatemala. 

The extraordinarily diverse local varia- 
tions of culture in Guatemala made im- 
possible any such single theme of investi- 
gation as had been possible in the rela- 
tively uniform Indian country of Yucatan. 
Dr. Tax accordingly devised and put into 
effect methods for representative sampling 
of the area included, and for making 
verifiable and comparable the reports of 
the several investigators. In 1934 the 
miinicipio was identified as the basic unit 
of study, and principal types of municipios 
were recognized. In succeeding years out- 
lines were prepared to guide the junior 
investigators; a survey of eastern Guate- 
mala was made by Drs. Redfield and Tax 
in which a schedule was worked out for 
the quick reporting of certain information 
according to municipios; the preparation 
of community maps was systematized; 
a method for comparing local cultures 
quickly according to sample elements of 
belief and custom was tested; and a project 
for the preparation of field notes in more 
or less uniform manner for microfilm re- 
production and general distribution among 
all research students of the area was put 
into effect. 

The problems guiding the later stages of 
investigation were developed in the course 
of the ethnographic exploration. These 
problems are in part ethnological, in part 
historical. Dr. Tax is determining the 
distribution of the principal ethnographic 
types among the Maya peoples, and is 
bringing this descriptive classification into 
comparison with linguistic classifications 
offered by students of Maya languages. 
Identification is being made of regions in 
which certain elements of culture (calen- 
dar, pagan fertility rituals, sorcery, and 
nahualism) are strongly emphasized, as 
compared with other areas in which these 
elements are absent or unimportant. Prob- 



176 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



lems of more general or sociological sig- 
nificance are receiving great attention. The 
conclusions reached in Yucatan as to the 
interdependence of individualization and 
secularization with loss of isolation and 
homogeneity have been tested and revised 
in the light of facts from Guatemala. The 
west highland communities of Guatemala 
have been recognized as providing an 
exceptional and important societal type: 
highly commercial and individualized so- 
cieties with local cultures and with people 
maintaining a primitive world view. The 
lack of dependence of secularization upon 
technological revolution has been brought 
to the attention of those who have studied 
secularization from the history of western 
Europe alone. Dr. Tax has completed a 
monograph in which for the first time the 
economy of a nonliterate farming and 
trading people has been reported with the 
facts and figures of cost accounting. He 
has also written monographs on other 
aspects of the Indian culture of Panajachel, 
and monographs by other investigators on 
Zutugil, Pokomam, Tzotzil, and Tzeltal 
communities are in preparation. 

The studies described above have con- 
tributed significantly to the development 
of social anthropology in Mexico and in 
Guatemala. It may be claimed that fifteen 
years ago this sort of research was entirely 
unrepresented in these two countries, that 
it is now being effectively carried on in 
both by their own citizens, and that the 
work of the Carnegie Institution group 
has been the chief instrument of this 
change. Soon after its publication in Eng- 
lish, The fol\ culture of Yucatan was 
issued in Spanish translation; a Portuguese 
edition is now under discussion. In 1942 
Dr. Tax taught for a semester in the 
National School of Anthropology of Mex- 
ico, and then took to Chiapas a group of 
Mexican students whom he trained in 
field methods. Certain of these students 



then continued field research without 
direct guidance. In 1943 Alfonso Villa 
taught in the School, and he too super- 
vised the work of Mexican students in the 
field. Villa himself had been brought to 
the United States in 1933 to study anthro- 
pology at the University of Chicago. He 
was followed by Antonio Goubaud of 
Guatemala. Later Juan Rosales, whose 
gifts as a field investigator had been dis- 
covered by Dr. Manuel Andrade, was 
also brought to the United States for train- 
ing; after returning to Guatemala he was 
sent by the government of that country 
to the School in Mexico for thorough 
preparation as an anthropologist. 

The Division's work in social anthro- 
pology has included many activities mar- 
ginal to the main lines of investigation, 
and has drawn within its program many 
enterprises carried on under auspices other 
than those of Carnegie Institution. In 1939 
Villa participated in a study of the Taras- 
can Indian carried on for the Mexican 
government. The work of Sr. Julio de la 
Fuente in Oaxaca was done partly under 
the influence of the Carnegie group, and 
in 1 943-1 944 he came to Chicago to write 
under its guidance. In 1944 and 1945 the 
Institution carried out a study of diet of 
rural Guatemalans; the results will be pub- 
lished by the government of Guatemala. 
The students of Drs. Redfield and Tax 
at the University of Chicago have written 
monographs on subjects of Middle Ameri- 
can ethnology and social anthropology; 
these papers are in substance contributions 
to the program of the Institution; they 
include works on the following topics: 
the mayordomia, the concept of the evil 
eye, collective and cooperative labor, god- 
parenthood and related institutions, the 
relations between Indians and Ladinos. 
Two fellows of the Social Science Re- 
search Council have carried on field re- 
search in the Maya area under direction 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



177 



of Drs. Redfield, Tax, and Tumin. There 
have been edited and prepared for publica- 
tion half a dozen manuscripts on Middle 
American ethnology written by persons 
outside the staff of the Institution. Two 
of these may especially be mentioned: 
Charles Wisdom's The Chorti Indians of 
Guatemala (University of Chicago Press, 
1940), and Oliver La Farge's Santa Eulalia 
(forthcoming). Finally, it may be men- 
tioned that the very considerable expan- 
sion of the program of research on the 
living Maya has been accomplished with- 
out corresponding increase in the budget 
provided by the Institution. The work has 
been aided by contributions from other 
sources, including the Viking Fund, the 
Rockefeller Foundation, the University of 
Chicago, Duke University, the Social Sci- 
ence Research Council, the National Insti- 
tute of Anthropology and History of 
Mexico, and the government of the Mexi- 
can state of Chiapas. 

History of the Maya Area 
F. V. Scholes, R. L. Roys, E. B. Adams 

During the past year additional manu- 
script sources have been examined and 
extracted in preparation for studies on the 
colonial history of Yucatan. A brief re- 
view of certain data of interest to workers 
in other branches of Maya research will 
be made at this time. 

The survival of native religion in post- 
conquest times, concerning which other 
materials have been summarized in pre- 
vious reports, is further illustrated by docu- 
ments relating to the visita of Yucatan 
made in 1583 by Dr. Diego Garcia de Pala- 
cio of the Audiencia of Mexico. In a letter 
to the Crown dated at the Villa de Valla- 
dolid December 26, 1583 (AGI, Mexico, 
leg. 70), Palacio stated that the prac- 
tice of idolatry was widespread through- 
out the entire Valladolid district. At 



Tzama and Pole on the east coast and 
also in the towns of San Miguel and 
Santa Maria on Cozumel Island, all the 
Indians "without exception" were said to 
be idolaters. At Tzama there had been a 
"temple of idols" where the Indians gath- 
ered to celebrate "festivals, dances, and 
other ceremonies as in ancient times." 
We surmise that this place was simply 
the popolna, defined in the Motul diction- 
ary as the "casa de comunidad," where 
certain dances were taught. In such case, 
the Indians no doubt had regular temples 
in the bush, as was true on Cozumel 
Island (see Roys, Scholes, and Adams, 
Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 523, Contr. 30, 
p. 27). This "temple" at Tzama had now- 
been burned, presumably by order of Pa- 
lacio, and all the more than five hundred 
idols had been smashed and cast into 
the sea. 

Palacio goes on to state that the common 
people guilty of idolatry had been given 
mild punishments, but the caciques, native 
priests, "and the maestros who made the 
statues {estatuas) and figures" had been 
arrested and would receive more severe 
punishment; "because in view of the bold- 
ness and excess with which they have lived 
in this sin, it is necessary, in order that 
henceforth mercy should not give them 
reason for greater obstinacy, as apparently 
has been the case up to the present time." 
The reference to maestros (masters, teach- 
ers, artisans) who made the idols is of 
some interest. The word estatuas usually 
seems to mean wooden idols, and Landa 
gives an account of the making of such 
figures. Palacio's letter and a supplemen- 
tary report refer, however, only to clay 
idols, so in this case the estatuas were 
apparently of this kind. 

The prevalence of idolatry on the east 
coast and Cozumel is not surprising, since 
the towns of this region were located at 
some distance from the nearest mission 



15 



178 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



centers. Palacio's letter states, however, 
that in towns situated only one, two, or 
three leagues from the Villa de Valla- 
dolid similar conditions prevailed. On one 
journey outside the villa he had collected 
1 160 idols, in addition to many others that, 
were destroyed, and he had punished more 
than 600 idolaters. He had also banished 
from this area certain "dogmatizers, priests, 
and maestros" of these idolaters. 

A supplementary report (Valladolid, 12 
diciembre, 1583; in AGI, Mexico, leg. 70) 
describes some of these 1160 "quicines," 
or idols, that had been gathered up. Some 
were said to be as large as children three, 
four, and five years old. Others were "fig- 
ures of men with emblems (divisas) of 
animals on their heads, and others with 
miters and tiaras and other headdresses of 
men and women according to ancient 
custom, which the said Indians were ac- 
customed to wear ... in their sacrifices, 
festivals, and rites when they performed 
their idolatry." 

Figures of men with "emblems of ani- 
mals" on their heads are familiar in the 
Maya codices and on the monuments. 
Some of the animal headdresses have been 
thought to be carved wooden helmets. 
Clay figures of this kind were probably 
gods, including deified men. The "miters" 
suggest Mexican tradition, and figures 
with such characteristics may have repre- 
sented deified lineage ancestors, old in- 
vaders (?). The significance of "tiaras" 
in the case of gods is not clear. Gem- 
studded bands seem to be found on both 
gods and warlike men at Chichen Itza: 
on caryatids, "chac-mools," and relief fig- 
ures. The first Spaniards found gold head- 
bands in chests in the temples of northern 
Yucatan and obtained others in Tabasco. 
We are inclined to associate them princi- 
pally with deified heroes or lineage an- 
cestors, but they may have a wider scope. 

The report describing these idols also 



mentions figures of "leones," "tigres," and 
dogs, and "temples {cues) of different 
plans and forms." The pumas and jaguars 
of architectural sculptures evidently repre- 
sent the military orders, but here we 
presumably have actual gods. The "leones" 
may have represented the war god, Cit- 
chac-coh ("father-red-puma"). The Book 
of Chilam Balam of Chumayel mentions 
a Chac-bolay-balam (chac-bolay means 
"tigre bermejo y bravo") and a Chac-bolay 
also figures in the Tizimin manuscript. 
We find no mention of dog gods in the 
colonial literature, Maya or Spanish. Fig- 
ures of dogs are familiar, however, in the 
codices, and in the Dresden 7a a dog ap- 
pears in a long row of deities. Dogs were 
also a favorite sacrifice, and Landa tells 
of offerings of clay dogs with bread on 
their backs. The figures mentioned in this 
1583 report may have been something like 
votive offerings, if they were not idols of 
a dog god. 

Despite the punitive measures imposed 
by Dr. Palacio, idolatry continued to exist 
in the Valladolid area and other parts of 
the province (see data recorded in pre- 
vious reports) . A letter of Bishop Vazquez 
de Mercado dated May 2, 1606 (AGI, 
Mexico, leg. 72) records that "Indian 
idolaters were daily being discovered in 
various towns of this diocese." During a 
visitation made by the bishop in the Valla- 
dolid district "there were discovered and 
punished more than 80 Indians who, in 
gangs (cuadrillas) , assembled in different 
pueblos to perform the said idolatries." 
Moreover, a beneficed priest in that area 
had recently sent a report of 56 other 
idolaters whom he had found in the towns 
of his benefice. They had clay idols "de 
malisimas figuras . . . que a unos llamaban 
Dios Padre, a otros Dios Hijo y a otros 
Dios Espiritu Santo y Santa Maria y a otros 
muchos nombres de santos y santas como 
a ellos les parece, teniendo los dichos sus 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



179 



sacerdotes que hacian las ceremonias y posed, even in the case of the caciques and 

sahumerios cuando todos se juntaban a native priests. It is well known, of course, 

idolatrar." that Landa used stern measures during the 

This reference to clay idols called God investigation of 1562. Although the latter 

the Father, God the Son, God the Holy investigation put an end to the practice of 

Spirit, Holy Mary, and other names of human sacrifice, the severe punishments 

saints is reminiscent of a report by Fran- and torture employed by Landa not only 

cisco Hernandez in 1545 (see Las Casas, caused serious unrest in Yucatan, but also 

Apologetica historia, ch. 123; Saville, Mus. aroused unfavorable criticism in high 

Amer. Indian, Indian Notes and Mono- Spanish quarters. Consequently, in later 

graphs, vol. 9, no. 3) . Hernandez reported years the clergy tried another tactic, em- 

that God the Father was Icona (Itzamna) ; ploying public or private admonitions or 

the Son was Bacab, son of a virgin named some form of mild punishment in deal- 

Chibirias (Ix-chebel-yax, according to ing with the idolaters. As already noted, 

Seler) ; the Holy Spirit was Ekchuuah. Dr. Palacio proposed to deal more harshly 

Cf. Tozzer, Landa s Relation (Cambridge, with the caciques and native priests than 

1941), Syllabus, page 310. Tozzer also dis- with ordinary offenders, but in general 

cusses a report of 1913 by Bartolome del the local authorities apparently tried to 

Granado Baeza which records saint names cope with the situation without resort to 

for three of the Pauahtuns. The bishop's stern measures. But this method had 

letter of 1606 indicates that the naming of failed, for, as the bishop said, Indians 

certain gods by the names of saints started who had been punished on other occasions 

early, and it continues to the present day had continued their idolatrous practices, 

(see Gann, Bur. Amer. Ethnol. Pub. 64, "the cause of which, I understand, is the 

pp. 46-47). Deities with saint names ap- mild punishment they have received for 

pear, however, to have retained their pagan this great offense against God." "It ap- 

functions and characteristics. The bishop, pears to me therefore that it would be 

of course, was well advised in condemning suitable for your Majesty to order . . . 

the practice. that the leaders and priests, especially those 

The bishop's letter of 1606 was written guilty of second offenses, should be given 

in response to an inquiry from the Au- the most severe penalty." 

diencia of Mexico, which in turn was The second cause noted by the bishop 

prompted by a royal cedula of April 24, was the lack of compact Indian settle- 

1605, asking for information concerning ments, "because in all this diocese there 

the practice of idolatry in Yucatan "and is no well formed town; on the contrary, 

why it is more prevalent in that province each household lives by itself scattered 

than in others." The bishop stated that it among the bush in such a way that a town 

was not because of lack of instruction of 100 citizens may occupy a district of 

in the elements of Christian faith and half a league because of the scattering of 

doctrine, for he had personally exam- the houses." This statement probably ex- 

ined some of the idolaters and they had aggerated the situation, but it indicates, 

given adequate answers to all questions of nevertheless, that the policy of congregat- 

faith. It was his opinion that there were ing the Indians into compact towns insti- 

two major causes for the continued prac- tuted by Tomas Lopez in 1552 had not 

tice of the native religion. The first was been effectively carried out, or that during 

the mild punishment that had been im- the later decades of the sixteenth century 



i8o 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



there had been considerable laxity in regard 
to town organization and control. To 
remedy the situation the bishop recom- 
mended that effective measures should be 
taken to reassemble the Indians "in streets 
and squares surrounding the church, so 
that in this way there would not be such 
freedom for their debaucheries and other 
sins, and so that they will be better in- 
doctrinated." 

The definitorio (governing council) of 
the Franciscans also made a statement on 
the subject which supported the bishop's 
views. The Franciscans, however, added 
another point of vital importance: the 
fact that the Indians of settled towns in 
northern Yucatan maintained contacts 
with the "gentiles" of the interior, with 
whom they carried on trade, selling them 
such articles as salt, knives, axes, machetes, 
and similar goods. "As a result of this 
trade and commerce they learn the idolatry 
and ancient rites which they may have 
forgotten as a result of evangelical teach- 
ing." The Franciscans might also have 
added that the bush country of the interior 
was also a convenient place of refuge for 
groups of Indians who, for one reason or 
another, wished to escape Spanish control, 
civil or religious. Throughout the entire 
colonial period the Spanish authorities 
sought to bring the interior under effective 
control, but in the main they never achieved 
more than temporary success. The bush 
and forests of central and southern Yuca- 
tan were always a haven for Indians who 
wished to escape oppression, or to live 
according to the old native customs. 

During the past year Mr. Roys has con- 
tinued and nearly completed the transcrip- 
tion of a Maya manuscript known as the 
Ritual of the Bacabs. This document of 
237 pages consists mostly of medical incan- 
tations, although some directions for treat- 
ment are also included. The last page 



is written on the back of a printed In- 
dulgence dated in 1779. Although much 
of the manuscript is not difficult to read, 
on many pages there are water stains or 
the writing has faded, so it has been neces- 
sary to make a preliminary study of the 
more legible parts in order to complete 
the transcription. 

In spite of the late date of the manu- 
script, these incantations are practically 
free from European influence. With the 
exception of an occasional "Amen" and 
very rare mention of the Spanish Dios, no 
reference to the Christian religion has yet 
been found. "The four gods, the four 
Bacabs," who were prominent deities, are 
often invoked, and it is from these that 
the manuscript was given its title by its 
discoverer, William Gates. The Pauah- 
tuns, believed to be wind gods, are barely 
mentioned. As might be expected, the 
Maya goddess of medicine also plays a 
prominent part; but she is usually cited 
in a twofold phase, as Chacal ("the red") 
Ix Chel, and Sacal ("the white") Ix 
Chel. Only once have we noted an Ekel 
("black") or a Kanal ("yellow") Ix Chel. 
The distinction may indicate a reference 
to the four world quarters, to which these 
colors were ascribed. 

A number of other deities are invoked 
or cited. We find the thirteen sky gods 
known as Oxlahun-ti-ku, and the nine 
deities of the underworld, Bolon-ti-ku, 
which are occasionally mentioned in the 
Books of Chilam Balam, but the others 
appear only rarely in colonial Maya 
literature. 

Several times there is an invocation to 
the little-known Colop-u-uich-ku. The 
name strongly suggests a sun god, and 
in the Vienna dictionary he is described 
as "the principal god . . . from whom 
they said all things proceeded and who 
was incorporeal, hence they made no 
image of him." We also find a mention 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



181 



of Kin-ich-kak-mo ("sun-eyed fire par- 
rot"), a more familiar deity associated 
with the sun. 

The sky god Itzamna, usually con- 
sidered the head of the Maya pantheon, 
also appears in these incantations. We 
read of "the home of the father (or lord?) 
of the sun, Chac Ahau Itzamna." This 
name could be translated as "great (or 
red?) lord Itzamna." There is an obscure 
reference to "the thigh of Hun Itzamna," 
and a Kanal ("yellow") Itzamna is also 
cited. Associated with Itzamna are the 
iguana {huh) and another lizard (itzam). 

Frequent accessories, apparently in the 
ceremonies which accompanied these in- 
cantations, were a green human figure of 
wood (yax uinicil te, or che) and a similar 
one of stone {yax uinicil tun). In the 
treatment of a sore foot, we infer that 
changing the dressing is symbolized by 
what is called changing the bed covers of 
these figures. These coverings are alleged 
to be the tails of the quetzal (yaxum) 
and the macaw. In this manner, states 
the healer, "I remove the great causer 
of pain." 

The disease is often personified and is 
informed that 4 Ahau, or sometimes 1 
Ahau, was the day of its birth. The healer 
addresses it with authority and threatens 
it. To one disease he says: "Thus I throw 
you down. I am your mother, I am your 
father; I cast you into the midst of the 
sea." To another he claims a similar 
relationship and condemns it "to the evils 
of the underworld." 

Many of these incantations have a gen- 
uine poetic quality and abound in graceful 
figures of speech. In treating various fever- 
ish skin eruptions the healer states that he 
is cooling the throbbing pain with his 
red, white, and black fountains and with 
cenotes, forest ponds, and hailstones of 
these colors. 
Some of the incantations are ordinary 



magic, such as charming a scorpion or 
cooling water while it is on the fire. The 
most interesting and poetical is that of the 
birth of the spider, which has been pub- 
lished by J. E. S. Thompson (Carnegie 
Inst. Wash. Pub. 509, Contr. 29). Here a 
green wooden spider and one of stone ap- 
pear to take the place of the human figures 
in the other incantations. 

The language of this manuscript is 
often obscure, and a complete translation 
will be very difficult. 

In view of J. E. S. Thompson's approach 
to the problems of hieroglyphic writing by 
seeking parallels between such texts and 
certain passages in the colonial Maya litera- 
ture written in European script (Year 
Book No. 43, pp. 172-173), we have 
searched the latter for chronological ex- 
pressions or figures of speech which might 
easily lend themselves to pictorial repre- 
sentation. Their precise significance is 
not always clear, since they have come 
down to us mostly in manuscripts of the 
eighteenth century. By this time the copy- 
ists, who occasionally interpolated their 
own comments, had forgotten or become 
confused over some of the details of the 
old calendar system. We even find the 
katun explained as being a period of 
twenty-four years. The following excerpts 
have been selected from a series of yearly 
prophecies covering twenty years, which 
are recorded in the Books of Chilam Balam 
of Tizimin and Mani. They are given 
here as examples of phrases which we 
might expect to find expressed in hiero- 
glyphic writing, but it does not, of course, 
necessarily follow that such will prove to 
be the case. 

These prophecies begin with a state- 
ment of "the taking of lac of Katun 5 
Ahau." The lac today is a shallow bowl, 
and the term has also been defined as a 
clay idol, but we infer it was an effigy 
bowl, possibly an incense burner. There 



x 8 2 CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

are occasional references to the "burden" dently a play on the day name Oc, which 

or "charge" (cucli) of the katun. In one can also mean "foot." In the Codex Perez, 

of these the number 5, the coefficient of however, the "pacing off' of the katun 

the day for which the katun is named, appears to begin on the day Oc, which 

is said to be its burden; and we are re- falls just ten days before the end of the 

minded of a full-figure Initial Series in- katun. 

scription at Copan, although here it is Mr. Thompson has noted a danger in 

not the coefficient which is represented this approach because of the uncertainty 

as being the burden. as to the language of the people who 

One of the year bearers is "the day of carved the inscriptions. A large propor- 

setting in order the bird (ch'ich') of the tion, though by no means all, are found 

katun." Since we find elsewhere the "bird" in areas where either Yucatecan Maya or 

of the day closely associated with its one of the Choloid languages was spoken 

augury, the term probably has the same at the time of the conquest. The latter 

meaning for the katun. comprise Chontal, Choi, and Chorti, and 

For the tenth year there is a reference it has been shown that these three are 
to the fan and bouquet of the ruler, pre- hardly more than dialects of the same 
sumably the god presiding over the katun, language, which, indeed, the sixteenth- 
who "points his finger at the day he takes century Spaniards considered them to be 
over his government." He is set up at (Thompson, Amer. Anthropologist, n. s., 
his cup {Inch), on his throne or dais vol. 9, pp. 584-603; Scholes and Roys, 
(dzam), his mat (pop), and his seat Acalan-Tixchel, in preparation). 
{\anche) ; and this establishment of the Philologists have established a close re- 
lord of the katun was very probably a lationship between Yucatecan Maya and 
chronological ceremonial. Choloid, and it has long been known that 

For the year in which the last hotun for a person who knew one, the other 
begins we find a reference to the "binding was not very difficult to learn. Never- 
of the burden of the katun." Here, instead theless, how close the resemblance was for 
of the coefficient, the burden appears to practical purposes is a matter of some con- 
symbolize the destiny of the katun, which sequence. It is certainly closer than would 
consists mostly of various misfortunes, appear from the comparative word lists 
This meaning is confirmed by the Motul that have been published, and to form 
dictionary. In the following year the bur- some idea of this a comparison has been 
den is bound again, and the "rulers of the made between Becerra's large vocabulary 
land" are said to be blindfolded. Whether of Palenque Choi (Anales del Museo 
earthly rulers or gods are meant is a little Nacional de Arqueologia, Historia y Etno- 
uncertain. Elsewhere in these Maya manu- grafia, quinta epoca, vol. 2, pp. 249-278) 
scripts the blindfolding of a deity appears and the Yucatecan Maya. Many words 
to symbolize the loss of his power. Here are almost identical and have the same 
it seems to indicate the approaching end meaning in both languages. In other cases 
of the katun, an event which concerned the words are the same, but they have a 
both gods and men. slightly different meaning. Becerra's bush 

At the end of these prophecies we are is defined as an ordinary gourd (calabaza), 

told that on a day 13 Oc "the katun is whereas the Maya bux (pronounced the 

paced off' (u che\ oc \atun). This is evi- same) in northern Yucatan was a small 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



183 



wild variety. There are also numerous 
instances where a Maya would understand 
a Choi term in spite of its difference from 
the word used in northern Yucatan. In 
Maya a skull is tze\, and although the 
Choi equivalent is bu\el jol, it resembles 
the Maya baac ("bone") and hoi ("head"). 
Similarly, the Choi word for heel, yit\o\, 
would be understood by a Maya as mean- 
ing the bottom of the leg or foot. There 
are certain sound shifts, but it seems un- 
likely that they would cause much diffi- 
culty. For consonants the two most fre- 
quent shifts are those in which Maya can 
("serpent") and che ("tree") correspond 
to the Choloid chart and te or tie. 

A comparison of the first 400 words of 
Becerra's Choi vocabulary with their var- 
ious Maya equivalents or near equivalents 
suggests strongly that a Yucatecan would 
either understand or have an approximately 
correct idea of the meaning of 50 to 60 per 
cent of them. Available Choloid texts are 
few and brief except for the long Acalan 
Chontal narrative, which contains a very 
considerable variety of subject matter. Here 
the sentence structure is very similar to that 
of Yucatecan Maya. The tentative con- 
clusion of this inquiry is that whatever its 
origin, Maya hieroglyphic writing was 
probably adequate for the use of both 
these linguistic groups. 

United States History 
Leo F. Stock and John }. Meng 

It was expected that this report would 
announce the completion of the manu- 
script of volume VI of the Proceedings 
and debates of the British Parliaments 
respecting North America. The amount 
of material bearing upon the Seven Years' 
War, however, is so voluminous and the 
necessary annotations are proportionately 
so time-consuming that there still remain 
three or four months of work before the 



volume will be ready for printing. The 
questions at issue during this significant 
period, which preceded and which in large 
measure created the immediate conditions 
leading to the American Revolution, will 
make this volume an important one. 

This may be the final volume of the 
series to be sponsored by the Institution. 
After thirty-five years of service, Dr. 
Stock's formal connection with the Divi- 
sion of Historical Research terminated 
July 31, 1945. In view of the extensive 
use so far made of the series in graduate 
schools and by writers in the field of 
colonial history, and because of the amount 
of unprinted sources that have been col- 
lected for the period ahead, the editor will 
continue to give as much time to this work 
as the pursuit of postretirement interests 
will permit. 

Dr. Stock also intends to complete the 
orderly arrangement of the files of the 
former Department of Historical Research. 
Their value was illustrated in the corre- 
spondence between Viscount Bryce and 
Dr. J. Franklin Jameson which was printed 
in the January 1945 issue of the American 
Historical Review. 

As in previous years, Dr. Stock has re- 
plied, for the Division, to many inquiries 
of historical nature, and has rendered other 
aid to students who came to Washington. 

Volumes III and IV of the Guide to 
?naterials for American history in the 
libraries and archives of Paris are now 
complete in manuscript for anticipated 
publication when present printing and 
binding difficulties have been eased. Vol- 
ume V, the final one of the series, deals 
with the colonial archives and is now in 
preparation. The work is being done by 
John J. Meng under the general direction 
of Waldo G. Leland. 

Comforting information relating in part 
to the future usefulness of the Guide was 



184 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



received during April 1945 from M. Abel 
Doysie in Paris. M. Doysie, one of the 
collaborators in the preparation of the pub- 
lication, wrote concerning the Foreign Of- 
fice archives: "The building was burnt, 
but the archives are safe though not avail- 
able yet." Doysie himself is once more 
engaged in historical research, after several 
months in a German concentration camp 
and the destruction of his home by 
bombing. 

History of Science 

George Sarton 

Introduction to the history of science. 
Most of Dr. Sarton's time was devoted 
to the final revision of the manuscript of 
volume III and to proofreading. Thus far 
421 galleys have been read, more than a 
third of the total but less than half. So 
large and complex is this work that at 
least another year will be needed to com- 
plete the proofreading and indexing. 

Editing of Isis. The publication of Isis 
has been considerably slowed up, because 
the Harvard University Printing Office is 
short of labor and is obliged to do the 
University work first. Two numbers only 
have appeared (nos. 100 and 101), and 
volume 35 (1944) is not yet completed, 
the last part (no. 102) being now in page 
proof. Numbers 100 and 101 include 12 
main articles, 17 shorter notes, 23 reviews, 
830 bibliographic items, and are illustrated 
with 4 plates and 29 figures in text. Since 
its foundation in 1913 Isis has never been 
smaller. Editorial work has been con- 
tinued, however, by Dr. Sarton and Dr. 
Pogo, and a large amount of manuscript 
is ready for publication as soon as circum- 
stances permit. 

From 191 3 to 1940 Isis had been printed 
in Belgium. Word has been received from 
the St. Catherine Press in Bruges that the 
stock of Isis and Osiris has been preserved 
in spite of the fact that other presses in the 



neighborhood have been destroyed. Vol- 
ume 32 of Isis and volumes 8 and 9 of 
Osiris, which were being printed in Bruges 
at the time of the German invasion, will 
be published as soon as possible. This will 
not be before 1946 or perhaps 1947. 

Ancient science down to Epicuros. Four 
chapters are completed, dealing respec- 
tively with the dawn of science, Egypt, 
Mesopotamia, and the Aegean area. 

Publications 
Margaret W. Harrison 

Of the three major publications reported 
in press at the time of last year's review, 
wartime difficulties in the printing in- 
dustry have permitted the publication of 
only one, Alfonso Villa's The Maya of 
east central Quintana Roo (Publication 
559), released in May 1945. Beginning 
with a brief survey of the history of 
Quintana Roo and ending with a critical 
bibliography of the War of the Castes 
and a discussion of historical sources by 
Howard F. Cline, the book describes the 
Indian mode of life in the most isolated 
of the four Yucatecan Maya communities 
studied by ethnologists and sociologists 
of the Institution from 1930 to 1936. A 
second community was reported on by 
Robert Redfield and Sr. Villa in Chan 
Kom, a Maya village (Publication 448), 
issued in 1934; and a third by Dr. and 
Mrs. Redfield in Disease and its treatment 
in Dzitas, Yucatan (Contribution 32 in 
Publication 523), issued in 1940. The final 
results of the study became available in Dr. 
Redfield 's The fol\ culture of Yucatan, 
published by the University of Chicago 
Press in 1941. The report on the re- 
maining community, Merida, is not yet 
completed. 

Miss ProskouriakofTs Album of Maya 
architecture (Publication 558) has pro- 
gressed as far as page proof of the text. 



DIVISION OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 



185 



The gravure illustrations, the main fea- counts of the Indian tribes on the Pacific 

ture of the publication, have been printed littoral of Guatemala and a comparative 

for several months. study of the sculpture found in that area. 

Textiles of highland Guatemala (Publi- To the second volume of Notes on 

cation 567), by Lila M. O'Neale, professor Middle American Archaeology and Eth- 

of decorative art at the University of Cali- nology have been added eighteen numbers 

fornia, Berkeley, is ready for binding. The during the year. Half of these, listed in 

text and gravure illustrations are printed; the bibliography at the end of this report, 

the line cuts are undergoing final revision, have come from members of the staff, the 

Under the joint authorship of France V. Misses Proskouriakofr" and Shepard and 

Scholes and Ralph L. Roys, the manu- Messrs. Kidder, Morley, Roys, Smith, and 

script of Acalan-Tixchel: a contribution Thompson. Specialists outside the Institu- 

to the history and ethnography of south- tion contributed the remainder: Archaeo- 

western Campeche (Publication 560) has logical finds near Douglas, British Hon- 

nearly reached completion. It is expected duras (no. 40), by A. Hamilton Anderson 

that the text will be ready for the printer and Herbert J. Cook; Ixtle weaving at 

by early fall of 1945. Chiquilistlan , Jalisco (no. 42) and Worked 

Excavations at Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala gourds from Jalisco (no. 43), by Isabel T. 
(Publication 561), by A. V. Kidder, J. D. Kelly; The graphic style of the Tlalhuica 
Jennings, and E. M. Shook, with techno- (no. 44), by R. H. Barlow; The Venus 
logical notes by Anna O. Shepard, is now calendar of the Aztec (no. 46), by R. C. E. 
in galley proof. This book is a detailed Long; Costumes and wedding customs at 
account of the excavation of two mounds, Mixco, Guatemala (no. 48), by Lilly de 
in each of which were found several super- Jongh Osborne; Moon age tables (no. 50), 
imposed structures and richly stocked by Lawrence Roys; A second Tlaloc gold 
tombs. The grave furniture, fully de- plaque from Guatemala (no. 51), by Karl- 
scribed and illustrated, contained a large Heinz Nottebohm; and Roc\ paintings 
number of important objects which served at Texcalpintado, Morelos, Mexico (no. 
to establish chronological relations between 52), by M. A. Espejo. 
the local Guatemala highland culture and Mrs. Harrison has in preparation the 
several other major cultural developments compilation of a dictionary of terms ap- 
in the Maya area and in central Mexico, plicable to Middle American archaeology, 

J. Eric S. Thompson has finished the covering architecture, ceramics, artifacts, 

manuscript of An archaeological recon- and sculpture. The terms are confined to 

naissance in the Cotzumalhuapa region, English words and foreign words taken 

Escuintla, Guatemala, which will form over into ordinary archaeological usage. A 

Contribution 44, the first paper in vol- preliminary list of tentative definitions will 

ume 9 of Contributions to American be distributed in mimeographed form to 

Anthropology and History. This paper specialists in this field for corrections and 

contains an analysis of the historical ac- additions before final publication. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

July i, 1944 — June 30, 1945 

Bloom, L. B. See Scholes, France V. Kidder, A. V. Certain pottery vessels from 

Harrison, Margaret W. The writing of Ameri- Copan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Div. Historical 

can archaeology. Amer. Antiquity, vol. 10, Research, Notes on Middle Amer. Archaeol. 

PP- 33!-339 ( x 945)- and Ethnol., no. 36 (1944). 



i86 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



Kidder, A. V., and Anna O. Shepard. Stucco 
decoration of early Guatemala pottery. Car- 
negie Inst. Wash., Div. Historical Research, 
Notes on Middle Amer. Archaeol. and 
Ethnol., no. 35 (1944). 

Morley, Sylvanus G. Combinations of glyphs 
G and F in the supplementary series. Car- 
negie Inst. Wash., Div. Historical Research, 
Notes on Middle Amer. Archaeol. and 
Ethnol., no. 49 (1945). 

Proskouriakoff, Tatiana. An inscription on a 
jade probably carved at Piedras Negras. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., Div. Historical Re- 
search, Notes on Middle Amer. Archaeol. 
and Ethnol., no. 47 (1944). 

Redfield, Robert. The ethnological problem. In 
New perspectives on peace, edited by George 
B. de Huszar (Charles R. Walgreen Foun- 
dation Lectures), pp. 60-84 (1944). 

La raza en la naturaleza humana y 

social. Rev. mexicana de sociologia, vol. 6, 
pp. 163-171 (i944)- 

Roys, Ralph L. The Vienna dictionary. Car- 
negie Inst. Wash., Div. Historical Research, 
Notes on Middle Amer. Archaeol. and Eth- 
nol., no. 41 (1944). 

Sarton, George. Vindication of Father Hell. 
Isis, vol. 35, pp. 97-106 (1944). 

■ Orientation of the mihrab in mosques. 

Isis, vol. 35, p. 176 (1944). 

A Chinese gun of 1372. Isis, vol. 35, 

p. 177 (1944)- 

Jacob Sala of Somerset, 181 3? Isis, vol. 

35, P- 177 (i944)- 

Fishing with otters. Isis, vol. 35, p. 178 

(1944). 

Beccaria, 1738-94. Essays in the history 

of science presented to Prof. Arturo Casti- 
glioni (suppt. to Bull. Hist. Med., no. 3, pp. 
283-308, 1944). 

Lagrange's personality, 1736-1813. Proc. 

Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. 88, pp. 457-496 
(1944). 

Scripta manent. Isis, vol. 35, pp. 201-205 



(1944), 

Sixty-sixth critical bibliography (to July 

1944). Isis, vol. 35, pp. 221-278 (1944). 
Scholes, France V. Documents: (I) Letter of 
the bishops of Mexico and Oaxaca, 1537, 

(II) another letter of the same, 1537, and 

(III) relacion of the Bishop of Santo Do- 



mingo, c. 1537. The Americas, vol. 1, pp. 
104-107 (1944)- 

— Juan Martinez de Montoya, settler and 
conquistador of New Mexico. New Mexico 
Hist. Rev., vol. 19, pp. 337-342 (1944). 
and L. B. Bloom. Friar personnel and 



mission chronology, 1 598-1 629. New Mexico 
Hist. Rev., vol. 19, pp. 319-336 (1944); vol. 
20, pp. 58-82 (1945). 

Shepard, Anna O. See Kidder, A. V. 

Smith, Robert E. Archaeological specimens 
from Guatemala. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Div. 
Historical Research, Notes on Middle Amer. 
Archaeol. and Ethnol., no. 37 (1944). 

Stock, Leo F. Some Bryce-Jameson corre- 
spondence. Amer. Hist. Rev., vol. 50, pp. 
261-298 (1945). 

Notes and reviews in American His- 
torical Review, Catholic Historical Review, 
Survey of Current Literature (the Hayes 
Foundation). 

Tax, Sol. Anthropology and administration. 
Amer. indigena, vol. 5, pp. 21-33 (1945). 

The problem of democracy in Middle 

America. Amer. Sociol. Rev., vol. 10, pp. 
192-199 (1945). 

Review of A primitive Mexican econ- 
omy, by George M. Foster. Amer. Anthro- 
pologist, n. s., vol. 47, pp. 150-152 (1945). 

Review of A guide to materials bearing 



on cultural relations in New Mexico, by 
Lyle Saunders. Library Quart., vol. 15, pp. 
174-176 (1945). 
Thompson, J. E. S. Jottings on inscriptions at 
Copan. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Div. His- 
torical Research, Notes on Middle Amer. 
Archaeol. and Ethnol., no. 38 (1944). 

The dating of seven monuments at 

Piedras Negras. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Div. 
Historical Research, Notes on Middle Amer. 
Archaeol. and Ethnol., no. 39 (1944). 

Variant methods of date recording in 

the Jatate drainage, Chiapas. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Div. Historical Research, Notes on 
Middle Amer. Archaeol. and Ethnol., no. 

45 (i944)- 

Un vistazo a las "ciudades" mayas: su 



aspecto y funcion. Cuadernos americanos, 
vol. 20, pp. 133-149 (i945)- 
Villa R., Alfonso. The Maya of east central 
Quintana Roo. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 

559 (i945)- 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

November i, 1944 — October 31, 1945 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE INSTITUTION 

Year Book No. 43, 1943-1944. Octavo, xxxiv + 9 
+ 206 pages, 6 text figures. 

545B. Fleming, }. A., H. U. Sverdrup, C. C. 
Ennis, S. L. Seaton, and W. C. Hendrix. 
Observations and results in physical ocea- 
nography: graphical and tabular sum- 
maries. Quarto, iv +315 pages, 254 
figures. (Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism, J. A. Fleming, Director. Scientific 
Results of Cruise VII of the Carnegie dur- 
ing 1928-1929, under Command of Cap- 
tain }. P. Ault. Oceanography — I-B.) 

556. I. Revelle, Roger R. Marine bottom sam- 
ples collected in the Pacific Ocean by the 
Carnegie on its seventh cruise. II. Piggot, 
Charles S. Radium content of ocean- 
bottom sediments. Quarto, ix + 196 pages, 
map, 47 figures, 10 charts, 14 plates. (De- 
partment of Terrestrial Magnetism, J. A. 
Fleming, Director. Scientific Results of 
Cruise VII of the Carnegie during 1928- 
1929, under Command of Captain J. P. 
Ault. Oceanography — II.) 

557. Contributions to Embryology, volume 
XXXI. Quarto, xi + 175 pages, 45 plates 
(3 colored), 28 text figures. 

Index of authors, volumes I-XXX, 1915- 
1942. Pages v-xi. 

198. de Allende, Ines L. C.j Ephraim 
Shorr, and Carl G. Hartman. A 
comparative study of the vaginal 
smear cycle of the rhesus monkey 
and the human. Pages 1-26, 2 
colored plates, 4 text figures. 

199. Streeter, George L. Developmen- 
tal horizons in human embryos. De- 
scription of age group XIII, embryos 
about 4 or 5 millimeters long, and 
age group XIV, period of indenta- 
tion of the lens vesicle. Pages 27- 
63, 7 plates, 15 text figures. 

200. Hertig, Arthur T., and John Rock. 
Two human ova of the pre-villous 
stage, having a developmental age 
of about seven and nine days re- 
spectively. Pages 65-84, 3 plates. 

201. Heuser, Chester H., John Rock, 
and Arthur T. Hertig. Two human 



559- 



563- 



564. 



565. 



embryos showing early stages of the 
definitive yolk sac. Pages 85-99, 6 
plates. 

202. Wilson, Karl M. A normal human 
ovum of sixteen days development 
(the Rochester ovum). Pages 101- 
106, 3 plates. 

203. Marchetti, Andrew A. A pre- 
villous human ovum accidentally re- 
covered from a curettage specimen. 
Pages 107-115, 1 plate, 2 text figures. 

204. Corner, George W., with the col- 
laboration of Carl G. Hartman and 
George W. Bartelmez. Develop- 
ment, organization, and breakdown 
of the corpus luteum in the rhesus 
monkey. Pages 1 17-146, 10 plates, 

3 text figures. 

205. Burns, Robert K., Jr. The differen- 
tiation of the phallus in the opossum 
and its reactions to sex hormones. 
Pages 147-162, 10 plates (1 colored). 

206. Burns, Robert K., Jr. The effects of 
male hormone on the differentiation 
of the urinogenital sinus in young 
opossums. Pages 163-175, 3 plates, 

4 text figures. 

Villa R., Alfonso. The Maya of east 
central Quintana Roo. xii + 182 pages, 
6 plates, 9 text figures. 
Cambrian history of the Grand Canyon 
region. Octavo, viii + 232 pages, 27 plates, 
12 text figures. 

I. McKee, Edwin D. Stratigraphy and 
ecology of the Grand Canyon Cam- 
brian. Pages 3-168, plates 1-15, text 
figures 1-12. 
II. Resser, Charles E. Cambrian fossils 
of the Grand Canyon. Pages 169-220, 
plates 16-27. 
Index. Pages 221-232. 
Clausen, Jens J., David D. Keck, and 
William M. Hiesey. Experimental studies 
on the nature of species. II. Plant evolu- 
tion through amphiploidy and autoploidy, 
with examples from the Madiinae. Octavo, 
vii +174 pages, 86 text figures. 
Graham, Herbert W., and Natalia 
Bronikovsky. The genus Ceratium in 



187 



i88 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



the Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. 
Quarto, vii + 209 pages, map, 27 figures, 
54 charts. (Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism, J. A. Fleming, Director. Sci- 
entific Results of Cruise VII of the Car- 
negie during 1928-1929, under Command 
of Captain J. P. Ault. Biology — V.) 

PUBLICATIONS BY THE PRESIDENT OF 
THE INSTITUTION 

Bush, Vannevar 
The builders. Technology Review, vol. 47, 
no. 1, p. 162 (Jan. 1945). Reprinted in: 
Atlantic Monthly, vol. 175, no. 5, p. 60 
(May 1945); NCR [National Cash Regis- 
ter] Factory News, May 1945, inside cover; 
Interchemical Review, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 
47-48 (summer 1945) ; Chemical Indus- 



tries, vol. 57, no. 3, p. 441 (Sept. 1945); 
Weather Service Bulletin, vol. 3, no. 8, 
p. 1 (Sept.-Oct. 1945). 

Teamwork and democracy. Think, vol. 11, 
no. 6, pp. io-ii (June 1945). 

As we may think. Atlantic Monthly, vol. 176, 
no. 1, pp. 101-108 (July 1945). Condensed 
in: Life, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 112-114, 116, 
118, 121, 123-124 (Sept. 10, 1945). 

Science and security. Sea Power, vol. 5, no. 7, 
PP- 35-38, 69-72 (July 1945). Reprinted 
in: Infantry Journal, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 
12-17 (Oct. 1945). 

Science the endless frontier: a report to the 
President, ix + 184 pp. Washington, 
U. S. Government Printing Office (July 
1945). Condensed, under the title Beyond 
the atomic bomb, in: Fortune, vol. 32, 
no. 3, pp. i-izi (Sept. 1945). 






INDEX 



(Figures in italic type refer to pages in the Report of the President; 



Aboriginal American History, Section of, ix 

studies in, see archaeology 
Adams, Eleanor B., ix 

studies in history of the Maya area, 166, 177-183 
Adams, Leason H., vii 

report of Director of Geophysical Laboratory, 19-20 
Adams, Walter S., vii, 8, 9, 4 

report of Director of Mount Wilson Observatory, 

3-18 
studies in stellar spectroscopy, 11, 13 
publications by, 17, 55 

report of Committee on Coordination of Cosmic-Ray 
Investigations, 59-60 
administration, offices of, x 
Agassiz, Alexander, vi, xii 
Allen, F., 62 
anatomy, see embryology 
Anderson, A. Hamilton, 185 
Anderson, Edgar, 107 
Andrade, Manuel, 165, 176 
Andrews, H. L., publication by, 55 
anthropology, see social anthropology 
Arbogast, R., 116 

archaeology, studies in, //, 163-173, 185 
astronomy, vii, xi 
Committee on, v 
studies in, 8-g, g-'i o, 3-18 
astrophysics, see astronomy 
atomic physics, studies in, 23, 33-36 
Auditing Committee, v, xix, xx, xxii 
Auditor, xix, xxii 

Report of, xxvi-xxxiv 
Auger, P., publication by, 63 
Ault, J. P., 10, 52, 57, 187, 188 



B 

Baade, Walter, vii, 4 

stellar and nebular investigations, 10, 14, 15, 16 

publications by, 17 
Babcock, Harold D., vii, 4 

studies in solar physics, 4, 8 

publications by, 17 
bacterial resistance, see gene 
Bailey, D. K., publication by, 62 
Baldwin, George J., vi 
Balling, Eva, 61 
Barbour, Thomas, v 
Barlow, R. H., 185 
Barrera Vasquez, Alfredo, 164, 171 
Bartelmez, George W., publication by, 100, 187 
Baty, Wilton E., 119 
Bauer, Ailene J., x 
Bauer, Louis A., vii, 24 
Beach, Alice S., 4 
Bell, James F., v, xix 
Benedict, Francis G., viii, 9, 149 
Berkner, Lloyd V., vii 
Bernstein, A., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24, 25 

publication by, 55 
Biesecker, Earle B., x 



Biesele, John J., viii 

studies on mouse leukemia, 105, 134-139 
Billings, John S., vi, xii, xiii 
biochemical investigations, 10, 65, 66-71. See also 

cyclotron; embryology; genetics; nutrition 
biological sciences, viii, xi 
Committee on, v 

studies in, 65—161. See also cyclotron 
Bjerknes, V., ix 
Blakeslee, Albert F., viii, ix 
Bliss, Robert Woods, v, xix, xx, xxii 
Bloch, I., 6^ 

Bloom, L. B., publication by, 185, 186 
Boggs, Stanley H., 165 
Botanical Research, Department of, viii 
botany, see plant biology 
Bowen, Ira S., vii, 9 
Bowles, Edward L., ix 
Boyce, Joseph C, ix 
Bradford, Lindsay, v, xix 
Brady, Frederick J., 34, 36 

publications by, 55 
Brainerd, G. W., 163, 164 
Bramhall, E. H., publication by, 55 
Brayton, Ada M., 4 
publication by, 17 
Bronikovsky, Natalia, publication by, 57, 187 
Brookings, Robert S., vi 
Brown, William L., 107 
Bryan, Kirk, physiographical investigations, 165, 168- 

170 
Bryson, V., publication by, 146 
Burd, Sylvia, 4 
Burlew, John S., vii • 
Burns, Robert K., viii, 100 
publications by, 100, 187 
Bursar, Office of the, x 
Burwell, Cora G., 4 
Bush, Vannevar, v, x, xix, xxii 
report of the President, /-// 
publications by, 188 
Buynitzky, S. J., studies in atomic physics, 33, 35 



Cadwalader, John L., vi, xii 

Callaway, Samuel, x 

Campbell, William W., vi 

Carnegie, Andrew, xi, xiii 

Carnegie, the, 10, 23, 24, 26, 29, 36, 38, 52-53, 57, 

187, 188 
Carnegie Corporation of New York, xi, 6, 95, 96 
Carpenter, Thorne M., viii, 9 

report of Director of Nutrition Laboratory, 149—156 

studies in nutrition, 154-155, 156 

publications by, 154, 156 
Carty, John J., vi 
Chamberlain, Robert S., ix, 164 
Chancy, Ralph W., ix 

studies in paleobotany, 66, 86-87 

publication by, 87 
Cheltenham Magnetic Observatory, 22, 24, 30, 37, 39, 
40, 51, 59> 60 



189 



190 



INDEX 






chemistry, see biochemical investigations; geophysics 
chemotherapy, see cyclotron 
Chernosky, Edwin J., vii 

observatory work (terrestrial magnetism), 48 
chlorellin, see biochemical investigations 
Christie, William H., vii, 4 
Clarke, E. T., publication by, 62 
Clausen, Jens C, viii, 134 

studies in experimental taxonomy, 71-83 

publication by, 87, 187 
Coffeen, Mary F., 4 
Cole, Whitefoord R., vi 
College (Alaska) Observatory, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 32, 

38, 39> 49-51, 53 
Compton, A. H., ix 
Connor, Elizabeth, 4 

publication by, 17 
Cook, Herbert J., 185 
Cooper, K. W., 157 
Corner, George W., viii 

report of Director of Department of Embryology, 
89-101 

studies in embryology, 96—97, 99, 100 

publications by, 99, 100, 187 
Coropatchinsky, V., viii 
Corp, S. O., 26, 52 
Cosmic-Ray Investigations, report of Committee on 

Coordination of, 59-63 
cosmic relations, studies on, 22, 25, 59—63. See also 

observatory work (terrestrial magnetism) 
Cowie, Dean B., vii 

studies in atomic physics, 33, 34, 36 

publications by, 55 
Crippen, M., 115 

Crow, E. G., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24 
Crow, R. M., 38, 52, 53 
Cutting, Winsor, 70 
cyclotron, 10, 23, 33-36, 53 
cytogenetics: of Drosophila, 105, 1 21-127 

of maize, 107, 108-110 

of Newospora, 106-107, no— 112 
cytology, see cytogenetics; experimental taxonomy; 
gene; polyploidy 

D 

Davenport, Charles B., viii 

publications by, 146 
Davids, N., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24, 25 

publications by, 55, 57 
Davidson, Harriet, polyploidy investigations, 11 3-1 15 
Day, Arthur L., vii 

de Allende, Ines L. C, publication by, 187 
Delano, Frederic A., v, xix, xx, xxii 
Delbriick, Max, 107 
Demerec, Milislav, viii, // 

report of Director of Department of Genetics, 103— 

147 

studies on the gene, 103, 105-106, 115-121 

publications by, 146, 147 
Demerec, Zlata, 119 
desert investigations, 66, 83-85 
Desert Laboratory, viii, 83, 84 
Dobzhansky, Th., ix 

studies on genetic structure of natural populations, 
83, 106, 127-134 

publications by, 146, 147 
Dodge, Cleveland H., vi, xii 
Dodge, William E., vi 



Dorf, Erling, 66, 87 
Doysie, Abel, 184 
Drinker, Cecil K., 154 

publication by, 154, 156 
Drosophila, see cytogenetics; gene; genetic structure of 

natural populations; Morgan, T. H. 
Duffin, R. J., 53 

publications by, 55 
Duncan, John C, 4, 14 
Dunham, Theodore, Jr., vii, 4 



Eakin, Robert E., 34, 36 

ecology, viii. See also desert investigations; experi- 
mental taxonomy 
Edmonds, Harry Marcus Weston, 24 
electricity, terrestrial, see terrestrial electricity 
Embryology, Department of, viii, 10, 89—101, 152 

report of Director of Department of, 89-101 
embryology, studies in, 10-11, 89—101 
endocrine studies, 103—104, 139-146 
England, Joseph L., vii 
Ennis, C. C, publication by, 57, 187 
Espejo, M. A., 185 
Esquiliano, Isaac, 170 
ethnology, see social anthropology 
Eugenics Record Office, viii 
Executive Committee, v, xi, xix, xx 

Report of the, xxi— xxv 
Experimental Evolution, Station for, viii 
experimental taxonomy, studies in, 10, 65—66, 71-83 



Fano, Ugo, viii, 103, 107 

publication by, 146 
Fassett, Frederick G., Jr., x 
Fenner, Charles P., vi 
Ferguson, Homer L., v, xix, xx, xxii 
Finance Committee, v, xix, xx, xxi, xxii 
Fleming, John A., vii 

report of Director of Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism, 21—57 

studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24, 31, 39, 52 

publications by, 55, 56, 57, 187 

report of Committee on Coordination of Cosmic- 
Ray Investigations, 59-60 
Flexner, Louis B., viii 

physiochemical studies (embryology), 89, 99 
Flexner, Simon, vi 
Forbes, W. Cameron, v, xix, xxii 
Forbush, Scott E., vii, 52 

cosmic-ray investigations, 59, 60 
Frew, William N., vi, xii 



G 

Gage, Lyman J., vi, xii 

Gasic, G., studies on mouse leukemia, 105, 134-139 
Gay, Helen, studies on cytogenetics of Drosophila, 
121-127 
publication by, 146, 147 
Gellhorn, Alfred, 99 
publication by, 100 
gene, studies on, //, 105-106, 115-121, 157-160. 
See also cytology 



INDEX 



191 



genetic structure of natural populations, studies on, 

106, 127-134 
Genetics, Department of, viii, //, 103-147, 152 

report of Director of Department of, 103-147 
genetics, studies in, 103-147, 157-160. See also ex- 
perimental taxonomy 
geology, studies in, 168-170. See also geophysics; 

paleobotany 
geomagnetism, see terrestrial magnetism 
Geophysical Laboratory, vii, 10, 19-20 

report of Director of, 19-20 
geophysics, studies in, 10, 19-20. See also terrestrial 

electricity; terrestrial magnetism 
Gibson, Ralph E., vii 
Giesecke, Albert A., Jr., vii 

observatory work (terrestrial magnetism), 48 
Gifford, Walter S., v, xix, xx, xxii 
Gilbert, Cass, vi 
Gilbert, Walter M., x 
Gillett, Frederick H., vi 
Gillman, Joseph, 96 
Gilman, Daniel Coit, vi, xii, xiii 
Gish, Oliver H., vii 

studies in terrestrial electricity, 26, 27, 52 

publications by, 56 
Goranson, Roy W., vii 
Gordon, Myron, 107 
Goubaud, Antonio, 165, 173, 176 
Graham, Herbert W., 52 

publications by, 57, 187 
grasses, range, see experimental taxonomy 
Green, George K., vii, 33 
Green, J. W., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24, 26, 

53, 55 
Greig, Joseph W., vii 
Gucker, Frank T., ix 



H 

Hafstad, Lawrence R., vii, 33 
Hale, George E., vii, 3, 17 
Hallman, Lois F., 36 
Halpern, A. M., 164 
Hamermesh, B., 62 
Hardin, Garrett J., viii 

biochemical investigations, 66—71 

publication by, 87 
Harradon, H. D., 26, 54 

publications by, 56, 57 
Harrison, Margaret W., 166, 184-185 

publication by, 185 
Harrison, Ross G., ix 
Hartman, Carl G., 96, 152 

publications by, 100, 187 
Hartung, Marguerite, 79 
Hartzler, A. J., 62 
Hay, John, vi, xii, xiii 
Hellmer, Alice M., publication by, 146 
Hendrix, W. C, studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24, 
26, 53, 55 

publication by, 187 
Herrick, Myron T., vi 
Hertig, Arthur T., ix 

studies in human embryology, 94-95, 96 

publications by, 100, 187 
Hess, Victor F., ix 

studies on atmospheric electricity, 26, 27 

cosmic-ray investigations, 59, 60-61 



Heuser, Chester H., viii, 100 

studies in embryology, 89, 94, 96 

publication by, 100, 187 
Hewitt, Abram S., vi 
Heydenburg, Norman P., vii, 33 
Hickox, Joseph O., vii, 4 

studies in solar physics, 6 

publication by, 17 
hieroglyphic research, 166, 170-173 
Hiesey, William M., viii 

studies in experimental taxonomy, 71-83 

publication by, 87, 187 
Higginson, Henry L., vi, xii 
Hill, C. H., 36 
historical research, ix, xi 

Committee on, v 

studies in, 163-186 
Historical Research, Department of, ix, 163, 183 
Historical Research, Division of, ix, //, 163—186 

report of Chairman of Division of, 163—186 
history of the Maya area, studies in, 166, 177—183 
History of Science, Section of the, ix 
history of science, studies in, 166, 184 
Hitchcock, Ethan A., vi, xii 
Hitchcock, Henry, vi 
Hluchan, S., 32, 48 
Hoge, Edison, vii, 4 

studies in solar physics, 6 
Holl, Robert, 103 
Hollaender, Alexander, 103, 117, 122, 123 

publications by, 146, 147 
Hollander, W. F., endocrine studies, 104, 139-146 

publications by, 147 
Hoover, Herbert, v, xix 
Hopkins, Hoyt S., 139 
hormones, see endocrine studies 
Howe, William Wirt, vi, xii 
Huancayo Magnetic Observatory, 22, 23, 24, 29, 30, 

31, 32, 38, 39, 44-49, 53, 59, 60 
Hubble, Edwin P., vii, 4 
Humason, Milton L., vii, 4 

nebular investigations, 16 

publication by, 17 
Hutchinson, Charles L., vi, xii 



I 

Ingerson, Earl, vii 

studies in geophysics, 19-20 

publication by, 19, 20 
Investment Office, x 

ionosphere, studies on, 3, 23, 30-33. See also ob- 
servatory work (terrestrial magnetism) 



J 

Jameson, J. Franklin, ix, 163, 183 

Jeans, lames, 4 

Jennings, J. D., 166, 185 

Jessup, Walter A., vi 

Jewett, Frank B., v, xix 

Johnson, Ellis A., vii 

Johnson, P. A., studies in atomic physics, 33, 35 

Johnson, Thomas H., ix 

lohnston, Henry F., vii 

studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24, 26, 38, 39, 40 

publications by, 56 
Johnston, I. M., 85 



192 



INDEX 



Jones, Mark W., vii 

observatory work (terrestrial magnetism), 32, 48 

publication by, 56 
Joslin, Elliott P., 150 
Joy, Alfred H., vii, 4 

studies in stellar spectroscopy, 11, 12, 13 

publications by, 17 
Joyner, Mary C, see Seares, Mary Joyner 

studies in stellar photometry, 4, 9 

publications by, 17, 18 



K 

Kaufmann, Berwind P., viii 

studies on cytogenetics of Drosophila, 103, 105, 
121— 127 

publications by, 147 
Keck, David D., viii 

studies in experimental taxonomy, 71-83 

publications by, 87, 187 
Kelly, Isabel T., 185 
Kennedy, Ruby Jo Reeves, 107 
Kidder, Alfred V., ix, // 

report of Chairman of Division of Historical Re- 
search, 163—186 

studies in archaeology, 165—166, 185 

publications by, 185, 186 
King, Arthur S., 16 

publication by, 17 
King, Helen Dean, 98 

publication by, 101 
King, Robert B., vii, 4 

laboratory investigations (Mount Wilson), 13 
Kingshill, Konrad L., publication by, 63 
Korff, S. A., ix 

cosmic-ray investigations, 59, 61-62 

publications by, 56, 62 
Kracek, Frank C, vii 
Krumbein, A., 62 

Ksanda, C. J., studies in atomic physics, 33, 35, 36 
Kupferberg, K., 62 



Laanes, T., studies on mouse leukemia, 134—139 
Lahr, E. L., endocrine studies, 139—146 

publications by, 147 
La Motte, Robert Smith, publication by, 87 
land magnetic survey, 36—38 

Lange, Isabelle, studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24, 
25, 26 

cosmic-ray investigations, 59, 60 
Langley, Samuel P., vi, xii 
Lawrence, Ernest O., v 
Lawrence, William E., 83 

publication by, 87 
Lawton, Alfred H., 34, 36 

publications by, 55, 56 
LeClerc, Germaine, polyploidy investigations, 11 3-1 15 
Ledig, Paul G., vii 

observatory work (terrestrial magnetism), 32, 48, 
60 

publication by, 56 
Lee, George, 153 
Lee, Robert C., 153, 154 

publication by, 154, 156 
Leland, Waldo G., 183 
leukemia, see mouse leukemia 



Lewis, Lloyd G., publications by, 63 
Lewis, Margaret R., viii 

tumor studies, 91, 97-99 

publications by, 101 
Lewis, Warren H., tumor studies, 91 
Lindbergh, Charles A., vi 
Lindsay, William, vi, xii 
Lingebach, J. Stanley, x 
Locanthi, Dorothy D., 4 
Lodge, Henry Cabot, vi 
LoefHer, Orville H., vii 
Long, R. C. E., 185 
Loomis, Alfred L., v, xix 
Low, Seth, vi, xii 
Lowe, E. A., ix 
Lowen, A. Louise, 4 
lunar and planetary investigations, 8-9 
Luria, S. E., studies on the gene, 11 5-1 21 

publication by, 147 



M 

McClintock, Barbara, viii 

cytogenetic studies of maize and Neurospora, 106- 
107, 108-112 
McCormick, N., 115 
McDonald, Margaret R., viii 

endocrine studies, 104, 139-146 

publications by, 147 
MacDowell, Edwin C, viii 

studies on mouse leukemia, 103, 104-105, 134-139 

publication by, 147 
McKee, Edwin D., publication by, 187 
McLaughlin, Andrew C, ix 
MacLeod, Grace, 152 
McNish, Alvin G., vii 

studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24, 38, 54 

publication by, 56 
MacVeagh, Wayne, vi, xii 

magnetism, see atomic physics; solar research; ter- 
restrial magnetism 
maize, cytogenetic studies of, 107, 1 08-1 10 
Mall, Franklin P., viii 
Mallery, T. D., 84 
Manning, Winston M., viii 

Marchetti, Andrew A., publication by, 101, 187 
Marinelli, L. D., 118 
Martin, Emmett V., viii 
Matthews, Mabel A., 107 
Mayr, Ernst, 108, 133 

publications by, 146, 147 
Mellon, Andrew J., vi 
Mendel, L. B., 152 

Mendousse, J. S., studies in atomic physics, 33, 35 
Meng, John J., studies in United States history, 183- 

184 
Menkin, M. F., 95 

publication by, 101 
Merrell, Margaret, 99 

publication by, 100, 101 
Merriam, John Campbell, vi, xix 
Merrill, Paul W., vii, 4 

studies in stellar spectroscopy, 12, 13, 14 
publication by, 17 
Merwin, Herbert E., vii 
metabolism, see nutrition; endocrine studies 
meteorology, see observatory work (terrestrial mag- 
netism) 






INDEX 



193 



Miller, R. A., 103 
Miller, Roswell, v, xix 
Miller, W. C, 5, 13 
Millikan, Robert A., ix 
Mills, Darius O., vi, xii 
Milner, Harold W., viii 

biochemical investigations, 66—71 
Minkowski, Rudolph, vii, 4 

stellar and nebular investigations, 10, 14 
Mitchell, S. A., 4 
Mitchell, S. Weir, vi, xii, xiii 
Moberg, E. G., 52 

publication by, 57 
Monroe, Parker, x 
Montague, Andrew J., vi 
moon, see lunar investigations 
Moore, Charlotte E., see Sitterly, Mrs. B. W. 

publication by, 17 
Morey, George W., vii 
Morgan, Henry S., v, xix, xx 
Morgan, Lilian V., studies in genetics, 157-160 
Morgan, T. H., ix 

studies in genetics, 157—160 
Morley, Sylvanus G., ix 

studies in archaeology, 164, 1 70-1 71 

publication by, 185, 186 
Morris, Ann Axtell, 163 
Morris, Earl H., ix 

studies in archaeology, 163, 166 
Morrow, William W., vi, xii 
Mount Wilson Observatory, vii, 8, g, 10, 3—18, 31 

Report of Director of, 3-18 
mouse leukemia, studies on, 104-105, 134-139 
Mudd, Seeley G., v, xix 
Mulders, Elizabeth Sternberg, 4 

studies in solar physics, 6 

publications by, 17, 18 



N 

nebulae and novae, studies on, 11, 13, 14-16 
Ness, A. T., 34 

publications by 55, 56 
Neurospora, cytogenetic studies on, 106—107, no— 112 
Newhouse, Walter H., ix 
Nichols, Richard F. F., x 
Nicholson, Seth B., vii, 4 

solar and planetary investigations, 6, 9 

publications by, 18 
Nottebohm, Karl -Heinz, 185 
novae and nebulae, studies on, 11, 13, 14—16 
nuclear physics, see atomic physics 
nutrition, studies in, 9, 149—156, 160— 161 
Nutrition Laboratory, viii, g, 149—156 

report of Director of, 149-156 



O 

Oakberg, E., 116 

observatories, cooperating (terrestrial magnetism and 
cosmic-ray investigations), 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 

29, 30, 31, 37, 39, 40, 51-52, 59 

observatory work (terrestrial magnetism), 23-24, 29, 

30, 38-52. See also Cheltenham Magnetic Ob- 
servatory; College (Alaska) Observatory; Huan- 
cayo Magnetic Observatory; Tucson Magnetic 
Observatory; Watheroo Magnetic Observatory 

oceanography, see Carnegie, the 



Ogden, G. E., publications by, 55, 56 
O'Neale, Lila M., 185 
Osborn, Elburt F., vii 
Osborn, William Church, vi 
Osborne, Lilly de Jongh, 185 



Padget, Dorcas H., 90 
paleobotany, studies in, 66, 86-87 
Parkes, A., 44 
Parkinson, W. D., 37, 43 
Parkinson, Wilfred C, vii 

observatory work (terrestrial magnetism), 32, 37, 

43, 52 

publication by, 56 
Parmelee, James, vi 
Parsons, Wm. Barclay, vi 
Pate, R. S., 53 
Paton, Stewart, vi 
penicillin, see gene 
Pepper, George W., vi 
Pershing, John J., vi 
Pettit, Edison, vii, 4 

solar, lunar, and stellar investigations, 6, 7, 8, 10, 
11 

publications by, 18 
physics, see atomic physics; cosmic-ray investigations- 

geophysics; terrestrial magnetism 
physiology, see embryology; nutrition 
Piggot, Charles S., vii 

publication by, 57, 187 
planetary and lunar investigations, 8—9 
Plant Biology, Division of, viii, 10, 65-87, 134 

report of Chairman of Division of, 65-87 
plant biology, studies in, 65-87. See also maize; 

Neurospora; polyploidy investigations 
Plant Physiology, Laboratory for, viii , 
Pogo, Alexander, ix 

studies in history of science, 184 
Pollock, Harry E. D., ix, 164 
polyploidy investigations, 106-107, 11 3-1 15 
Pop, Agustin, 174 
Posnjak, Eugene, vii 
Post-Columbian American History, Section of, ix 

studies in, see history of the Maya area; United 
States history 
Potter, James S., 103, 138 

publication by, 147 
Prentis, Henning W., Jr., v, xix 
President, v, x, xi, xix, xxi 

Office of the, x 

Report of the, /-// 

publications by, 188 
presidents, former, vi 
Pritchett, Henry S., vi 
Proskouriakoff, Tatiana, ix 

studies in archaeology, 166, 184 

publication by, 185, 186 
Publications and Public Relations, Office of, x, xi, 9 



R 



Rackeman, Francis M., 154 
publication by, 154, 156' 
RafTel, Sidney, 70 
Rankin, Robert M., 99 
publication by, 100, 101 



i 9 4 



INDEX 






Rauch, V. M., 144 

publications by, 147 
Redfield, Robert, ix 

studies in social anthropology, 165, 173—177 

publications by, 186 
Reines, F., 62 
research associates, ix 

studies by, 4, 9, 10, 14, 16, 26, 27, 59-63, 66, 
86-87, 89, 93, 94-95, 96, 106, 127-134, 157- 
161, 165, 173-177 
Rcsser, Charles E., publication by, 187 
retirements, 8, 9, 66, 103, 163 
Revelle, Roger R., publication by, 57, 187 
Reynolds, Samuel R. M., viii, 89 
Richardson, F. B., 164 
Richardson, Robert S., vii, 4 

studies in solar physics, 6, 7 

publications by, 18 
Richmond, Myrtle L., 4 

planetary investigations, 9 

publication by, 18 
Riddle, Oscar, 103-104, 152 

endocrine studies, 104, 139—146 

publications by, 147 
Ritzman, Ernest G., 154 

publication by, 154, 156 
Roberts, Howard S., vii 
Roberts, Richard B., vii, 33 
Rock, John, studies in human embryology, 94-96 

publications by, 100, 101, 187 
Rogozinski, A., publication by, 63 
Rooney, William J., vii 

studies in terrestrial electricity, 26, 27, 29 

publication by, 56 
Root, Elihu, vi, xii, xiii 
Root, Elihu, Jr., v, xix, xx, xxii 
Root, Howard F., 154, 156 

publications by, 154, 156 
Rosales, Juan de Dios, 165, 174, 176 
Rosenv/ald, Julius, vi 
Roys, Lawrence, 185 
Roys, Ralph L., ix 

studies in history of the Maya area, 166, 177-183, 
185 

publication by, 185, 186 
Ruppert, Karl, ix, 164 
Russell, Henry Norris, ix, 4 

studies in stellar spectroscopy, 4 
Ryerson, Martin A., vi 



Sanford, Roscoe F., vii, 4 

studies in stellar spectroscopy, 11, 12, 13 

publications by, 18 
Sansome, Eva R., studies on the gene, 103, 117 

publications by, 146, 147 
Sapsford, H. B., publication by, 56 
Sarton, George, ix 

studies in history of science, 166, 184 

publications by, 186 
Schairer, John F., vii 
Schein, Marcel, cosmic -ray investigations, 59, 62—63 

publications by, 63 
Schiller, Joseph, viii 
Scholes, France V., ix 

studies in history of the Maya area, 166, 177-183, 

l8 .5 

publications by, 186 



Schooley, J. P., publications by, 147 
Schultz, Jack, 106, 108, 119 
Scott, Walter E., vii 

studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24, 26, 38, 39, 40 

publications by, 56, 57 
Seares, Frederick H., ix, 4 

studies in stellar photometry, 4, 9, 14 

publications by, 18 
Seares, Mary Joyner, 4. See Joyner, Mary C. 
Seaton, Stuart L., vii 

studies in terrestrial magnetism, 26, 32, 50, 52 

publication by, 187 
Shaeffer, A. C, publication by, 55, 57 
Shapley, A. H., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24, 

33 
Shepard, Anna O., ix 

studies in archaeology, 166, 185 

publication by, 185, 186 
Shepherd, Earnest S., vii, 52 
Shepley, Henry R., v, xix, xx, xxii 
Sherman, H. C, ix 

studies in nutrition, 152, 160— 161 
Sherman, Kenneth L., vii 

studies in terrestrial magnetism and electricity, 24, 
26, 27, 40 
Shook, Edwin M., ix 

studies in archaeology, 164, 165, 166, 185 
Shorr, Ephraim, publication by, 187 
Shreve, Forrest, viii 

desert investigations, 66, 83—85 
Silverman, Leslie, 154 

publication by, 154, 156 
Sitterly, Mrs. B. W., 4, 8. See Moore, Charlotte E. 
Smith, A. Ledyard, ix 

studies in archaeology, 165, 166-168 
Smith, G. C, endocrine studies, 139-146 

publications by, 147 
Smith, James H. C, viii 

biochemical investigations, 66—71 

publication by, 87 
Smith, R. E., 34, 36 
Smith, Robert E., ix 

studies in archaeology, 164, 165 

publication by, 185, 186 
Smith, Theobald, vi 
Snyder, E. J., 26 

publication by, 57 
social anthropology, studies in, 165, 173-177 
sociology, see social anthropology 

solar research, 10, 6-8. See also cosmic relations; ter- 
restrial magnetism 
Soule, F. M., 52 

publication by, 57 
Spear, Cyrus J., 36 
spectroscopy, see astronomy 
Spoehr, Herman A., viii, 10, 134 

report of Chairman of Division of Plant Biology, 

. 6 5- g 7 
biochemical investigations, 66—71 

publication by, 87 
Spooner, John C, vi, xii 
stars, see stellar investigations 
Stebbins, G. L., Jr., 83 
Stebbins, Joel, ix, 4 

studies in stellar photometry, 4, 10, 16 

publications by, 18 
Steele, J. M., 34 
Steiner, William F., vii 



INDEX 



195 



stellar investigations, 9-14. See also nebulae and 

novae 
Stephens, S. G., viii, 107 
Stillwell, Louis R., Jr., 103 
Stock, Leo F., ix 

studies in United States history, 163, 166, 183-184 

publications by, 186 
Storey, William Benson, vi 
Stotz, Elmer, 154, 156 

publication by, 154, 156 
Strain, Harold H., viii 

biochemical investigations, 66-71 
Streeter, George L., viii, ix, 100, 152 

studies in embryology, 89, 93, 96 

publication by, 101, 187 
Streisinger, G., publication by, 146, 147 
Stromberg, Gustaf, vii, 4 

publication by, 18 
Stromsvik, Gustav, ix, 164 
Strong, Richard P., v, xix 
Stroud, William G., Jr., 62 

publication by, 63 
Sturtevant, Alfred H., studies in genetics, 157-160 
sun, see solar research 
Sverdrup, H. U., publication by, 57, 187 
Swift, Dorothy R., x 
Swings, P., 4, 10, 13, 16 

Dublications by, 17, 18 



Tabin, Julius, publication by, 63 
Taft, Charles P., v, xix 
Taft, William H., vi 
Tan, C. C., 108 
Tax, Sol, ix 

studies in social anthropology, 165, 173, 175, 176, 
177 

publications by, 186 
taxonomy, see experimental taxonomy; desert in- 
vestigations 
Taylor, J. H., publication by, 57 
Taylor, M. J., studies on mouse leukemia, 134-139 

publication by, 147 
Tejeda, Antonio, 165 
Tejeda, Cesar, 165, 166 

terrestrial electricity, studies in, 10, 22—23, 26-30. 

See also observatory work (terrestrial magnetism) 

Terrestrial Magnetism, Department of, vii, 3, 10, 

2i-57» 59, 60 
report of Director of Department of, 21-57 
terrestrial magnetism, studies in, 21-22, 24-26. See 
also cosmic relations; ionosphere; land magnetic 
survey; observatory work (terrestrial magnetism); 
solar research; Terrestrial Magnetism, Depart- 
ment of 
terrestrial sciences, vii, xi 
Committee on, v 

studies in, 21-63. See also geology; paleobotany 
Thayer, William S., vi 
Thompson, J. Eric S., ix 

studies in archaeology, 166, 172-173, 181, 182, 185 
publications by, 185, 186 
Torreson, Oscar W., vii 

studies in terrestrial electricity, 26, 27, 38, 52, 53 
Trippe, Juan T., v, xix 



Trustees, Board of, v, xi, xix, xxi, xxii, 3, 4 

Abstract of Minutes of, xix-xx 

committees of, v 

former, vi 
Tucson Magnetic Observatory, 23, 24, 29, 30, 51 
tumor studies, 97-99. See also mouse leukemia 
Tunell, George, vii 
Tuttle, O. F., publication by, 19, 20 
Tuve, Merle A., vii, 33 
200-inch telescope, 8, 3 



U 



United States History, Section of, ix 

United States history, studies in, 163, 166, 183-184 

Urry, William D., vii 



V 



Vaillant, George Clapp, 163 

van Dijke, Suzanne, 5 

van Maanen, Adriaan, vii, 4 

stellar investigations, 9 

publication by, 18 
Vestine, Ernest H., vii 

studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24, 25, 26, 40, 53 

publications by, 57 
Villa Rojas, Alfonso, studies in social anthropology, 
165, 174, 175, 176 

publication by, 184, 186, 187 
volcano studies, 10, 19, 27-28, 66, 86-87 



W 



Wadsworth, James W., v, xix, xx, xxii 
Wait, George R., vii 

studies in terrestrial electricity, 26, 27, 28, 29, 38, 52 

publication by, 57 
Walcott, Charles D., vi, xii, xiii 
Walcott, Frederic C, v, xix, xx, xxii 
Walcott, Henry P., vi 

Wallis, W. F., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24, 26 
Warmke, Harry E., viii, 104 

studies on the gene, 103, 104, 117 

polyploidy investigations, 103, 106, 113— 115 

publications by, 147 
Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, 23, 24, 29, 30, 32, 

37, 38, 39, 40-44, 53 
Weed, Lewis H., v, xix, xx, xxii 
Welch, William H., vi 
Wells, Harry W., vii 

studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24, 31, 32, 53 
Wenner, F., publication by, 57 
White, Andrew D., vi, xii 
White, Edward D., vi 
White, Henry, vi 
Whitford, A. E., 4, 10, 16 

publication by, 18 
Wickersham, George W., vi 
Wiggins, Ira L., 84 

publications by, 87 
Wilde, Walter S., viii 
Wilson, Elsie A., 153, 154, 155-156 

publication by, 155, 156 
Wilson, Karl M., publication by, 101, 187 



196 



INDEX 



Wilson, Olin C, vii, 4 
Wilson, Ralph E., vii, 4 

studies in stellar spectroscopy, 1 1 

publication by, 18 
Witkin, Evelyn Maisel, 106, 116, 117 
Wolfenstein, Lincoln, publication by, 6$ 
Woodward, Robert Simpson, vi 
Wright, Carroll D., vi, xii, xiii 



Wright, F. E., report of Committee on Coordination 
of Cosmic-Ray Investigations, 59-60 
publication by, 55, 57 
Wright, Sewall, 130 

Z 

Zies, Emanuel G., vii 

Zimmer, E., publication by, 146, 147 

Zimmer, M. L., studies in terrestrial magnetism, 24 

zoology, see embryology; genetics